VIEWS: 0 PAGES: 46 POSTED ON: 9/13/2012
The Real Wealth of Nations: Pathways to Human Development Human Development Report 2010 20th Anniversary Edition 4 November, Ankara,Turkey HDR 2010 Key aspects of the presentation • Human Development Defined • Human Well-Being: A Key concern of Development • Key Messages of 2010 Report • Multiplicity of Development Experience • Perpetuated Inequalities • Gender-Blind Development • HD profile of Turkey • Policy Implications /Future Policy Action Human development defined • HD starts with the premise that development is a multifaceted process. • There may be many manifestations to it as there are people,nations and cultures. • As a process,development may also affect each individual and collectives differently • Despite such diversity,HD approach defines deevlopment as that process which should enlarge capabilities,create opportunities for people’s social,economic and political empowerment,and that, it achieves an overall well-being as its end goal. HD as new development paradigm • New paradigm of HD promotes therefore a shift of focus of development economics from national income indicators -to people-policies. • Mahbub Ul Haq/Amartya Sen as the founding fathers of this approach, defined HD as • an idea to improve human lives by expanding the range of things that a person can be and do,(e.g.being healthy,well-nourished,being educated and knowledgable,and leading decent productive lives) HD Framework Defined as such,HD approach also identifies its operational framework at the same time: • Removing alll social,economic and political barriers to development, • Illiteracy,Ill health,lack of access to means and opportunities to live productive lives,lack of access to resources,civil and political freedoms. • Supporting achievements found valuable and basic HD dimensions essential for development at all layers and levels. Framework and Policy Guidance • Three essential choices/ HDI dimensions are not enough- they need to be expanded to additional choices, ranging from political,social ,cultural,artistic, and ,economic freedoms. • Thus two issues need to be acted upon: • First: the formation of human capabilities (health,knowledge,skills) • Second: ensuring use of these acquired capabilities in a facilitating social,economic,political and cultural environments. • These two sides need to be available at the same time and work together in order for any development to take place.Otherwise inequalities,human and societal frustrations continue to exist. Development as a Process • HD and capabilities Framework suggest furthermore that non-economic terms and diverse social realities must be integral to development thinking/ to development policy frameworks. • In this direction, efforts were made by HD approach eloborations: • 1997 HDR:defined poverty by the new term human poverty ( a broader concept beyond economic understanding/indicators) • 1994 HDR:human security as a non-military concept; as an idea of insecurity in non-economic terms (hunger,joblessness etc.) were promoted. HDI as Measure of Development Tool for Policy Guidance • HDI: a measure to show that development does not benefit people at the same level . • Policy Message:Economic growth alone is not sufficient to promote development. • HD approach aiming a process of change to bring about well-being in all aspects of people’s and society’s life and to expand capabilities, must be promoted as a new policy frame /paradigm of development. Human Well-Being :A Key Concern of Development? • Global Realities changed.1960s development was primarily seen as an automatic process.It was believed that improvements in economics would lead to improved quality of life.Today,the notion of development is no longer conceived as such. • Experience show that development is uneven and growing gaps in distribution of income and benefits of development and standards of living between rich and the poor has reached alarming levels. • Urgent attention is called for an integrated sustainable human development(economics,social and environmental ) at both developed and developing country levels,focusing on ‘well-being’ as the primary attention area. Focusing on Well-being • Directs us onto two development motives that emerge: • Search for an equitable development built on principles of sustainability and achievement of overall well-being • Search for a workable idea of social justice represented by an inclusive development and human well-being as the end goal. Context is Important for human development • Such searches will make contextual analysis essential. • We will need to look at contexts of Institutional and structural arrangements which can play important roles to achieve an equal society • We will need to revisit contexts of culture ,norms and traditions to identify their positive and negative effects and direct them to support HD transformations • Contexts of development models and processes followed by governments and policy options determine how we live and what kind of society we live in.Thus,selection and choice are extremely important. Context • Gender example:Citizenship sharply defined by constitutions may be lived by women differently at layered traditional societies.Cultural norms and customary laws may exist side by side with legal norms.Concept of ‘nuanced belonging’ (Nira yuval-Davis) .Well-being of women may be obscured here. • A.Sen’s evaluative society notion:adverse cultural norms will need to be debated upon ,reevaluated and consensus on valued reasonings will be reached.Well- being as the goal in sight. Focus on Human Well-being: Policy Objective • Concern with well-being is thus a major policy objective of the HD approach • Calls for monitoring of not only national averages but evaluating what actually happens to people in change processes in respect both economic & non-economic terms. Finally:Context • HD suggests that we need to see how context of a particular value contributes/not contribute to formation of essential choices and HD capabilities. • Examining such notions of democracy,citizenship and gender equality in the social,economic and cultural and local context and in HD framework is thus critical. HDR -2010 Reaffirms All • HD is a viable approach for our understanding of the multifaceted nature of development.Development is: • Expansion of human capabilities,freedoms,Widening