immigration laws June 2012

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					Country     year   description
Australia   1984   Aliens Act Repeal Act:
                   This act repealed the Aliens Act 1947, which required all aliens older than 16 years to
                   register any change of name address or occupation
Australia   1984   Ammendment to the Australian Citizenship act 1948:
                   All forms of discrimination (i.e. stipulations on the basis of sex and marital status) from the
                   Australian Citizenship Act 1948 were removed. The residence requirement was reduced to
                   2 years, from 3, in addition to lowering the English language requirement from ‘basic’ to
                   ‘adequate’. Additionally, a new provision was passed that allowed authorities to decline
                   eligible citizenship applicants who have committed an offense for which he is sentenced to
                   a minimum of 12 months of imprisonment.

Australia   1991   Migration (Health Services) Charge Act:
                   This act extends to all territories taken to be a part of Australia and stipulates that a charge
                   ($822) is applied for visa or entry permit as of August 1991 for the appropriate health
                   related expenses.
Australia   1992   Immigration (Education) Charge Act :
                   This act outlines payment procedures for a new English education charge (not to exceed
                   $4, 080) imposed on visa applicants, if the application was made on or after January 1,
                   1993.
Australia   1992   Legislation:
                   The government established a Special Assistance category for immigration procedures in
                   order to reach groups who are in vulnerable situations and have close links with Australia
                   but who do not fit into traditional refugee or humanitarian categories. A loan fund was
                   established to assist independent immigrants from central and eastern Europe and increased
                   information on job opportunities within Australia to allow migrants to better assess their
                   labor market prospects.
Australia   1992   Migration Reform Act:
                   This act modified the 1958 act in the following ways: established regulation of the
                   immigration and presence of non citizens, established rights of non nationals for residing in
                   Australia, and for the removal and deportation of illegal entrants.
Australia   1994   Migration Reform Act:
                   This act simplified the legal basis for the administration of entry to and stays in Australia,
                   in additional to facilitating the removal of illegal residents.
Australia   1996   Bill for the Principal Act:
                   This Bill was aimed at implementing the Government's policy of cost recovery with respect
                   to immigration procedures and services. This included consolidating the English Education
                   Charge and the Health Services Charge into the application fee, and giving the Minister the
                   power to make regulations specifying exemptions and concessions.

Australia   1997   Migration Agents Registration Application Charge Act:
                   A charge on applications received on or after March 21, 1998 was imposed for those
                   individuals who register as migraiton agents.
Australia   1997   Migration (Visa Application) Charge Act:
                   The fee requirements related to English education and the associated guidelines of the Bill
                   for Principal Act created controversy. This acts introduces ammendments to this Bill that
                   are minor and technical in nature.
Australia   1999   Australia Migration Program:
                   Approximately 70,000 available places for foreign entry, allocated primarily for highly
                   skilled workers,was established.
Australia   2000   Migration Program:
                   Immigration policy shifted in focus towards encouraging immigration of skilled workers.
                   New laws were passed in September 2001 to combat the arrival of illegal immigrants by
                   boat. These immigrants would be brought to a safe territory (Nauru or Papua New Guinea)
                   until their refugee status can be established.
Australia   2002   Bilateral Agreement:
                   The Australian government established bilateral agreements with South Africa, Thailand,
                   and Afghanistan regarding migration and voluntary return.
Australia   2005   The 2005–06 migration program, announced on 14 April 2005, has allocated 130 000 to
                   140 000 places—the highest level in almost twenty years.
Australia   2005   The Australian government has taken a number of measures in order to increase the pool of
                   skilled independent visa applicants
Belgium     1980   Legislation:
                   The government established a law on entrance, residence, settlement and return of
                   foreigners and introduced a legal process for foreigners to contest the legality of their
                   residency.
Belgium     1981   Bill:
                   Council of ministers decided to propose a bill that makes it easier for a Belgian woman
                   marrying a foreigner to keep her Belgian nationality.
Belgium     1984   Amendment of the Law on Foreigners:
                   This amendment revised the system of appeal against administrative decisions, and
                   established more restrictive guidelines for family reunion (e.g. the age of eligible children
                   lowered to 18).
Belgium     1984   Nationality Code:
                   Children born in Belgium whose parents were born in Belgium became Belgian citizens.

Belgium     1987   Single European Act: The member states of the EU declared their intention to create a
                   unified market. The act also emended earlier treaties to ensure further cooperation on
                   foreign policy and established free movement of persons.
Belgium     1989   Establishment of the Royal Commissarial for Migration Policy:
                   This is a government department that focused on integration and immigration issues and
                   made policies from 1989—1993.
Belgium     1991   Code of Nationality:
                   The government introduced new guidelines that made it easier for second and third
                   generation immigrants to acquire Belgian nationality
Belgium     1993   Treaty on EU: The “Maastricht Treaty” extended cooperation to political activities,
                   including foreign policy. This treaty also lifted the remaining restrictions on migration from
                   Spain and Portugal to other EU countries.
Belgium     1995   Schengen Agreement signed in 1985, implemented in 1995: The Schengen Accords
                   removes all border controls while attempting to strengthen the common external frontier.
                   On 14 June 1985 the Federal Republic of Germany, France, Belgium, Luxembourg and the
                   Netherlands signed the Schengen Agreement (Schengen being a place in Luxembourg) on
                   the gradual abolition of checks at their common borders. On 19 June 1990 the Convention
                   Implementing the Schengen Agreement was signed. Its key points relate to measures
                   designed to create, following the abolition of common border checks, a common area of
                   security and justice. Specifically it is concerned with: (1) harmonizing provisions relating
                   to entry into and short stays in the Schengen area by non-EU citizens (uniform Schengen
                   visa); (2) asylum matters (determining in which Member State an application for asylum
                   may be submitted); (3) measures to combat cross-border drugs-related crime; (4) police
                   cooperation (hot pursuit); (5) cooperation among Schengen states on judicial matters. Once
                   checks at common borders are completely abolished, the holder of a uniform visa is
                   entitled to stay in the 15 EU countries for a maximum of up to 90 days per six-month
Belgium   1996   Amendment of 1980 Act:
                 This act tightened immigration controls in order to limit the entry and settlement of
                 nationals from non-EU countries.
Belgium   1997   Dublin Convention: This was an attempt to harmonize policy on refugees by requiring
                 asylum seekers to apply in the first EU country they enter. The objective was to determine
                 the Member State responsible for examining an application for asylum, a matter that is not
                 settled by the Geneva Convention on the status of refugees.
                 The application of this Convention would ensure that every asylum-seeker's application
                 would be examined by a Member State, unless a "safe" non-Member country could be
                 considered as responsible. This would avoid situations of refugees being shuttled from one
                 Member States to another, with none accepting responsibility, as well as multiple serial or
                 simultaneous applications.

Belgium   1999   Treaty of Amsterdam: This treaty placed issues relating to immigration and asylum and
                 incorporated the Schengen Accords into the EU. It included an agreement to achieve
                 minimum standards in asylum policies and practices by 2004 and established free
                 movement of persons (EU citizens and third country nationals). It enhanced border control
                 and criminal investigation cooperation between the states and reduced checks on people at
                 internal borders, integrating cooperation under Schengen. In a transitional phase of five
                 years the initiative may be taken by the Commission or the member states, the European
                 Parliament must be consulted, and the Council will decide unanimously. Refugees and
                 asylum seekers are not to be treated as a "burden", but rather uniform standards should be
                 created for the protection of refugees and the costs of taking them in shared in a spirit of
                 solidarity. This is particularly in Germany's interest, for it has taken by far the most
                 refugees from the former Yugoslavia. The harmonized visa, asylum and immigration policy
                 will have an effect on decision-making procedures. In place of intergovernmental
                 cooperation (international treaties), EU legislative procedures will come into effect
Belgium   1999   EU Council Meeting in Tempere: This meeting established the need for common European
                 policy on asylum and immigration and asked the European Commission to draw up
                 proposals on asylum, refugees, and immigration. It established measures for fair treatment
                 of third country nationals and more efficient management of migration flows, and
                 addressing the source of illegal immigration.
Belgium   2000   Nice Treaty: This treaty included a Charter of Fundamental Rights, stating that non-EU
                 nationals with residence or work permits would eventually have the same freedom of
                 movement as EU nationals. The Member States decided to indicate the tasks carried out by
                 Eurojust in Article 31 of the Union Treaty. A Commission proposal to include a reference
                 to the European Public Prosecutor was discarded. Most of the involved countries would no
                 longer require unanimity but would be subject to the codecision procedure (Article 251 of
                 the EC Treaty). However, the transition to the codecision procedure has been deferred and
                 made subject to certain conditions. Certain decisions on immigration will be taken under
                 the codecision procedure as from 1 May 2004, whereas in the area of asylum policy the
                 transition is subject to the sine qua non condition that the Council has previously adopted
                 common rules and basic principles governing these issues
Belgium   2001   European Council in Laeken: Since the 1999 Tampere European Council, the Member
                 States have stated on several occasions that the principle of mutual recognition must be the
                 cornerstone of a European area of freedom, security and justice. The terrorist attacks of 11
                 September 2001 in the United States accelerated the decision-making process in the
                 European Union. The Member States undertook to take decisive action against increasingly
                 transnational organized crime. The Laeken European Council provided an opportunity to
                 assess the progress made and to discuss key issues such as the European arrest warrant and
                 the framework decision on combating terrorism. However, member states failed to agree on
                 greater cooperation on immigration orasylum policies.

Belgium   2003   A new type of work permit ( C ) is issued to foreigners who have been admitted for a
                 temporary stay for reasons other than work ( for example, students and asylum seekers )

Belgium   2004   The Flemish Community introduced a civic integration programme that provides for
                 language courses, initiation into citizenship and vocational guidance for all newly arrived
                 immigrants
Belgium   2004   Act: The right to vote in communal elections was granted to non EU- foreigners who have
                 resided in Belgium for at least 5 years. It will be in force for the 2006 elections

Canada    1982   Legislation:
                 The government modified in employment regulations. An immigrant is eligible for entry
                 into Canada only if employment has been arranged in advance and the offer approved in a
                 Canadian employment center. This reflects a policy emphasis on recruitment of
                 entrepreneurs and skilled workers; the government has imposed higher processing priority
                 for these people.
Canada    1985   Citizenship Act:
                 This act outlines the terms and conditions for being eligible for citizenship and establishes
                 that all citizens (native born or naturalized) have the same rights and undergo the same
                 procedure for obtaining citizenship.
Canada    1988   The Canada free trade agreement involved the United States and Canada exchanging
                 skilled labor in similar terms as NAFTA. It facilitated temporary entry on a reciprocal basis
                 between the United States and Canada, established procedures for the temporary entry into
                 the United States of Canadian citizen professional business persons to render services for
                 remuneration. No nonimmigrant visa, prior petition, labor certification, or prior approval
                 are required, but appropriate documentation must be presented to the inspecting officer
                 establishing Canadian
                 citizenship and professional engagement in one of the occupations listed in the qualifying
                 occupation schedule. The migration guidelines of this agreement were replaced by NAFTA
                 in 1994.
Canada    1993   Policy:
                 With the change in the government, immigration policy abandoned quantitative goals such
                 as quotas and became oriented around qualitative aspects (i.e. considering applications
                 based on the individual’s background and the needs for the country)
Canada    1994   The North American Free Trade Agreement supersedes the United States-Canada Free-
                 Trade Agreement and involves Canada, United States and Mexico. It establishes mutual
                 recognition of professional qualifications among member states, while still retaining
                 decision-making power regarding high skilled migration policies to the countries involved.
                 NAFTA is less integrated and on a smaller scale than the EU measures. For example, in an
                 effort to secure permanent employment in home countries as well as to promote border
                 security, there is no central decision making authority and no common market for the
                 movement for labor. NAFTA established procedures for the temporary entry into the
                 United States of Canadian and Mexican citizens with the following features: (1) For
                 Canadians, no nonimmigrant visa, prior petition, labor certification, or prior approval
                 required, but appropriate documentation must be presented to the inspecting officer
                 establishing Canadian citizenship and professional engagement in one of the occupations
                 listed in the qualifying occupation schedule; For Mexicans, nonimmigrant visa, prior
                 petition by employer, and Department of Labor attestation are required in addition to proof
Canada    1997   Policy:
                 The government imposed stricter eligibility requirement, involving income requirements
                 and delays, onfamily sponsorship.
Canada    1997   Work Permits:
                 The government issued 170, 000 temporary work permits to foreign workers.
Canada    1997   Canada Chile Free Trade Agreement:
                 This agreement establishes broad categories for employment requirements—with flexible
                 requirements for highly skilled workers
Canada    1998   Policy:
                 Canada admitted 17,000 workers in accordance with NAFTA and GATS.
Canada    2001   Immigration and Refuge Protection Act:
                 Immigration policy shifted away from occupation based admission of foreigners to one that
                 emphasizes education, language and flexibility of skill sets.
Canada    2002   Immigration Plan:
                 This plan adjusted the target immigration goals: a range of 210,000 to 235,000 immigrants
                 in 2002 and 220, 000 to 245, 000 in 2003, of which 60% admitted based on economic
                 basis, 26% on family, and 13% on refugee
Canada    2002   Immigration and Refugee Protection Act (2001):
                 This act, which came into force in 2002, replaced the former, 25 year old act. In addition to
                 outlining specific visa application procedures and criteria for sponsorship, the main
                 objectives include: (1) permit Canada to pursue maximum social, cultural and economic
                 benefits; (2) support the development of a strong and prosperous economy; (3) promote
                 successful integration of immigrants; (4) offer safe haven to asylum seekers. Furthermore,
                 this act included the definition of permanent resident, reinforced the government
                 commitment to gender equality and provided for hearings for those who lost permanent
                 resident status, in addition to reinforcing the skill based immigration policy while
                 simultaneously easing family reunification guidelines.

