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									753 BC (trad.) Foundation of Rome by Romulus

753-509 BC Roman monarchy

509-c. 90 BC Republic

c. 90-31 BC Civil wars (Julius Caesar, Pompey,
     etc.)

31 BC-14 AD Reign of Octavian/Augustus

31 BC-192 AD Early imperial period (principate)
      Problems in the Roman Empire
End of imperial expansion: loss of income,
    prestige, etc.

Increasing influence of non-Italians in society,
     government, the army

Increasing attacks on borders

Increasingly centralised government

Increased militarisation of state
235 Army murders Severus Alexander
    (r. 222-235)

235-84 Period of crisis: civil and external wars,
    plague, economic crisis, raised taxes

259 Persians defeat Roman army and capture
    Valerian (r. 253-60)

Diocletian (r. 284-305)

Constantine (r. 306-37)
            Diocletian’s Reforms
Multiple capitals: closer links between local
    governments and imperial government,
    so swifter responses

Reforms of army: imperial bodyguards, mobile
    army and border defence forces. Soldiers
    no longer in civil administration

Reforms of coinage, pricing, state building
    projects, annona (universal land tax)
        Diocletian’s Reforms




Improving loyalty by presenting self as
    earthly manifestation of Jupiter.
    Persecuting Christians
           Diocletian’s Reforms
Augusti:       Diocletian    Maximian

Caesars:       Galerius      Constantius
           Diocletian’s Reforms
Retired 305:   Diocletian    Maximian

Augusti:       Galerius      Constantius

Caesars:       Disputed

306 Constantine (son of Constantius)
    acclaimed by troops as emperor

312 Battle of Milvian Bridge. Constantine
    becomes an augustus (co-emperor)
313 Constantine makes Christianity official
    religion of the empire, though others
    tolerated

324 Constantine becomes sole emperor,
    establishes new capital at Byzantion
    (Constantinople): “Nova Roma
    Constantinopolitana” (New Rome, the
    City of Constantine)
332 Constantine repels Goths

337 Death of Constantine. Sons fight over
    succession

337-61 Reign of Constantius II

353 Constantius II reunites empire

356 Constantius bans public paganism

361-63 Reign of Julian (the Apostate)
      Problems of the Late 4th Century
Divergence of Eastern and Western Empires

Foreign involvement:

    Settlement of barbarians in east
    Valentinian II (r. 375-92), Western Roman
        Emperor, plus successor, puppets of
        Arbogast the Frank

Brief reunification under Theodosius (r. 379-95)
     in 394, but does not last
                  The End
End 4th c. Accession of young emperors. Power
    held by regents, mostly from military or
    female relatives of emperors. Barbarians
    being bribed to fight each other

476 Last Western Roman Emperor, Romulus
    Augustulus (r. 475-76), deposed by Odoacer
    the Ostrogoth. End of Roman Empire in
    west. Eastern Roman Empire remains,
    from now usually called Byzantine Empire

								
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