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Trade Agreements by 6GRR8e58

VIEWS: 4 PAGES: 12

									CONTENT
• TRADE INSTRUMENTS AND FRAMEWORKS WORK
  TOWARDS WTO OBJECTIVES

• REACTIONS TO PRO-TRADE ARGUMENTS

• SOME TRADE AGREEMENTS

• IMPACT OF TRADE LIBERALIZATION

• DIFFERENTIATED IMPACT OF TRADE LIBERALIZATION
  ON WOMEN AND HOUSEHOLD ECONOMY
   – Income effects
   – Health and Morbidity
   – Capabilities
 ARGUMENTS FOR TRADE LIBERALIZATION
          Y=C+G+I+(X-M)

• Trade accelerates overall economic growth, which raises
  profits and promotes greater savings and investment and thus
  further growth
• It promotes competition, improves ressources allocation and
  fosters specialization in sectors where countires have
  comparative advantage (best suited to produce)
• Trade enlarges a country ’s access to scarce resources and its
  consumption capacities
• It increases world output
• It provides access to worlwide markets for poor countries
• It tends to promote greater competiton, attracts foreign
  capital, technology and expertise into developing countries
• Trade generates very needed foreign exchange to pay for debt
  or imports
TRADE INSTRUMENTS AND FRAMEWORKS WORK
TOWARDS WTO OBJECTIVES
                        HIPC
                                      Liberalization reforms of financial and
                                      labor sectors
   WTO                                Reforming goods and services markets
Fosters trade liberalization          Privatization programmes
among nations
Sets contracts binding nations              COTONOU
to keep their trade policies
                                            AGREEMENT
within agreed limits
                                               Trade liberalization
Establishes dispute settlement                 not Aid
measures promoting freer trade
                                                AGOA
                                 More benefits for large foreign and
Monitors countries               multinational investors
appliance to trade rules
                                 Endorsement of privatization
                                 Rights of foreign investors to establish in any
                                 African country without conditionality
                                 Obligation to cut corporate taxes and to apply
                                 same rules to foreign investors
 REACTIONS TO PRO-TRADE ARGUMENTS
• Development cannot be measured only in terms of
  growth

• Non market activities which are excluded in model
  play a determinant role than cannot be neglected in
  favor of market-focussed trade

• Gender factors in terms of differentiated positions
  and power relations between women and men within
  and outside different markets (labor, financial and
  goods and services) arenas are totally excluded from
  the model

• Gender impacts of trade offset the anticipated
  benefits from trade (increased gender inequalities,
  and women’s insecurity)
REACTIONS TO PRO-TRADE ARGUMENTS

•   Trickle down effect of growth gains from trade is a
    myth not a reality in developing countries

• Limited growth of world demand for primary goods
  exports because of developed countries demand
  shift from high technology and skills intensive
  products

• Secular deteriorating     terms   of   trade   against
  developing nations

• Increased sophisticated “protectionism” from
  developed countries against developing countries
  manufactured and processed agricultural products
 SOME TRADE AGREEMENTS
• Agriculture: sale of transgenetic seeds, dependency on
  chemicals seeds, processing and sale of food;
  vulnerability of women small farmers and food
  producers and processors; land issues; production
  costs; no protection for food security; reduction and
  elimination of subsidies. New and very complex system
  of subsidies.
• General Agreement on Tariffs and Services
  (GATS): 160 sectors involved; health, education, debt
  servicing,culture, telecommunications, banks, etc, all
  human livelihoods and security-related         sectors;
  privatization of public services and submission to
  market and competition laws. Rights to education
  health, culture, positive discrimination for girls’
  education...; Privatization of land, water endangering
  women’s livelihood and security.
                                                   Foreign banks
 IMPACT OF TRADE LIBERALIZATION

                                                  Foreign Sector

              Cheap labor for little wages                     Imports
                                                               payments
             Gendered redistribution of
             labor                            Private Sector
Households      Consumer demand

                     Consumer goods



             Financial Institutions
             Borrowing             Repaying

                    Government
DIFFERENTIATED IMPACT OF TRADE
LIBERALIZATION ON WOMEN AND
HOUSEHOLD ECONOMY

1.           Income effects
• New job opportunities More women than men accessing
  new jobs mostly low standard jobs
• Marginal increase revenues
• Threat to poor women’s small businesses
• Competition between cheap imported good and locally
  produced commodities
• Comodification of Utilities and public goods (water,
  energy, land, etc.)
• Increased costs of utilities (production or consumption
  good)
• Increased time devoted to provide household services
  and utilities
2.          Health and Morbidity
• Women’s access to labor market impact on
  girls household work servicing
• Increased morbidity, health insecurity
• increased expenditure and on health
  provisioning
• New private sector ande labor lead to reduced
  access to health benefits and social protection
• Food insecurity impacts from exports
  promotion (from market access to nutritional
  level or calorie intake)
3.         Capabilities
• Less rights, participation, security, etc.
• Women’s unpaid more devalued work
  devalued with increased focus on markets
• Enterprise development threatened because of
  unleveled competition field
• Access to use of ICT
• Increased organizing capacities
• Increased opportunities for learning
     NETWORK OF AFRICAN WOMEN
     ECONOMISTS


                                 NETWORKING

                                  Networks
                                 WICEJ
                                 IWGGT     Regional
                                 WIDE, etc
                                             institutions
                     Partners                     Civil society
                     IGTN                         organisations
                     GERA
                     AAWORD         AWE             Ministries
                     Etc.                           -Finance
                   Women’s                          -Budget
                   groups                           -Women
                                                    -Planning
                              Parliamentarians


                            CAPACITY BUILDING

Needs assessment          Training materials       TOT           Training workshops
          MACRO-ECONOMIC POLICY FRAMEWORK
    DETERMINANTS                                                     OUTCOMES


                  INTERNAL                                           OUTPUTS
                  MARKET FORCES
                                                                                     JOBS


            EXTERNAL                       MACRO ECONOMICS
            STOCKS                                                                    PRICES



                                                                                     GROWTH

                  POLICY LEVERS
                                                                      INTERMARKET
                                                                      BALANCE

                                                                                                               Interest
                                                                                                               Rates
                                                                  Wars
                       Population Growth
                                              External Forces
Internal Market                                                  Weather
                       Innovation                                                                                 Tax
Forces
                                                                                               Policy Levers
                       Spending Patterns                        Trade Distruptions
                                                                                                                  Budget
                                                                                                                  Decisions


                                                                                                               Money Supply

								
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