Canada    2004   A regulatory change allows foreign workers who are citizens of visa exempt countries and
                 who have confirmed job to apply for a work permit at a port of entry. This has facilitated
                 the entry of workers whose services are urgently required by their Canadian employers.

Canada    2004   Canada and the United States implemented the Safe Third Country Agreement, which
                 requires that refugees claim protection in the first safe country where they arrive. It aims at
                 preventing asylum shopping of claims in both countries
Denmark   1987   Single European Act: The member states of the EU declared their intention to create a
                 unified market. The act also emended earlier treaties to ensure further cooperation on
                 foreign policy and established free movement of persons.
Denmark   1993   Treaty on EU: The “Maastricht Treaty” extended cooperation to political activities,
                 including foreign policy. This treaty also lifted the remaining restrictions on migration from
                 Spain and Portugal to other EU countries.
Denmark   1993   Aliens Act* came into force in 1993.
Denmark   1995   Amendment to the Aliens Act:
                 This amendment primarily affected asylum seekers. Bosnian refugees were granted
                 residence and offered same integration programs as recognized refugees. Administration
                 was made more efficient and admission denied to applicants of ‘safe’ countries, which
                 resulted in a decline in applicants.
Denmark   1997   Dublin Convention: This was an attempt to harmonize policy on refugees by requiring
                 asylum seekers to apply in the first EU country they enter. The objective was to determine
                 the Member State responsible for examining an application for asylum, a matter that is not
                 settled by the Geneva Convention on the status of refugees.
                 The application of this Convention would ensure that every asylum-seeker's application
                 would be examined by a Member State, unless a "safe" non-Member country could be
                 considered as responsible. This would avoid situations of refugees being shuttled from one
                 Member States to another, with none accepting responsibility, as well as multiple serial or
                 simultaneous applications.

Denmark   1999   Treaty of Amsterdam: This treaty placed issues relating to immigration and asylum and
                 incorporated the Schengen Accords into the EU. It included an agreement to achieve
                 minimum standards in asylum policies and practices by 2004 and established free
                 movement of persons (EU citizens and third country nationals). It enhanced border control
                 and criminal investigation cooperation between the states and reduced checks on people at
                 internal borders, integrating cooperation under Schengen. In a transitional phase of five
                 years the initiative may be taken by the Commission or the member states, the European
                 Parliament must be consulted, and the Council will decide unanimously. Refugees and
                 asylum seekers are not to be treated as a "burden", but rather uniform standards should be
                 created for the protection of refugees and the costs of taking them in shared in a spirit of
                 solidarity. This is particularly in Germany's interest, for it has taken by far the most
                 refugees from the former Yugoslavia. The harmonized visa, asylum and immigration policy
                 will have an effect on decision-making procedures. In place of intergovernmental
                 cooperation (international treaties), EU legislative procedures will come into effect


Denmark   1999   EU Council Meeting in Tempere: This meeting established the need for common European
                 policy on asylum and immigration and asked the European Commission to draw up
                 proposals on asylum, refugees, and immigration. It established measures for fair treatment
                 of third country nationals and more efficient management of migration flows, and
                 addressing the source of illegal immigration.
Denmark   2000   Legislation:
                 Government enacted legislation to deter any immigrant younger than 25 from bringing in a
                 foreign spouse.
Denmark   2001   Schengen Agreement signed in 1996, implemented in 2001: The Schengen Accords
                 removes all border controls while attempting to strengthen the common external frontier.
                 On 14 June 1985 the Federal Republic of Germany, France, Belgium, Luxembourg and the
                 Netherlands signed the Schengen Agreement (Schengen being a place in Luxembourg) on
                 the gradual abolition of checks at their common borders. On 19 June 1990 the Convention
                 Implementing the Schengen Agreement was signed. Its key points relate to measures
                 designed to create, following the abolition of common border checks, a common area of
                 security and justice. Specifically it is concerned with: (1) harmonizing provisions relating
                 to entry into and short stays in the Schengen area by non-EU citizens (uniform Schengen
                 visa); (2) asylum matters (determining in which Member State an application for asylum
                 may be submitted); (3) measures to combat cross-border drugs-related crime; (4) police
                 cooperation (hot pursuit); (5) cooperation among Schengen states on judicial matters. Once
                 checks at common borders are completely abolished, the holder of a uniform visa is
                 entitled to stay in the 15 EU countries for a maximum of up to 90 days per six-month
Denmark   2001   Amendment of the Aliens Act 1993 (711/2001) states that migrants have to have both
                 permission to stay and permission to work before entering Denmark. A residence permit is
                 granted after the applicant has received the work permit.
Denmark   2001   European Council in Laeken: Since the 1999 Tampere European Council, the Member
                 States have stated on several occasions that the principle of mutual recognition must be the
                 cornerstone of a European area of freedom, security and justice. The terrorist attacks of 11
                 September 2001 in the United States accelerated the decision-making process in the
                 European Union. The Member States undertook to take decisive action against increasingly
                 transnational organized crime. The Laeken European Council provided an opportunity to
                 assess the progress made and to discuss key issues such as the European arrest warrant and
                 the framework decision on combating terrorism. However, member states failed to agree on
                 greater cooperation on immigration orasylum policies.

Denmark   2002   The Aliens Consolidation Act 608/2002 defines a new stricter policy for foreigners. The
                 reform tightens the requirements to obtain a permanent residence perm.
Denmark   2004   In the first part of the year, the penalty for employers offering illegal employment to
                 foreigners was increased from a fine or imprisonment for up to one year, to a fine or
                 imprisonment for up to two years.
Denmark   2005   In February the government proposed new changes to the Act which should lead to a
                 significant increase in convictions and the severity of penalties for foreigners who are
                 illegally employed. Under the new amendments, foreign workers who do not have the
                 required work permit will have their sentences raised from financial penalties or
                 imprisonment of up to six months, to increased financial penalties or imprisonment for up
                 to one year. Those who help foreigners to stay illegally in Denmark are also targeted.
                 Providing housing, or other forms of assistance can now lead to a punishment of up to two
                 years of imprisonment. In March, the Government, together with the political parties who
                 entered into the ‘East-agreement’, launched a policy that tightened regulations. The
                 government also announced that more restrictions be put forward, such as a mobile control
                 team.
France    1980   Bonnet Law:
                 This law identified illegal migration as a serious threat and included measures that enabled
                 illegal immigrants to be expelled from the country.
France    1981   Pyrefitte Law:
                 This law legalized controls by police officers on migrants.
France   1981   Act:
                This act repealed various labor law provisions dated back to 1932 (eg the regulation that
                stipulated employers to hire a certain fixed proportion of foreigners to protect the domestic
                labor force), increased penalties for employing illegal foreign workers, and prohibited
                refugees from working without the possession of a work permit
France   1984   Decree December 1984:
                This decree confirmed that any foreigner who legally resides in France for more than one
                year can be joined by their family provided they had an adequate and regular source of
                income and accommodation. Two types of permits were introduced: temporary residence
                permit (1 year) and resident’s permit (10 years).
France   1986   Pasqua Law: [3]
                This law reduced the number of immigrants who could get a residence permit and gave the
                right to regional authorities to determine whether an illegal immigrant should be escorted to
                the border and expelled.
France   1987   Single European Act: The member states of the EU declared their intention to create a
                unified market. The act also emended earlier treaties to ensure further cooperation on
                foreign policy and established free movement of persons.
France   1991   Act 31 December:
                This act increased the penalties that can be imposed on employers of undocumented aliens
                and on the organized networks that smuggle them in. The October act imposed tighter
                employment controls and restricted any foreigner from unauthorized paid employment
                subject to having his (3 month) visa revoke
France   1991   Act:
                This act was established for humanitarian reasons. A procedure was set up whereby asylum
                seekers who were previously informed of their application expiration were given until the
                end of the year to renew.
France   1993   Law 93/933 concerning the acquisition of French nationality. Introduction of
                "manifestation of will" to obtain French nationality for people born in France from
                foreigner parents.
France   1993   The Law 93/1027 (Loi Pasqua) aims at "zero immigration" and the fight against illegal
                immigration.The law reinforces the repressive tools to keep illegal aliens far from the
                French territory (Social Security must refuse social care to foreigners who are in irregular
                situations) and limits the entry and residence of many categories of immigrants (more
                control on family reunification).The law introduces an accommodation certificate
                (certificat d'hébergement): a special authorization necessary for private visits.

France   1993   Treaty on EU: The “Maastricht Treaty” extended cooperation to political activities,
                including foreign policy. This treaty also lifted the remaining restrictions on migration from
                Spain and Portugal to other EU countries.
France   1995   Schengen Agreement signed in 1985, implemented in 1995: The Schengen Accords
                removes all border controls while attempting to strengthen the common external frontier.
                On 14 June 1985 the Federal Republic of Germany, France, Belgium, Luxembourg and the
                Netherlands signed the Schengen Agreement (Schengen being a place in Luxembourg) on
                the gradual abolition of checks at their common borders. On 19 June 1990 the Convention
                Implementing the Schengen Agreement was signed. Its key points relate to measures
                designed to create, following the abolition of common border checks, a common area of
                security and justice. Specifically it is concerned with: (1) harmonizing provisions relating
                to entry into and short stays in the Schengen area by non-EU citizens (uniform Schengen
                visa); (2) asylum matters (determining in which Member State an application for asylum
                may be submitted); (3) measures to combat cross-border drugs-related crime; (4) police
                cooperation (hot pursuit); (5) cooperation among Schengen states on judicial matters. Once
                checks at common borders are completely abolished, the holder of a uniform visa is
                entitled to stay in the 15 EU countries for a maximum of up to 90 days per six-month
France   1995   Act:
                Regularization program enabled certain foreigners (Sub Saharan Africa and Algeria) who
                were the parents of French children to obtain a temporary residence permit.
France   1997   Policy Update:
                Regularization program that granted residence to 75,600 foreigners (75% of which came
                from Africa).
France   1997   The Law 97/396 (Loi Debré) sets out more restrictive conditions for obtaining an
                accommodation certificate.The law reinforces measures regarding expulsions, it also
                assigns new powers to police to control migrants.
France   1997   Introduction of a Regularization process: to benefit from this special regularization
                procedure, people concerned have to prove continuous permanent residence in France for 7
                years and real family ties.
France   1998   The Law 98/349 (Loi Chevènement) eliminates obstacles to the stay permit for some
                categories of people: elimination of the proof of accommodation certificate.
France   1998   The Law 98/170 (Loi Guigou) reintroduces the automatic right to French citizenship for
                children born in France from foreign parents: they become French at age of 18 unless they
                declare to renounce to it. Parents may ask French nationality for their children at the age
                13.
France   1999   Treaty of Amsterdam: This treaty placed issues relating to immigration and asylum and
                incorporated the Schengen Accords into the EU. It included an agreement to achieve
                minimum standards in asylum policies and practices by 2004 and established free
                movement of persons (EU citizens and third country nationals). It enhanced border control
                and criminal investigation cooperation between the states and reduced checks on people at
                internal borders, integrating cooperation under Schengen. In a transitional phase of five
                years the initiative may be taken by the Commission or the member states, the European
                Parliament must be consulted, and the Council will decide unanimously. Refugees and
                asylum seekers are not to be treated as a "burden", but rather uniform standards should be
                created for the protection of refugees and the costs of taking them in shared in a spirit of
                solidarity. This is particularly in Germany's interest, for it has taken by far the most
                refugees from the former Yugoslavia. The harmonized visa, asylum and immigration policy
                will have an effect on decision-making procedures. In place of intergovernmental
                cooperation (international treaties), EU legislative procedures will come into effect
France   1999   EU Council Meeting in Tempere: This meeting established the need for common European
                policy on asylum and immigration and asked the European Commission to draw up
                proposals on asylum, refugees, and immigration. It established measures for fair treatment
                of third country nationals and more efficient management of migration flows, and
                addressing the source of illegal immigration.
France    2000   Nice Treaty: This treaty included a Charter of Fundamental Rights, stating that non-EU
                 nationals with residence or work permits would eventually have the same freedom of
                 movement as EU nationals. The Member States decided to indicate the tasks carried out by
                 Eurojust in Article 31 of the Union Treaty. A Commission proposal to include a reference
                 to the European Public Prosecutor was discarded. Most of the involved countries would no
                 longer require unanimity but would be subject to the codecision procedure (Article 251 of
                 the EC Treaty). However, the transition to the codecision procedure has been deferred and
                 made subject to certain conditions. Certain decisions on immigration will be taken under
                 the codecision procedure as from 1 May 2004, whereas in the area of asylum policy the
                 transition is subject to the sine qua non condition that the Council has previously adopted
                 common rules and basic principles governing these issues

France    2001   European Council in Laeken: Since the 1999 Tampere European Council, the Member
                 States have stated on several occasions that the principle of mutual recognition must be the
                 cornerstone of a European area of freedom, security and justice. The terrorist attacks of 11
                 September 2001 in the United States accelerated the decision-making process in the
                 European Union. The Member States undertook to take decisive action against increasingly
                 transnational organized crime. The Laeken European Council provided an opportunity to
                 assess the progress made and to discuss key issues such as the European arrest warrant and
                 the framework decision on combating terrorism. However, member states failed to agree on
                 greater cooperation on immigration orasylum policies.

France    2003   The Law 2003-1119 tightens the conditions to enter the country and to obtain a permanent
                 residence permit . Reintroduction of the "certificat d'hébergement".The residence permit is
                 granted after 5 years (instead of 3).Introduction of a new Federal Office for Immigration
                 and Refugees.
France    2004   The asylum reform came into force on January and the French Office for the Protection of
                 refugees and Stateless People has become the sole center for the referral and processing
                 asylum applications.
France    2004   The Welcome and Integration Contracts were put into operation, they are in two parts:      -
                 a standard contract for everyone, which involvers mutual commitments.
                 - an annex tailored to people's requirements, which deal with the undertaking to attend
                 language training
Germany   1981   Legislation:
                 The government introduced general efforts to reduce overall foreign entry as well as of
                 foreign workers from non-EEC countries. Furthermore, measures were established toward
                 family reunification of foreigners from non-EEC countries and to stop illegal entry.

Germany   1983   Act:
                 In an effort to encourage voluntary return to home country, foreign workers willing to
                 return may be eligible to collect some benefits (repatriation assistance was granted if the
                 worker leaves with his entire family).
Germany   1987   Single European Act: The member states of the EU declared their intention to create a
                 unified market. The act also emended earlier treaties to ensure further cooperation on
                 foreign policy and established free movement of persons.
Germany   1990   Foreigners Act/Aliens Law:
                 This law replaced the Aliens Law of 1965 (the first immigration law). Major provisions law
                 included: (1) a rule stipulating that all dependent workers must be in possession of a social
                 security card bearing a photograph, which they must present to the employer upon request;
                 (2) a comprehensive reform of the general legislation on foreigner and residence
                 legislation; (3) a less restrictive requirement for naturalization especially for young
                 foreigners who were born or raised in Germany.
Germany   1993   Law on Foreigners and Aliens:
                 This law included a simplified naturalization process; people under the age of 23 could be
                 naturalized upon living in Germany for at least 8 years; 3 years for those over the age of
                 15.
Germany   1993   Amended Asylum Law:
                 Asylum seekers entering Germany from or through one of “safe” countries were prohibited
                 from applying for asylum and were returned to their origin country.
Germany   1993   Treaty on EU: The “Maastricht Treaty” extended cooperation to political activities,
                 including foreign policy. This treaty also lifted the remaining restrictions on migration from
                 Spain and Portugal to other EU countries.
Germany   1995   Schengen Agreement signed in 1985, implemented in 1995: The Schengen Accords
                 removes all border controls while attempting to strengthen the common external frontier.
                 On 14 June 1985 the Federal Republic of Germany, France, Belgium, Luxembourg and the
                 Netherlands signed the Schengen Agreement (Schengen being a place in Luxembourg) on
                 the gradual abolition of checks at their common borders. On 19 June 1990 the Convention
                 Implementing the Schengen Agreement was signed. Its key points relate to measures
                 designed to create, following the abolition of common border checks, a common area of
                 security and justice. Specifically it is concerned with: (1) harmonizing provisions relating
                 to entry into and short stays in the Schengen area by non-EU citizens (uniform Schengen
                 visa); (2) asylum matters (determining in which Member State an application for asylum
                 may be submitted); (3) measures to combat cross-border drugs-related crime; (4) police
                 cooperation (hot pursuit); (5) cooperation among Schengen states on judicial matters. Once
                 checks at common borders are completely abolished, the holder of a uniform visa is
                 entitled to stay in the 15 EU countries for a maximum of up to 90 days per six-month
Germany   1997   Dublin Convention: This was an attempt to harmonize policy on refugees by requiring
                 asylum seekers to apply in the first EU country they enter. The objective was to determine
                 the Member State responsible for examining an application for asylum, a matter that is not
                 settled by the Geneva Convention on the status of refugees.
                 The application of this Convention would ensure that every asylum-seeker's application
                 would be examined by a Member State, unless a "safe" non-Member country could be
                 considered as responsible. This would avoid situations of refugees being shuttled from one
                 Member States to another, with none accepting responsibility, as well as multiple serial or
                 simultaneous applications.

Germany   1998   Act:
                 Exceptions to the moratorium of labor outside of the EU/EEA area were established,
                 liberalizing entry requirement
Germany   1999   Aliens Act:
                 This act outlines the conditions for naturalization for foreigners who have lived in Germany
                 for at least 8 years and allowed the spouse and minor children to be naturalized.

Germany   1999   Amendment to the Law on Foreigners and Aliens:
                 The amendment introduced rules about citizenship requirements and the requirement that
                 newborns are considered German citizens if at least one parent has lived in Germany for at
                 least 8 years or at least one parent has unlimited right to residence or unlimited permit to
                 live in Germany.
Germany   1999   Treaty of Amsterdam: This treaty placed issues relating to immigration and asylum and
                 incorporated the Schengen Accords into the EU. It included an agreement to achieve
                 minimum standards in asylum policies and practices by 2004 and established free
                 movement of persons (EU citizens and third country nationals). It enhanced border control
                 and criminal investigation cooperation between the states and reduced checks on people at
                 internal borders, integrating cooperation under Schengen. In a transitional phase of five
                 years the initiative may be taken by the Commission or the member states, the European
                 Parliament must be consulted, and the Council will decide unanimously. Refugees and
                 asylum seekers are not to be treated as a "burden", but rather uniform standards should be
                 created for the protection of refugees and the costs of taking them in shared in a spirit of
                 solidarity. This is particularly in Germany's interest, for it has taken by far the most
                 refugees from the former Yugoslavia. The harmonized visa, asylum and immigration policy
                 will have an effect on decision-making procedures. In place of intergovernmental
                 cooperation (international treaties), EU legislative procedures will come into effect
Germany   1999   EU Council Meeting in Tempere: This meeting established the need for common European
                 policy on asylum and immigration and asked the European Commission to draw up
                 proposals on asylum, refugees, and immigration. It established measures for fair treatment
                 of third country nationals and more efficient management of migration flows, and
                 addressing the source of illegal immigration.
Germany   2000   Nice Treaty: This treaty included a Charter of Fundamental Rights, stating that non-EU
                 nationals with residence or work permits would eventually have the same freedom of
                 movement as EU nationals. The Member States decided to indicate the tasks carried out by
                 Eurojust in Article 31 of the Union Treaty. A Commission proposal to include a reference
                 to the European Public Prosecutor was discarded. Most of the involved countries would no
                 longer require unanimity but would be subject to the codecision procedure (Article 251 of
                 the EC Treaty). However, the transition to the codecision procedure has been deferred and
                 made subject to certain conditions. Certain decisions on immigration will be taken under
                 the codecision procedure as from 1 May 2004, whereas in the area of asylum policy the
                 transition is subject to the sine qua non condition that the Council has previously adopted
                 common rules and basic principles governing these issues

Germany   2000   Reintegration and Emigration of Asylum Seekers Project:
                 This project assisted 70,000 people to return to Bosnia and Kosovo among other countries.

Germany   2000   A new Nationality Law comes into force: from jus sanguinis to jus soli. A child born in
                 Germany to non-German parents automatically acquires German citizenship at birth.

Germany   2000   Ordinance 28/7/2000 introduces a residence permit for highly qualified foreign skilled
                 workers of the information and communication technology (Green Card System).

Germany   2001   European Council in Laeken: Since the 1999 Tampere European Council, the Member
                 States have stated on several occasions that the principle of mutual recognition must be the
                 cornerstone of a European area of freedom, security and justice. The terrorist attacks of 11
                 September 2001 in the United States accelerated the decision-making process in the
                 European Union. The Member States undertook to take decisive action against increasingly
                 transnational organized crime. The Laeken European Council provided an opportunity to
                 assess the progress made and to discuss key issues such as the European arrest warrant and
                 the framework decision on combating terrorism. However, member states failed to agree on
                 greater cooperation on immigration orasylum policies.
Germany   2005   The Immigration Act (Zuwanderungsgesetz ) regulates in a comprehensive way the
                 immigration, residence and integration of foreigners in Germany. The Act opens Germany
                 to immigrants who seek employment:
Japan     1982   Immigration Control and Refugee Recognition Act:
                 This act imposes controls resident aliens, implementing documentation procedures such as
                 fingerprinting, in addition to imposing severe restrictions on refugee entry such as the
                 following: may grant an alien who has arrived in Japan a landing permit for temporary
                 refuge if the alien comes under the definition of a refugee as defined under the UN
                 protocol. He may apply for refugee status within 60 days of arriving in Japan. This act has
                 stricter guidelines for qualifying for refugee than the US guidelines.

Japan     1989   Amendment 1952 Immigration Control Law:
                 The basic framework for immigration policy was not designed to encourage migrants to
                 settle in the country. The amendment marked a major turning point in immigration policy
                 by confirming the basic principle of restricting entry of unskilled foreign labor, and
                 introducing employer sanctions to deter illegal immigration.The Japanese government
                 embarked on reforming the Immigration Control Law in response to growing cross-border
                 population movements and a sharp rise in the number of visa overstayers. The government
                 reorganized visa categories to facilitate the immigration of professional and skilled
                 personnel, while confirming its basic principle of not accepting "unskilled" foreign labor.

Japan     1990   Immigration Control and Refugee Recognition Act Reform:
                 Permitted third generation Japanese as well as their spouses a quasi-permanent residence
                 status. Second generation Japanese could enter and work without restriction under
                 residence status of spouse or child of Japanese national.
Japan     1993   Basic Employment Measures Plan:
                 This plan supports the policy on migration focused on entry of foreigners with
                 technological expertise, skill or knowledge, causing a decline in immigration. The
                 Economic Plan and the Employment Counter Measures Plan states that Japan will accept
                 foreigners with special expertise/skills not possessed by Japanese nationals.
Japan     1997   Amendment to Immigration Control Act:
                 This introduces measures to cope with rapid increase of smuggling of aliens.
Japan     1999   “Ideal Society and Policies for Economic Rebirth” and “9th Basic Plan for Employment”:
                 These measures promote immigration of skilled workers to Japan while maintaining a
                 cautious policy on unskilled workers and reinforce efforts to combat illegal immigration.


Japan     2001   “e-Japan Strategy”:
                 This strategy aims to accept 30000 IT professionals by the year 2005.
Japan     2002   Amended Immigration Control Act: It introduces the"departure order system" to facilitate
                 immediate departure of illegal foreign nationals and the "status of residence revocation
                 system" established for the purpose of rmoving illegal foreign residents

Japan     2003   The Japanese government approved a Bill aimed at the in-depht reform of the right to
                 asylum. This bill changes the so-called 60 day clause (the maximum time allowed to apply
                 for asylum after entering Japan) by raising the time limit to 60 months. It also introduces
                 the concept of "safe transit country" in order to deny asylum to North Koreans who enter
                 Japan via CHina
Japan      2004   Legislative changes: foreign nationals holding a "college status" can now be granted a
                  "temporary visa" that allows them to remain for 180 days after the graduation in order to
                  find employment. Further, foreign nationals entitled to residence as spouses of Japanes
                  nationals or descendents can now be allowed to work in Japans without restrictions

Japan      2005   New Immigration Act: it established a revised refugee system, permetting provisional stay
                  to illegal foreign nationals applying for refugee status.
Luxembourg 1984   Driven by demand from the Belgian labor market, there was an increase in the “frontaliers”
                  (cross border commuters from Lorraine, Rhine-Palatinat, Saarland and Province du
                  Luxembourg) that continued through the 1980s.
Luxembourg 1987   Single European Act: The member states of the EU declared their intention to create a
                  unified market. The act also emended earlier treaties to ensure further cooperation on
                  foreign policy and established free movement of persons.
Luxembourg 1993   Treaty on EU: The “Maastricht Treaty” extended cooperation to political activities,
                  including foreign policy. This treaty also lifted the remaining restrictions on migration from
                  Spain and Portugal to other EU countries.
Luxembourg 1995   Schengen Agreement signed in 1985, implemented in 1995: The Schengen Accords
                  removes all border controls while attempting to strengthen the common external frontier.
                  On 14 June 1985 the Federal Republic of Germany, France, Belgium, Luxembourg and the
                  Netherlands signed the Schengen Agreement (Schengen being a place in Luxembourg) on
                  the gradual abolition of checks at their common borders. On 19 June 1990 the Convention
                  Implementing the Schengen Agreement was signed. Its key points relate to measures
                  designed to create, following the abolition of common border checks, a common area of
                  security and justice. Specifically it is concerned with: (1) harmonizing provisions relating
                  to entry into and short stays in the Schengen area by non-EU citizens (uniform Schengen
                  visa); (2) asylum matters (determining in which Member State an application for asylum
                  may be submitted); (3) measures to combat cross-border drugs-related crime; (4) police
                  cooperation (hot pursuit); (5) cooperation among Schengen states on judicial matters. Once
                  checks at common borders are completely abolished, the holder of a uniform visa is
                  entitled to stay in the 15 EU countries for a maximum of up to 90 days per six-month
Luxembourg 1995   Amendment:
                  This updated the 1972 law on migration with regard to entry, stay and medical
                  examination.
Luxembourg 1997   Dublin Convention: This was an attempt to harmonize policy on refugees by requiring
                  asylum seekers to apply in the first EU country they enter. The objective was to determine
                  the Member State responsible for examining an application for asylum, a matter that is not
                  settled by the Geneva Convention on the status of refugees.
                  The application of this Convention would ensure that every asylum-seeker's application
                  would be examined by a Member State, unless a "safe" non-Member country could be
                  considered as responsible. This would avoid situations of refugees being shuttled from one
                  Member States to another, with none accepting responsibility, as well as multiple serial or
                  simultaneous applications.
Luxembourg 1999   Treaty of Amsterdam: This treaty placed issues relating to immigration and asylum and
                  incorporated the Schengen Accords into the EU. It included an agreement to achieve
                  minimum standards in asylum policies and practices by 2004 and established free
                  movement of persons (EU citizens and third country nationals). It enhanced border control
                  and criminal investigation cooperation between the states and reduced checks on people at
                  internal borders, integrating cooperation under Schengen. In a transitional phase of five
                  years the initiative may be taken by the Commission or the member states, the European
                  Parliament must be consulted, and the Council will decide unanimously. Refugees and
                  asylum seekers are not to be treated as a "burden", but rather uniform standards should be
                  created for the protection of refugees and the costs of taking them in shared in a spirit of
                  solidarity. This is particularly in Germany's interest, for it has taken by far the most
                  refugees from the former Yugoslavia. The harmonized visa, asylum and immigration policy
                  will have an effect on decision-making procedures. In place of intergovernmental
                  cooperation (international treaties), EU legislative procedures will come into effect
Luxembourg 1999   EU Council Meeting in Tempere: This meeting established the need for common European
                  policy on asylum and immigration and asked the European Commission to draw up
                  proposals on asylum, refugees, and immigration. It established measures for fair treatment
                  of third country nationals and more efficient management of migration flows, and
                  addressing the source of illegal immigration.
Luxembourg 2000   Nice Treaty: This treaty included a Charter of Fundamental Rights, stating that non-EU
                  nationals with residence or work permits would eventually have the same freedom of
                  movement as EU nationals. The Member States decided to indicate the tasks carried out by
                  Eurojust in Article 31 of the Union Treaty. A Commission proposal to include a reference
                  to the European Public Prosecutor was discarded. Most of the involved countries would no
                  longer require unanimity but would be subject to the codecision procedure (Article 251 of
                  the EC Treaty). However, the transition to the codecision procedure has been deferred and
                  made subject to certain conditions. Certain decisions on immigration will be taken under
                  the codecision procedure as from 1 May 2004, whereas in the area of asylum policy the
                  transition is subject to the sine qua non condition that the Council has previously adopted
                  common rules and basic principles governing these issues

Luxembourg 2000   Voluntary Return Scheme:
                  This involved financial assistance to encourage foreigners to return to their home countries.
                  There were only 151 voluntary returns and 44 forced returns in 2002.
Luxembourg 2001   European Council in Laeken: Since the 1999 Tampere European Council, the Member
                  States have stated on several occasions that the principle of mutual recognition must be the
                  cornerstone of a European area of freedom, security and justice. The terrorist attacks of 11
                  September 2001 in the United States accelerated the decision-making process in the
                  European Union. The Member States undertook to take decisive action against increasingly
                  transnational organized crime. The Laeken European Council provided an opportunity to
                  assess the progress made and to discuss key issues such as the European arrest warrant and
                  the framework decision on combating terrorism. However, member states failed to agree on
                  greater cooperation on immigration orasylum policies.

Luxembourg 2001   Act of March 2001
                  This act accelerates the asylum procedure and introduced a system of temporary
                  protection—redefined eligibility criteria and extended social assistance.
Luxembourg 2001   July 2001 Act:
                  This act, which came into force in January 2002, established that applicants for citizenships
                  must be at least 18 years old and have resided in Luxembourg for 5 consecutive years
                  (instead of 10 as was the previous case) in order to obtain citizenship.
Luxembourg 2001    In the spring of 2001, Luxembourg's government launched a regularization campaign to
                   legalize asylum seekers who had remained in the country even after their applications were
                   rejected. Those who met the government's conditions were given six months to find work.
                   The 2001 regularization's main purpose was to move a few hundred people out of the
                   asylum system.

Luxembourg 2002    In November 2002, when the government started repatriating asylum seekers who remained
                   in the country after their cases had been dismissed, it became clear that a large number of
                   them had been living in Luxembourg for three, four, and even five years.

Netherlands 1981   The government made a temporary residence permit mandatory and tightened the
                   requirement of having a means of support upon arrival. Head of households under 23 years
                   of age could not be reunified with family from foreign country, as well as those receiving
                   minimum wage.
Netherlands 1987   Single European Act: The member states of the EU declared their intention to create a
                   unified market. The act also emended earlier treaties to ensure further cooperation on
                   foreign policy and established free movement of persons.
Netherlands 1991   Legislation:
                   New employer sanctions were introduced that made employers liable for the cost of
                   expulsion of the foreigners concerned.
Netherlands 1992   Policy:
                   A new policy was devised to separate those who have a chance of recognition as refugees
                   from those who have not. This foresees a special regulation for those asylum seekers who
                   cannot be repatriated to their home country for humanitarian reasons.

Netherlands 1992   Revision of 1965 Aliens Act:
                   The revision establishes a series of measures to limit asylum seekers.
Netherlands 1993   Treaty on EU: The “Maastricht Treaty” extended cooperation to political activities,
                   including foreign policy. This treaty also lifted the remaining restrictions on migration from
                   Spain and Portugal to other EU countries.
Netherlands 1994   Act:
                   Asylum seekers from “safe” countries are no longer granted asylum.
Netherlands 1995   Schengen Agreement signed in 1985, implemented in 1995: The Schengen Accords
                   removes all border controls while attempting to strengthen the common external frontier.
                   On 14 June 1985 the Federal Republic of Germany, France, Belgium, Luxembourg and the
                   Netherlands signed the Schengen Agreement (Schengen being a place in Luxembourg) on
                   the gradual abolition of checks at their common borders. On 19 June 1990 the Convention
                   Implementing the Schengen Agreement was signed. Its key points relate to measures
                   designed to create, following the abolition of common border checks, a common area of
                   security and justice. Specifically it is concerned with: (1) harmonizing provisions relating
                   to entry into and short stays in the Schengen area by non-EU citizens (uniform Schengen
                   visa); (2) asylum matters (determining in which Member State an application for asylum
                   may be submitted); (3) measures to combat cross-border drugs-related crime; (4) police
                   cooperation (hot pursuit); (5) cooperation among Schengen states on judicial matters. Once
                   checks at common borders are completely abolished, the holder of a uniform visa is
                   entitled to stay in the 15 EU countries for a maximum of up to 90 days per six-month
Netherlands 1995   Aliens Employment Act:
                   This act better regulates foreigners in labor market. It Requires employers to demonstrate
                   that no qualified EEA member is available to fill the position in question and that it is
                   impossible to train a domestic worker to do the job upon hiring a non-EEA national.
Netherlands 1997   Legislation:
                   The government introduced measures controlling entry of asylum seekers and encouraging
                   voluntary return.
Netherlands 1997   Dublin Convention: This was an attempt to harmonize policy on refugees by requiring
                   asylum seekers to apply in the first EU country they enter. The objective was to determine
                   the Member State responsible for examining an application for asylum, a matter that is not
                   settled by the Geneva Convention on the status of refugees.
                   The application of this Convention would ensure that every asylum-seeker's application
                   would be examined by a Member State, unless a "safe" non-Member country could be
                   considered as responsible. This would avoid situations of refugees being shuttled from one
                   Member States to another, with none accepting responsibility, as well as multiple serial or
                   simultaneous applications.

Netherlands 1999   Treaty of Amsterdam: This treaty placed issues relating to immigration and asylum and
                   incorporated the Schengen Accords into the EU. It included an agreement to achieve
                   minimum standards in asylum policies and practices by 2004 and established free
                   movement of persons (EU citizens and third country nationals). It enhanced border control
                   and criminal investigation cooperation between the states and reduced checks on people at
                   internal borders, integrating cooperation under Schengen. In a transitional phase of five
                   years the initiative may be taken by the Commission or the member states, the European
                   Parliament must be consulted, and the Council will decide unanimously. Refugees and
                   asylum seekers are not to be treated as a "burden", but rather uniform standards should be
                   created for the protection of refugees and the costs of taking them in shared in a spirit of
                   solidarity. This is particularly in Germany's interest, for it has taken by far the most
                   refugees from the former Yugoslavia. The harmonized visa, asylum and immigration policy
                   will have an effect on decision-making procedures. In place of intergovernmental
                   cooperation (international treaties), EU legislative procedures will come into effect
Netherlands 1999   EU Council Meeting in Tempere: This meeting established the need for common European
                   policy on asylum and immigration and asked the European Commission to draw up
                   proposals on asylum, refugees, and immigration. It established measures for fair treatment
                   of third country nationals and more efficient management of migration flows, and
                   addressing the source of illegal immigration.
Netherlands 2000   Nice Treaty: This treaty included a Charter of Fundamental Rights, stating that non-EU
                   nationals with residence or work permits would eventually have the same freedom of
                   movement as EU nationals. The Member States decided to indicate the tasks carried out by
                   Eurojust in Article 31 of the Union Treaty. A Commission proposal to include a reference
                   to the European Public Prosecutor was discarded. Most of the involved countries would no
                   longer require unanimity but would be subject to the codecision procedure (Article 251 of
                   the EC Treaty). However, the transition to the codecision procedure has been deferred and
                   made subject to certain conditions. Certain decisions on immigration will be taken under
                   the codecision procedure as from 1 May 2004, whereas in the area of asylum policy the
                   transition is subject to the sine qua non condition that the Council has previously adopted
                   common rules and basic principles governing these issues
Netherlands 2001     European Council in Laeken: Since the 1999 Tampere European Council, the Member
                     States have stated on several occasions that the principle of mutual recognition must be the
                     cornerstone of a European area of freedom, security and justice. The terrorist attacks of 11
                     September 2001 in the United States accelerated the decision-making process in the
                     European Union. The Member States undertook to take decisive action against increasingly
                     transnational organized crime. The Laeken European Council provided an opportunity to
                     assess the progress made and to discuss key issues such as the European arrest warrant and
                     the framework decision on combating terrorism. However, member states failed to agree on
                     greater cooperation on immigration orasylum policies.

Netherlands 2001     The most important changes of the new Aliens Act (Vreemdelingenwet) concern the
                     asylum procedure. The law is characterized by control, security and restriction, rather than
                     migration management. It regulates the residence of foreigners .Aliens can apply for a
                     residence permit either through the regular procedure or through the asylum procedure.

Netherlands 2002     Principles of Government Policy:
                     Introduced restrictions on immigration.
Netherlands 2002     New Aliens Act:
                     This act introduced new benefits and procedures for asylum seekers—only one asylum
                     status is possible (common temporary residence permit and benefits). Tightened the
                     conditions for family reunification for fixed term permit holders (need income equal to
                     100% of benefit level)—after 3 years, refugees are eligible for residence permit of
                     indefinite term.
Netherlands 2003     Amended the Netherlands Nationality Act:
                     A demonstration of integration with Dutch society is now required before being
                     naturalized, and applicants must pass an examination showing proficiency in Dutch
                     language, institutions and culture.
Netherlands 2004     Modifications to Alien Act: asylum sekkers receive a five year rather than three-year
                     residence permit
Netherlands 2004     High skilled immigrants(scientists and workers whose income is more than 32.500 euros)
                     do not need a work permit and a decision is taken on a residence permit within two weeks.
                     After five years they are authorised to receive a permanent residence permit

Netherlands          Integration of Newcomers Act:
                     This act improves integration options for immigrants and obliges all Dutch municipalities
                     to offer state subsidized integration programs responding to individual needs of new
                     immigrants.
Norway        1988   Immigration Act:
                     This act established that foreign highly skilled workers must have skills that no domestic
                     worker has in order to obtain a work permit. In particular, those with skills in IT or oil
                     sector are more likely to get a permit. This act regulates the entry of foreign nationals into
                     Norway and their rights to residence and work. Four categories are admitted: workers with
                     concrete job offer, refugees and other humanitarian cases, family relations and students
                     (students granted temporary residence). Two kinds of permits: residence permit or work
                     permit (granted mostly to skilled workers or people with special qualifications).

Norway        1991   Aliens Act:
                     A higher percentage of asylum seekers was allowed to stay on humanitarian grounds in the
                     first half of 1991.
Norway   1994   Amendment to Aliens Act:
                This act modified the application procedure (by requiring cooperation between employer
                and the labor office)—employers must notify the government of any work permits issued.

Norway   1997   Policy on Asylum Seekers:
                The government established an instrument of “collective protection” to be used in the case
                of large-scale refugee flows and offer temporary protection.
Norway   1999   Treaty of Amsterdam: This treaty placed issues relating to immigration and asylum and
                incorporated the Schengen Accords into the EU. It included an agreement to achieve
                minimum standards in asylum policies and practices by 2004 and established free
                movement of persons (EU citizens and third country nationals). It enhanced border control
                and criminal investigation cooperation between the states and reduced checks on people at
                internal borders, integrating cooperation under Schengen. In a transitional phase of five
                years the initiative may be taken by the Commission or the member states, the European
                Parliament must be consulted, and the Council will decide unanimously. Refugees and
                asylum seekers are not to be treated as a "burden", but rather uniform standards should be
                created for the protection of refugees and the costs of taking them in shared in a spirit of
                solidarity. This is particularly in Germany's interest, for it has taken by far the most
                refugees from the former Yugoslavia. The harmonized visa, asylum and immigration policy
                will have an effect on decision-making procedures. In place of intergovernmental
                cooperation (international treaties), EU legislative procedures will come into effect
Norway   1999   EU Council Meeting in Tempere: This meeting established the need for common European
                policy on asylum and immigration and asked the European Commission to draw up
                proposals on asylum, refugees, and immigration. It established measures for fair treatment
                of third country nationals and more efficient management of migration flows, and
                addressing the source of illegal immigration.
Norway   2000   Nice Treaty: This treaty included a Charter of Fundamental Rights, stating that non-EU
                nationals with residence or work permits would eventually have the same freedom of
                movement as EU nationals. The Member States decided to indicate the tasks carried out by
                Eurojust in Article 31 of the Union Treaty. A Commission proposal to include a reference
                to the European Public Prosecutor was discarded. Most of the involved countries would no
                longer require unanimity but would be subject to the codecision procedure (Article 251 of
                the EC Treaty). However, the transition to the codecision procedure has been deferred and
                made subject to certain conditions. Certain decisions on immigration will be taken under
                the codecision procedure as from 1 May 2004, whereas in the area of asylum policy the
                transition is subject to the sine qua non condition that the Council has previously adopted
                common rules and basic principles governing these issues

Norway   2001   European Council in Laeken: Since the 1999 Tampere European Council, the Member
                States have stated on several occasions that the principle of mutual recognition must be the
                cornerstone of a European area of freedom, security and justice. The terrorist attacks of 11
                September 2001 in the United States accelerated the decision-making process in the
                European Union. The Member States undertook to take decisive action against increasingly
                transnational organized crime. The Laeken European Council provided an opportunity to
                assess the progress made and to discuss key issues such as the European arrest warrant and
                the framework decision on combating terrorism. However, member states failed to agree on
                greater cooperation on immigration orasylum policies.

Norway   2001   Work Permit Reforms:
                These reforms authorized seasonal permits throughout the year and lowered minimum
                education requirement for work permits.
Norway   2001   Schengen Agreement: The Schengen Accords removes all border controls while attempting
                to strengthen the common external frontier. On 14 June 1985 the Federal Republic of
                Germany, France, Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands signed the Schengen
                Agreement (Schengen being a place in Luxembourg) on the gradual abolition of checks at
                their common borders. On 19 June 1990 the Convention Implementing the Schengen
                Agreement was signed. Its key points relate to measures designed to create, following the
                abolition of common border checks, a common area of security and justice. Specifically it
                is concerned with: (1) harmonizing provisions relating to entry into and short stays in the
                Schengen area by non-EU citizens (uniform Schengen visa); (2) asylum matters
                (determining in which Member State an application for asylum may be submitted); (3)
                measures to combat cross-border drugs-related crime; (4) police cooperation (hot pursuit);
                (5) cooperation among Schengen states on judicial matters. Once checks at common
                borders are completely abolished, the holder of a uniform visa is entitled to stay in the 15
                EU countries for a maximum of up to 90 days per six-month period during the visa's period
                of validity.
Norway   2002   Amendment to the Immigration Act:
                This act facilitates recruitment of non-EU highly skilled workers, including a quota (5000).
                However, this act does not require checking for the unavailability of domestic labor until
                the quota filled.
Norway   2002   Dublin Convention: This was an attempt to harmonize policy on refugees by requiring
                asylum seekers to apply in the first EU country they enter. The objective was to determine
                the Member State responsible for examining an application for asylum, a matter that is not
                settled by the Geneva Convention on the status of refugees.
                The application of this Convention would ensure that every asylum-seeker's application
                would be examined by a Member State, unless a "safe" non-Member country could be
                considered as responsible. This would avoid situations of refugees being shuttled from one
                Member States to another, with none accepting responsibility, as well as multiple serial or
                simultaneous applications.

Norway   2003   The 2003 Introduction Act: It requires the active participation in integration programs for
                targeted refugees between the ages of 18 and 55 by settlement municipalities;

Norway   2004   When the EEA was enlarged to include ten new EU member countries on May 1, 2004, the
                Norwegian government instituted transitional rules in the initial two-year period when
                national rules might apply for workers from the new member states (with the exception of
                Cyprus and Malta). The transitional rules stipulate that migrant workers from the relevant
                states are required to obtain an EEA-permit before they start working. Such permits are
                issued for full-time employment at normal rates of pay and under normal working
                conditions.
Norway   2005   Legislation on citizenship has been modified and will come to force in 2006 . Under the
                new law, language skills must be documented before citizenship is granted. Children at
                birth obtain the citizenship of both their parents. Dual citizenship remains prohibited

Sweden   1981   Legislation:
                The Swedish government passed a law that monitored inflow of foreigners and established
                free circulation within the Nordic labor market.
Sweden   1985   Bill on the Guidelines for Swedish Immigration and Minority Policy:
                This bill established strict immigration regulation while maintaining a relatively generous
                refugee policy. However, only those who are considered refugees in a ‘strict sense’ will be
                admitted.
Sweden   1990   Bill:
                The number of residence permits granted for humanitarian reasons to defacto refugees was
                reduced.
Sweden   1992   Establishment of the Aliens Board :
                The Aliens Board was set up by the government as a separate authority to hear appeals
                under aliens and citizenship legislation.
Sweden   1995   Legislation:
                The government issued 14,000 temporary work permits to skilled foreign workers to cover
                labor market shortages
Sweden   1996   Legislation:
                The right to asylum was restricted to war refugees.
Sweden   1997   Aliens Act:
                Refugee status was defined more flexibly than in the 1951 act. In particular, applicants can
                be recognized as refugees even if they originated from ‘safe’ countries.

Sweden   1997   Dublin Convention: This was an attempt to harmonize policy on refugees by requiring
                asylum seekers to apply in the first EU country they enter. The objective was to determine
                the Member State responsible for examining an application for asylum, a matter that is not
                settled by the Geneva Convention on the status of refugees.
                The application of this Convention would ensure that every asylum-seeker's application
                would be examined by a Member State, unless a "safe" non-Member country could be
                considered as responsible. This would avoid situations of refugees being shuttled from one
                Member States to another, with none accepting responsibility, as well as multiple serial or
                simultaneous applications.

Sweden   1997   Treaty of Amsterdam: This treaty placed issues relating to immigration and asylum and
                incorporated the Schengen Accords into the EU. It included an agreement to achieve
                minimum standards in asylum policies and practices by 2004 and established free
                movement of persons (EU citizens and third country nationals). It enhanced border control
                and criminal investigation cooperation between the states and reduced checks on people at
                internal borders, integrating cooperation under Schengen. In a transitional phase of five
                years the initiative may be taken by the Commission or the member states, the European
                Parliament must be consulted, and the Council will decide unanimously. Refugees and
                asylum seekers are not to be treated as a "burden", but rather uniform standards should be
                created for the protection of refugees and the costs of taking them in shared in a spirit of
                solidarity. This is particularly in Germany's interest, for it has taken by far the most
                refugees from the former Yugoslavia. The harmonized visa, asylum and immigration policy
                will have an effect on decision-making procedures. In place of intergovernmental
                cooperation (international treaties), EU legislative procedures will come into effect
Sweden   1998   Legislation:
                Approximately 10,000 (Nordic) foreign workers were recruited for work in construction
                and health care sectors.
Sweden   1999   EU Council Meeting in Tempere: This meeting established the need for common European
                policy on asylum and immigration and asked the European Commission to draw up
                proposals on asylum, refugees, and immigration. It established measures for fair treatment
                of third country nationals and more efficient management of migration flows, and
                addressing the source of illegal immigration.
Sweden   2000   Nice Treaty: This treaty included a Charter of Fundamental Rights, stating that non-EU
                nationals with residence or work permits would eventually have the same freedom of
                movement as EU nationals. The Member States decided to indicate the tasks carried out by
                Eurojust in Article 31 of the Union Treaty. A Commission proposal to include a reference
                to the European Public Prosecutor was discarded. Most of the involved countries would no
                longer require unanimity but would be subject to the codecision procedure (Article 251 of
                the EC Treaty). However, the transition to the codecision procedure has been deferred and
                made subject to certain conditions. Certain decisions on immigration will be taken under
                the codecision procedure as from 1 May 2004, whereas in the area of asylum policy the
                transition is subject to the sine qua non condition that the Council has previously adopted
                common rules and basic principles governing these issues

Sweden   2001   Schengen Agreement signed in 1996, implemented in 2001: The Schengen Accords
                removes all border controls while attempting to strengthen the common external frontier.
                On 14 June 1985 the Federal Republic of Germany, France, Belgium, Luxembourg and the
                Netherlands signed the Schengen Agreement (Schengen being a place in Luxembourg) on
                the gradual abolition of checks at their common borders. On 19 June 1990 the Convention
                Implementing the Schengen Agreement was signed. Its key points relate to measures
                designed to create, following the abolition of common border checks, a common area of
                security and justice. Specifically it is concerned with: (1) harmonizing provisions relating
                to entry into and short stays in the Schengen area by non-EU citizens (uniform Schengen
                visa); (2) asylum matters (determining in which Member State an application for asylum
                may be submitted); (3) measures to combat cross-border drugs-related crime; (4) police
                cooperation (hot pursuit); (5) cooperation among Schengen states on judicial matters. Once
                checks at common borders are completely abolished, the holder of a uniform visa is
                entitled to stay in the 15 EU countries for a maximum of up to 90 days per six-month
                period during the visa's period of validity.




Sweden   2001   European Council in Laeken: Since the 1999 Tampere European Council, the Member
                States have stated on several occasions that the principle of mutual recognition must be the
                cornerstone of a European area of freedom, security and justice. The terrorist attacks of 11
                September 2001 in the United States accelerated the decision-making process in the
                European Union. The Member States undertook to take decisive action against increasingly
                transnational organized crime. The Laeken European Council provided an opportunity to
                assess the progress made and to discuss key issues such as the European arrest warrant and
                the framework decision on combating terrorism. However, member states failed to agree on
                greater cooperation on immigration orasylum policies.
Sweden     2003    Dublin Regulation: The aim of this convention is to ensure that an asylum application is
                   dealt with in the right country, i e the country that the applicant first entered or has ties to.
                   The country properly responsible for considering the case must take back the applicant if
                   he or she has moved on to another member state. Asylum applications are to be
                   investigated and decided in accordance with the laws of the country concerned.
                   Through the Dublin Regulation, the EU states are seeking to ensure partly that a person
                   does not apply for asylum in several countries at once and partly that he or she is not
                   shuttled about from country to country without any of them taking responsibility for
                   considering the application.

Sweden     2004    In May 2004 Sweden was one of only three existing Member States (along with the UK
                   and Ireland) that agreed to allow citizens of the eight, new Eastern European Member
                   States to work without formally requesting a permit
Switzerland 1983   Naturalization Law:
                   The naturalization criteria were tightened, while establishing that children of Swiss citizens
                   are Swiss nationals.
Switzerland 1984   Amendment of the Asylum Legislation:
                   The procedure to examining application was expedited.
Switzerland 1986   Policy:
                   In order to balance the proportion of Swiss in the population, the number of foreigners was
                   limited.
Switzerland 1987   Act:
                   An act relating to asylum seekers was passed that effectively tightened the existing asylum
                   law, established a faster admissions process, and provided for guidelines relating to
                   imprisonment of dangerous asylum seekers who refuse to leave the country.

Switzerland 1994   Act:
                   The law on foreigners’ rights was further tightened, expanding search rights of the
                   authorities to more asylum seekers domiciles.
Switzerland 1994   Act on the Entry of Seasonal Workers:
                   Seasonal permits were limited to the nationals of traditional recruitment countries of the
                   EU. This one year restriction caused a decline in seasonal workers.
Switzerland 1999   Amendment to the Asylum Law:
                   This law is a less restrictive provisionary admission law that establishes stricter criteria for
                   asylum status.
Switzerland 2002   A bilateral agreement between Switzerland and EU member states was established for the
                   free movement of persons for residency and work purposes.
Switzerland 2004   Policy:
                     Individual admission controls on pay and working conditions for EU nationals were
                   abolished, replaced by measures intended to prevent wage dumping that could damage the
                   interests of workers who live in Switzerland. In return, Swiss citizens will not need special
                   permission to live and work in any of the 25 EU Member States
Switzerland 2005   The free movment of citizens from ten new EU member states was approved by
                   referendum in autmn 2005
Switzerland 2005   The Swiss electorate accepted to join the Schengen and Dublin agreements. The accords
                   will be implemented by 2008
United     1981    British Nationality Act:
Kingdom            The government sought to narrow immigration by limiting the right of residency to those
                   exclusively in possession of British citizenship.
United     1987    Single European Act: The member states of the EU declared their intention to create a
Kingdom            unified market. The act also emended earlier treaties to ensure further cooperation on
                   foreign policy and established free movement of persons.
United    1990   Asylum acts of 1993, 1996, 1999:
Kingdom          These acts curtailed the number of asylum applications.
United    1993   The Asylum and Immigration Appeals Act 1993 * focuses on asylum. This bill included
Kingdom          provisions about the treatment of persons who claim asylum in the UK and their
                 dependents, amends the law relating to immigration appeals, and provides for visas for
                 certain transit passengers.
United    1993   Treaty on EU: The “Maastricht Treaty” extended cooperation to political activities,
Kingdom          including foreign policy. This treaty also lifted the remaining restrictions on migration from
                 Spain and Portugal to other EU countries.
United    1996   The Asylum and Immigration Act 1996 focuses on asylum (tightening the conditions to
Kingdom          obtain it) but also defines limitations for economic migrants. The Act provides the
                 introduction of new immigration offences, powers and penalties. The Act extends the
                 penalties associated with being an "illegal entrant" to include those seeking to "obtain leave
                 to enter or remain" in the Uk through deception. Increase of penalties associated with
                 immigration offences.Creation of a new criminal offence: employing someone "subject to
                 immigration control" who is not regular. Increase of the powers of the Police and
                 immigration officers in relation to immigration offences: they now have the power to arrest
                 without a warrant those suspected .
United    1997   Act:
Kingdom          The government passed a law that establishes the right of appeal for individuals liable to
                 deportation on grounds of national security. This ended the “Primary Purpose Rule” which
                 stated that in order to simply enter the country, those coming to the UK with the intention
                 of marriage had to prove that the purpose of the marriage was not one of convenience.

United    1997   Dublin Convention: This was an attempt to harmonize policy on refugees by requiring
Kingdom          asylum seekers to apply in the first EU country they enter. The objective was to determine
                 the Member State responsible for examining an application for asylum, a matter that is not
                 settled by the Geneva Convention on the status of refugees.
                 The application of this Convention would ensure that every asylum-seeker's application
                 would be examined by a Member State, unless a "safe" non-Member country could be
                 considered as responsible. This would avoid situations of refugees being shuttled from one
                 Member States to another, with none accepting responsibility, as well as multiple serial or
                 simultaneous applications.

United    1999   The Immigration and Asylum Act 1999 tightens the conditions to enter for migrants and
Kingdom          asylum seekers.The Act provides a great number of requirements to enter and to remain in
                 the country. The Act gives new powers to immigration officers: they can conduct personal
                 searches on arrested persons.
United    2000   Commencement of the National Asylum Support Service:
Kingdom          This service assists with accommodation and voucher provision for asylum seekers. The
                 capacity of existing system increased by 50% to handle the backlog of applicants

United    2001   Policy:
Kingdom          Immigration policy focused the direction toward allowing more foreign workers.
United    2002   The Nationality, Immigration and Asylum Act 2002 tightens the conditions to enter and
Kingdom          to remain for asylum seekers and migrants.
United    2003   The Act provides the introduction of a new scheme for recruiting qualified labour. The
Kingdom          Highly Skilled Migrant Programme (HSMP) aims to attract high human capital individuals
                 who have the qualifications and skills required by Uk business to compete in the global
                 marketplace. This scheme is different to the existing work permit and permit-free
                 categories because the applicant can be given leave to enter the UK to seek work instead of
                 having to demonstrate a pre-existing offer of employment.

United    2004   The Asylum and Immigration (Treatment of Claimants, etc.) Act 2004 tightens
Kingdom          immigration and asylum procedures to enter the country. It defines new rules to fight illegal
                 immigration. Increase of fines to be imposed on those who employ illegal workers.
                 Introduction of new powers for Immigration Officers to arrest people for crimes such as
                 bigamy and forgery.
United    2004   In May 2004 UK was one of only three existing Member States (along with the Sweden
Kingdom          and Ireland) that agreed to allow citizens of the eight, new Eastern European Member
                 States to work without formally requesting a permit
United    1981   Act of June 5, 1981:
States           This act reduced the previously appropriated funds for migration and refugee assistance.
                 (US Citizenship and Immigration Services)
United    1981   Act of August 13, 1981:
States           Access of aliens was restricted to various publicly funded benefits such as the Aid to
                 Families with Dependent Children fund.
United    1981   “INS Efficiency Bill”:
States           This bill established regulations involving convicted immigrants, amending the 1952 act
                 with regards to seizing vehicle of the party in question.
United    1982   Act of September 30, 1982:
States           This act allowed admission of nonimmigrant aliens from the Virgin Islands as permanent
                 residents.
United    1982   Act of October 2, 1982:
States           This act limited the categories the Legal Services Cooperation may provide legal
                 assistance.
United    1982   Act of October 22, 1982:
States           This act established that children born of US citizen fathers in Korea, Vietnam, Laos,
                 Kampuchea, or Thailand after 1950 may come to the US as immediate relatives.
United    1982   Simpson Mazzoli Bills:
States           Main features of these bills include the following: (1) established a legalization program
                 for the illegally resident by imposing sanctions against employers of improperly
                 documented aliens, (2) outlined an identification system to permit verification of
                 employment eligibility, (3) streamlined of the temporary foreign workers program, (4)
                 established measures to expedite asylum hearings and more control over legal migration,
                 (5) established a quota of 425 000 per year.
United    1982   Immigration Reform and Control Act:
States           This act legalized illegal immigrants who had resided in the US since before 1982.
United    1986   Immigration Reform and Control Act of November 6, 1986:
States           This act authorized legalization of aliens who have lived illegally since January 1, 1982,
                 established sanctions prohibiting employers to hire or recruit for a fee aliens who are not
                 permitted to work in US, increased border enforcement, and adjusted residence status to
                 permanent for Cubans and Haitians who had entered US without inspection. Eligible
                 applicants would have until 1988 to file for residency.Therefore the bulk of the
                 legalizations took place between 1989-1991.
United   1986   Immigration Marriage Fraud Amendment:
States          This amendment established that immigrants who derived their status on marriage that
                lasted less than 2 years are conditional immigrants, and required that the fiancé meet the
                person in question within 2 years of the petition date.
United   1987   Amerasian Homecoming Act:
States          Children born in Vietnam to Vietnamese mothers between specified dates were admitted as
                non-quota immigrants who receive refugee program benefits.
United   1988   The Canada free trade agreement involved the United States and Canada exchanging
States          skilled labor in similar terms as NAFTA. It facilitated temporary entry on a reciprocal basis
                between the United States and Canada, established procedures for the temporary entry into
                the United States of Canadian citizen professional business persons to render services for
                remuneration. No nonimmigrant visa, prior petition, labor certification, or prior approval
                are required, but appropriate documentation must be presented to the inspecting officer
                establishing Canadian
                citizenship and professional engagement in one of the occupations listed in the qualifying
                occupation schedule. The migration guidelines of this agreement were replaced by NAFTA
                in 1994.
United   1989   Foreign Operations Act:
States          This act adjusted permanent residence status for Soviet and Indochinese nationals who
                were denied refugee status in the US over a certain period of time.
United   1989   Immigration Nursing Relief Act of 1989:
States          This act adjusted the temporary to permanent resident status without regard to quota of
                certain nonimmigrants who were employed in the US as registered nurses for at least three
                years and established new nonimmigrant category for the temporary admission of qualified
                registered nurses.
United   1992   Immigration Act:
States          This act amended previous provisions with regard to the permanent and temporary
                residence of migrants,increased in the number of visas to be granted annually in the fiscal
                years 1992—1994, while simultaneously attempting to safeguard US nationals’ wages and
                working conditions. It increased total immigration cap, revised grounds for exclusion and
                deportation, new nonimmigrant admissions categories, amended the substantive
                requirements for naturalization (waived the English language requirement, lifted the
                permanent bar to naturalization for aliens who applied to be relieved from the US military
                service), and revised criminal and deportation provisions. Quantitative changes include
                increasing in total immigration under an overall flexible cap of 675,000 immigrants
                beginning in fiscal year 1995, preceded by a 700,000 level during fiscal years 1992 through
                1994. This 675,000 figure consists of 480,000 family-sponsored; 140,000 employment-
                based; and 55,000 "diversity” immigrants.

United   1992   Soviet Scientist Immigration Act:
States          This act established permanent residence status on a maximum of 750 scientists from the
                Soviet Union and the Baltic states in the area of biology, chemical, nuclear technical and
                high technology defense.
United   1994   The North American Free Trade Agreement supersedes the United States-Canada Free-
States          Trade Agreement and involves Canada, United States and Mexico. It establishes mutual
                recognition of professional qualifications among member states, while still retaining
                decision-making power regarding high skilled migration policies to the countries involved.
                NAFTA is less integrated and on a smaller scale than the EU measures. For example, in an
                effort to secure permanent employment in home countries as well as to promote border
                security, there is no central decision making authority and no common market for the
                movement for labor. NAFTA established procedures for the temporary entry into the
                United States of Canadian and Mexican citizens with the following features: (1) For
                Canadians, no nonimmigrant visa, prior petition, labor certification, or prior approval
                required, but appropriate documentation must be presented to the inspecting officer
                establishing Canadian citizenship and professional engagement in one of the occupations
                listed in the qualifying occupation schedule; For Mexicans, nonimmigrant visa, prior
                petition by employer, and Department of Labor attestation are required in addition to proof
United   1996   Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act:
States          This act established a criminal alien tracking center, nonimmigrant classification for alien
                witness cooperation and counterterrorism information, deportation for denied asylum
                applicants, improved border management, and strengthened penalties for passport and visa
                offenses.
United   1996   Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act:
States          This act expedited procedures for removal of alien terrorists, enacted measures to exclude
                the entry of members of terrorist organizations, modified asylum procedures to improve
                identification of alien terrorists, and improved criminal alien procedures.
United   1996   Welfare Reform Act:
States          This act established a restriction on the eligibility of immigrants from some government
                funded benefits and broadened the restrictions on public benefits for illegal aliens and
                nonimmigrant.
United   1996   Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act:
States          General features of this act include the following: US border control, removal measures for
                criminal and other deportable aliens, benefit restrictions for aliens, miscellaneous
                administrative reform.
United   2000   Legal Immigration Family Equity Act:
States          This act authorized illegal residents who had files an immigrant application to adjust to the
                status without having to leave US. A “V’ visa was created to enable the admission of those
                spouses and children of permanent residents whose immigrant applications had been
                pending for at least three years. This enables eligible but previously rejected people to
                apply for immigrant status.
United   2000   Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act:
States          This act created 15,000 non-immigrant visas for women and children victims of trafficking
                and of physical and mental abuse and required a three year waiting period of eligible
                immigrants for permanent residence status.
United   2001   USA PATRIOT Act 2001: This act authorized the allocation of substantial additional
States          resources to border control and inspection, and implemented student monitoring system,
                which was supplemented by the 2002 Enhance Border Security and Visa Entry Reform
                Act.
United   2002   Enhanced Border Security and Visa Entry Reform Act of 2002:
States          This act enhanced the tracking system of aliens and an improved information sharing
                system between relevant government agencies. It prohibits the admission of an alien from a
                country designated to be a state sponsor of international terrorism (as defined by this Act)
                unless the Secretary has determined that such individual does not pose a risk or security
                threat to the United States. Furthermore, it sets forth transitional foreign student monitoring
                requirements, including: (1) restrictions on visa issuance; (2) INS notification of visa
                issuance; (3) institution notification of U.S. entry; and (4) INS notification (by the
                institution) of failure to enroll.
United   2004   Canada and the United States implemented the Safe Third Country Agreement, which
States          requires that refugees claim protection in the first safe country where they arrive. It aims at
                preventing asylum shopping of claims in both countries
United   2005   The REAL ID Act: it created more restrictions on political asylum, severely curtailed
States          habeas corpus relief for immigrants, increased immigration enforcement mechanisms,
                altered judicial review, and imposed federal restrictions on the issuance of state driver's
                licenses to immigrants and others.
           year
country_dest                         Schengen Maastricht
                         entry_laws_tight
australia         1980          0.00       0.00     0.00
australia         1981          0.00       0.00     0.00
australia         1982          0.00       0.00     0.00
australia         1983          0.00       0.00     0.00
australia         1984          0.00       0.00     0.00
australia         1985          0.00       0.00     0.00
australia         1986          0.00       0.00     0.00
australia         1987          0.00       0.00     0.00
australia         1988          0.00       0.00     0.00
australia         1989          0.00       0.00     0.00
australia         1990          0.00       0.00     0.00
australia         1991          1.00       0.00     0.00
australia         1992          2.00       0.00     0.00
australia         1993          2.00       0.00     0.00
australia         1994          2.00       0.00     0.00
australia         1995          2.00       0.00     0.00
australia         1996          2.00       0.00     0.00
australia         1997          2.00       0.00     0.00
australia         1998          2.00       0.00     0.00
australia         1999          1.00       0.00     0.00
australia         2000          2.00       0.00     0.00
australia         2001          2.00       0.00     0.00
australia         2002          2.00       0.00     0.00
australia         2003          2.00       0.00     0.00
australia         2004          2.00       0.00     0.00
australia         2005          0.00       0.00     0.00
belgium           1980          0.00       0.00     0.00
belgium           1981          0.00       0.00     0.00
belgium           1982          0.00       0.00     0.00
belgium           1983          0.00       0.00     0.00
belgium           1984          1.00       0.00     0.00
belgium           1985          1.00       0.00     0.00
belgium           1986          1.00       0.00     0.00
belgium           1987          0.00       0.00     0.00
belgium           1988          0.00       0.00     0.00
belgium           1989          0.00       0.00     0.00
belgium           1990          0.00       0.00     0.00
belgium           1991          0.00       0.00     0.00
belgium           1992          0.00       0.00     0.00
belgium           1993         -1.00       0.00     1.00
belgium           1994         -1.00       0.00     1.00
belgium           1995         -2.00       1.00     1.00
belgium           1996         -1.00       1.00     1.00
belgium           1997         -1.00       1.00     1.00
belgium           1998         -1.00       1.00     1.00
belgium           1999         -1.00       1.00     1.00
belgium           2000         -1.00       1.00     1.00
belgium           2001         -1.00       1.00     1.00
belgium           2002         -1.00       1.00     1.00
belgium           2003         -1.00       1.00     1.00
belgium           2004         -1.00       1.00     1.00
belgium   2005   -1.00   1.00   1.00
canada    1980    0.00   0.00   0.00
canada    1981    0.00   0.00   0.00
canada    1982    1.00   0.00   0.00
canada    1983    1.00   0.00   0.00
canada    1984    1.00   0.00   0.00
canada    1985    1.00   0.00   0.00
canada    1986    1.00   0.00   0.00
canada    1987    1.00   0.00   0.00
canada    1988    0.00   0.00   0.00
canada    1989    0.00   0.00   0.00
canada    1990    0.00   0.00   0.00
canada    1991    0.00   0.00   0.00
canada    1992    0.00   0.00   0.00
canada    1993    0.00   0.00   0.00
canada    1994   -1.00   0.00   0.00
canada    1995   -1.00   0.00   0.00
canada    1996   -1.00   0.00   0.00
canada    1997   -1.00   0.00   0.00
canada    1998   -2.00   0.00   0.00
canada    1999   -2.00   0.00   0.00
canada    2000   -2.00   0.00   0.00
canada    2001   -2.00   0.00   0.00
canada    2002   -3.00   0.00   0.00
canada    2003   -3.00   0.00   0.00
canada    2004   -4.00   0.00   0.00
canada    2005   -4.00   0.00   0.00
denmark   1980    0.00   0.00   0.00
denmark   1981    0.00   0.00   0.00
denmark   1982    0.00   0.00   0.00
denmark   1983    0.00   0.00   0.00
denmark   1984    0.00   0.00   0.00
denmark   1985    0.00   0.00   0.00
denmark   1986    0.00   0.00   0.00
denmark   1987   -1.00   0.00   0.00
denmark   1988   -1.00   0.00   0.00
denmark   1989   -1.00   0.00   0.00
denmark   1990   -1.00   0.00   0.00
denmark   1991   -1.00   0.00   0.00
denmark   1992   -1.00   0.00   0.00
denmark   1993   -2.00   0.00   1.00
denmark   1994   -2.00   0.00   1.00
denmark   1995   -2.00   0.00   1.00
denmark   1996   -2.00   0.00   1.00
denmark   1997   -2.00   0.00   1.00
denmark   1998   -2.00   0.00   1.00
denmark   1999   -2.00   0.00   1.00
denmark   2000   -1.00   0.00   1.00
denmark   2001   -1.00   1.00   1.00
denmark   2002    0.00   1.00   1.00
denmark   2003    0.00   1.00   1.00
denmark   2004    1.00   1.00   1.00
denmark   2005    2.00   1.00   1.00
france    1980    1.00   0.00   0.00
france    1981    3.00   0.00   0.00
france    1982    3.00   0.00   0.00
france    1983    3.00   0.00   0.00
france    1984    2.00   0.00   0.00
france    1985    2.00   0.00   0.00
france    1986    3.00   0.00   0.00
france    1987    2.00   0.00   0.00
france    1988    2.00   0.00   0.00
france    1989    2.00   0.00   0.00
france    1990    2.00   0.00   0.00
france    1991    3.00   0.00   0.00
france    1992    3.00   0.00   0.00
france    1993    3.00   0.00   1.00
france    1994    3.00   0.00   1.00
france    1995    1.00   1.00   1.00
france    1996    1.00   1.00   1.00
france    1997    0.00   1.00   1.00
france    1998    0.00   1.00   1.00
france    1999    0.00   1.00   1.00
france    2000    0.00   1.00   1.00
france    2001    0.00   1.00   1.00
france    2002    0.00   1.00   1.00
france    2003    1.00   1.00   1.00
france    2004    1.00   1.00   1.00
france    2005    1.00   1.00   1.00
germany   1980    0.00   0.00   0.00
germany   1981    1.00   0.00   0.00
germany   1982    1.00   0.00   0.00
germany   1983    1.00   0.00   0.00
germany   1984    1.00   0.00   0.00
germany   1985    1.00   0.00   0.00
germany   1986    1.00   0.00   0.00
germany   1987    0.00   0.00   0.00
germany   1988    0.00   0.00   0.00
germany   1989    0.00   0.00   0.00
germany   1990    0.00   0.00   0.00
germany   1991    0.00   0.00   0.00
germany   1992    0.00   0.00   0.00
germany   1993   -1.00   0.00   1.00
germany   1994   -1.00   0.00   1.00
germany   1995   -2.00   1.00   1.00
germany   1996   -2.00   1.00   1.00
germany   1997   -2.00   1.00   1.00
germany   1998   -3.00   1.00   1.00
germany   1999   -3.00   1.00   1.00
germany   2000   -4.00   1.00   1.00
germany   2001   -4.00   1.00   1.00
germany   2002   -4.00   1.00   1.00
germany   2003   -4.00   1.00   1.00
germany   2004   -4.00   1.00   1.00
germany      2005   -5.00   1.00   1.00
japan        1980    0.00   0.00   0.00
japan        1981    0.00   0.00   0.00
japan        1982    1.00   0.00   0.00
japan        1983    1.00   0.00   0.00
japan        1984    1.00   0.00   0.00
japan        1985    1.00   0.00   0.00
japan        1986    1.00   0.00   0.00
japan        1987    1.00   0.00   0.00
japan        1988    1.00   0.00   0.00
japan        1989    2.00   0.00   0.00
japan        1990    2.00   0.00   0.00
japan        1991    2.00   0.00   0.00
japan        1992    2.00   0.00   0.00
japan        1993    3.00   0.00   0.00
japan        1994    3.00   0.00   0.00
japan        1995    3.00   0.00   0.00
japan        1996    3.00   0.00   0.00
japan        1997    4.00   0.00   0.00
japan        1998    4.00   0.00   0.00
japan        1999    3.00   0.00   0.00
japan        2000    3.00   0.00   0.00
japan        2001    2.00   0.00   0.00
japan        2002    3.00   0.00   0.00
japan        2003    3.00   0.00   0.00
japan        2004    2.00   0.00   0.00
japan        2005    2.00   0.00   0.00
luxembourg   1980    0.00   0.00   0.00
luxembourg   1981    0.00   0.00   0.00
luxembourg   1982    0.00   0.00   0.00
luxembourg   1983    0.00   0.00   0.00
luxembourg   1984    0.00   0.00   0.00
luxembourg   1985    0.00   0.00   0.00
luxembourg   1986    0.00   0.00   0.00
luxembourg   1987   -1.00   0.00   0.00
luxembourg   1988   -1.00   0.00   0.00
luxembourg   1989   -1.00   0.00   0.00
luxembourg   1990   -1.00   0.00   0.00
luxembourg   1991   -1.00   0.00   0.00
luxembourg   1992   -1.00   0.00   0.00
luxembourg   1993   -2.00   0.00   1.00
luxembourg   1994   -2.00   0.00   1.00
luxembourg   1995   -3.00   1.00   1.00
luxembourg   1996   -3.00   1.00   1.00
luxembourg   1997   -3.00   1.00   1.00
luxembourg   1998   -3.00   1.00   1.00
luxembourg   1999   -3.00   1.00   1.00
luxembourg   2000   -3.00   1.00   1.00
luxembourg   2001   -4.00   1.00   1.00
luxembourg   2002   -4.00   1.00   1.00
luxembourg   2003   -4.00   1.00   1.00
luxembourg   2004   -4.00   1.00   1.00
luxembourg    2005   -4.00   1.00   1.00
netherlands   1980    0.00   0.00   0.00
netherlands   1981    1.00   0.00   0.00
netherlands   1982    1.00   0.00   0.00
netherlands   1983    1.00   0.00   0.00
netherlands   1984    1.00   0.00   0.00
netherlands   1985    1.00   0.00   0.00
netherlands   1986    1.00   0.00   0.00
netherlands   1987    0.00   0.00   0.00
netherlands   1988    0.00   0.00   0.00
netherlands   1989    0.00   0.00   0.00
netherlands   1990    0.00   0.00   0.00
netherlands   1991    1.00   0.00   0.00
netherlands   1992    2.00   0.00   0.00
netherlands   1993    1.00   0.00   1.00
netherlands   1994    1.00   0.00   1.00
netherlands   1995    1.00   1.00   1.00
netherlands   1996    1.00   1.00   1.00
netherlands   1997    1.00   1.00   1.00
netherlands   1998    1.00   1.00   1.00
netherlands   1999    1.00   1.00   1.00
netherlands   2000    1.00   1.00   1.00
netherlands   2001    1.00   1.00   1.00
netherlands   2002    2.00   1.00   1.00
netherlands   2003    2.00   1.00   1.00
netherlands   2004    1.00   1.00   1.00
netherlands   2005    1.00   1.00   1.00
norway        1980    0.00   0.00   0.00
norway        1981    0.00   0.00   0.00
norway        1982    0.00   0.00   0.00
norway        1983    0.00   0.00   0.00
norway        1984    0.00   0.00   0.00
norway        1985    0.00   0.00   0.00
norway        1986    0.00   0.00   0.00
norway        1987    0.00   0.00   0.00
norway        1988    1.00   0.00   0.00
norway        1989    1.00   0.00   0.00
norway        1990    1.00   0.00   0.00
norway        1991    1.00   0.00   0.00
norway        1992    1.00   0.00   0.00
norway        1993    1.00   0.00   0.00
norway        1994    1.00   0.00   0.00
norway        1995    1.00   0.00   0.00
norway        1996    1.00   0.00   0.00
norway        1997    1.00   0.00   0.00
norway        1998    1.00   0.00   0.00
norway        1999    1.00   0.00   0.00
norway        2000    1.00   0.00   0.00
norway        2001   -1.00   1.00   0.00
norway        2002   -2.00   1.00   0.00
norway        2003   -2.00   1.00   0.00
norway        2004   -2.00   1.00   0.00
norway        2005   -2.00   1.00   0.00
sweden        1980    0.00   0.00   0.00
sweden        1981   -1.00   0.00   0.00
sweden        1982   -1.00   0.00   0.00
sweden        1983   -1.00   0.00   0.00
sweden        1984   -1.00   0.00   0.00
sweden        1985    0.00   0.00   0.00
sweden        1986    0.00   0.00   0.00
sweden        1987    0.00   0.00   0.00
sweden        1988    0.00   0.00   0.00
sweden        1989    0.00   0.00   0.00
sweden        1990    0.00   0.00   0.00
sweden        1991    0.00   0.00   0.00
sweden        1992    0.00   0.00   0.00
sweden        1993    0.00   0.00   0.00
sweden        1994    0.00   0.00   0.00
sweden        1995   -1.00   0.00   0.00
sweden        1996   -1.00   0.00   0.00
sweden        1997   -1.00   0.00   0.00
sweden        1998   -2.00   0.00   0.00
sweden        1999   -2.00   0.00   0.00
sweden        2000   -2.00   0.00   0.00
sweden        2001   -3.00   1.00   0.00
sweden        2002   -3.00   1.00   0.00
sweden        2003   -3.00   1.00   0.00
sweden        2004   -4.00   1.00   0.00
sweden        2005   -4.00   1.00   0.00

switzerland   1980   0.00    0.00   0.00
switzerland   1981   0.00    0.00   0.00
switzerland   1982   0.00    0.00   0.00
switzerland   1983   0.00    0.00   0.00
switzerland   1984   0.00    0.00   0.00
switzerland   1985   0.00    0.00   0.00
switzerland   1986   1.00    0.00   0.00
switzerland   1987   1.00    0.00   0.00
switzerland   1988   1.00    0.00   0.00
switzerland   1989   1.00    0.00   0.00
switzerland   1990   1.00    0.00   0.00
switzerland   1991   1.00    0.00   0.00
switzerland   1992   1.00    0.00   0.00
switzerland   1993   1.00    0.00   0.00
switzerland   1994   2.00    0.00   0.00
switzerland   1995   2.00    0.00   0.00
switzerland   1996   2.00    0.00   0.00
switzerland   1997   2.00    0.00   0.00
switzerland   1998   2.00    0.00   0.00
switzerland   1999   2.00    0.00   0.00
switzerland   2000   2.00    0.00   0.00
switzerland   2001   2.00    0.00   0.00
switzerland   2002   1.00    0.00   0.00
switzerland   2003   1.00    0.00   0.00
switzerland   2004    1.00   0.00   0.00
switzerland   2005    0.00   0.00   0.00
uk            1980    0.00   0.00   0.00
uk            1981    1.00   0.00   0.00
uk            1982    1.00   0.00   0.00
uk            1983    1.00   0.00   0.00
uk            1984    1.00   0.00   0.00
uk            1985    1.00   0.00   0.00
uk            1986    1.00   0.00   0.00
uk            1987    0.00   0.00   0.00
uk            1988    0.00   0.00   0.00
uk            1989    0.00   0.00   0.00
uk            1990    0.00   0.00   0.00
uk            1991    0.00   0.00   0.00
uk            1992    0.00   0.00   0.00
uk            1993   -1.00   0.00   1.00
uk            1994   -1.00   0.00   1.00
uk            1995   -1.00   0.00   1.00
uk            1996    0.00   0.00   1.00
uk            1997    0.00   0.00   1.00
uk            1998    0.00   0.00   1.00
uk            1999    1.00   0.00   1.00
uk            2000    1.00   0.00   1.00
uk            2001    0.00   0.00   1.00
uk            2002    1.00   0.00   1.00
uk            2003    0.00   0.00   1.00
uk            2004    0.00   0.00   1.00
uk            2005    0.00   0.00   1.00
usa           1980    0.00   0.00   0.00
usa           1981    1.00   0.00   0.00
usa           1982   -1.00   0.00   0.00
usa           1983   -1.00   0.00   0.00
usa           1984   -1.00   0.00   0.00
usa           1985   -1.00   0.00   0.00
usa           1986   -2.00   0.00   0.00
usa           1987   -3.00   0.00   0.00
usa           1988   -4.00   0.00   0.00
usa           1989   -4.00   0.00   0.00
usa           1990   -4.00   0.00   0.00
usa           1991   -4.00   0.00   0.00
usa           1992   -5.00   0.00   0.00
usa           1993   -5.00   0.00   0.00
usa           1994   -6.00   0.00   0.00
usa           1995   -6.00   0.00   0.00
usa           1996   -5.00   0.00   0.00
usa           1997   -5.00   0.00   0.00
usa           1998   -5.00   0.00   0.00
usa           1999   -5.00   0.00   0.00
usa           2000   -6.00   0.00   0.00
usa           2001   -5.00   0.00   0.00
usa           2002   -4.00   0.00   0.00
usa           2003   -4.00   0.00   0.00
usa   2004   -4.00   0.00   0.00
usa   2005   -3.00   0.00   0.00

				
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posted:9/13/2012
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