of peoples /society’s choices/freedom from deprivations and Enhancement of availability of things valued as end goal of development 13.09.2012 15 HDR 2010 :Key Messages • HD’s starting basic premises of well-being, empowerment and justice is reaffirmed by 2010 Report. • Reduction of inequalities is its key directive. • Deliberation and debate around HD and development context is essential. Message 1:Development has been diverse/ overall progress is achieved • HDR 2010 reaffirmed that development is experienced at many different levels with multiplicity of pathways followed. • Overall positive changes made everywhere (only 3 countries with lower HDI than starting year) • People are healthier,live longer, they are better educated and wealthier,and, have more opportunities to participate in decision making • Slide:Countries starting off at THe same level achieved varying development levels. Diversity of paths Saudi Oman Arabia Tunisia China Congo Nepal Benin Djibouti Zambia Burundi DR Congo Zimbabwe The Real Wealth of Nations: Pathways to Human Development, HDRO-UNDP – November 2010 Diverse Development/Overall Progress • Overall HDI has risen by some 41% • Health,education and income are better today than 40 years ago • Gains in education and health in poor countries have been significant(61 percent average) • HDI for all (except 3) is higher • No single pattern between HDI and empowerment,sustainability and well-being. • Context is thus essential for our understanding. 40 years of progress Worldwide trends in the Human Development Index, 1970 - 2010 The Real Wealth of Nations: Pathways to Human Development, HDRO-UNDP – November 2010 Message 2:Development has been uneven and unequal • There is convergence in HD but not in income. • Gaps in health and education have narrowed • But,only a small group of countries remained at the top of the world income distribution • Not many poor countries that started out at lower echelons have joined the top income levels. • Development for women has continued to lag behind,overall. • Slide:shows that income increase does not produce HD and that HD flourishes even under modest income increases.Contextual analysis is thus called for. Growth doesn’t always come with human development – even over 40 years The Real Wealth of Nations: Pathways to Human Development, HDRO-UNDP – November 2010 Inequality Impedes Development New Measure:Inequality -adjusted HDI • Income and non-ıncome inequality is attempted to be measured • Focus is on distribution of HD • Inequality has large impacts on HD • Losses from inequality ranges from 4 percent (Iceland)to 59 percent(Afghanistan) HDI losses from inequality largest in low and medium HDI countries Loss in HDI due to multidimensional inequality by HDI level 1.0 0.9 0.8 17% 6% 0.7 31% 8% 0.6 14% 44% 0.5 25% 0.4 0.3 45% 0.2 0.1 0.0 Mozambique Ghana Namibia Moldova Peru Ukraine S. Korea Czech Rep. Low HDI Medium HDI High HDI Very high HDI (average loss 32%) (average loss 24%) (average loss 20%) (average loss 10%) Inequality-adjusted HDI Loss due to inequality The Real Wealth of Nations: Pathways to Human Development, HDRO-UNDP – November 2010 I-HDI/TURKEY • Turkey:when calculated for I-HDI, Turkey’s HDI value (0.679) drops to 0.518 • Inequality Loss:23.6% • Index attempts to measure distribution of HD • Further discussion on technicalities and its adaptation to Turkish situation will need to be made on adifferent platform. • Lack of comparable data and technical issues may present to be issues related to this Index • Index open to improvements Message 3:Development has not Reduced Gender Inequalities • Disparities for women overall in the work force,health,education,and empowerment have continued. • Despite important progress women continue to be deprived from even basic benefits of development. • Changing cultural and religious context and economic and social upheavals impact negatively on women’s participation in the society. GII:Measure of overlapping Inequalities faced by Women • New Index GII:measures disadvantages for women through additional indicators developed for each of HDI dimensions.Index need to be refined.But it tells us more about empowerment and well-being. • Reflects that gender inequality remains as major barrier to human development, despite strides made, equity in full not yet achieved for women and girls. • Loss due to gender equality across HDI spectrum is huge. Norway moves from 1st to 5th place,Turkey moves from 83rd to 99th place when ranked by GII. Gender Inequality Index –GII-TURKEY • New Index reflects women’s disadvantages in three dimensions:Turkey ranks 77th of 138 countries (Azerbaijan 62nd) • Reproductive health measured by maternal mortality&adolescent fertility rates: 44 per 100.000 livebirths/39 births per 1000 aged 15-19 • Empowerment measured by parliamentary seats occupied by gender&attaintment of secondary and higher education by gender:9%&27% respectively • Economic activity measured by labour market participation by gender:27 % (24.9% TUİK 2010) Message 4:HDI Changes do not readily translate into Empowerment 2010 HDR shows : • High HDI in a country does not automatically lead to empowerment.Graphic shows higher HDI does not achieve fuller empowerment. • Synergies of HD dimensions are not easily translated into political liberties,human rights, democracy and freedom of choice • Adoption of democracy is higher at large- empowerment trend is upward at both individual and institutional levels. Beyond the HDI: Good things don’t always come together EMPOWERMENT ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY 12 100 23% 42% 21% 31% Adjusted net savings, % of GNI Measure of political freedom 8 50 4 (Polity IV) 0 0 -4 -50 -8 21% 14% 22% 25% -12 -100 LO0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 LO0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 HDI HDI The Real Wealth of Nations: Pathways to Human Development, HDRO-UNDP – November 2010 Political freedoms are increasing The Real Wealth of Nations: Pathways to Human Development, HDRO-UNDP – November 2010 Lack of sustainability is arguably the greatest challenge to human development Worsening of key measures of sustainability, 1970-2006/8 The Real Wealth of Nations: Pathways to Human Development, HDRO-UNDP – November 2010 Message 5:Poverty is multidimensional • A focus on deprivation is fundamental to HD • The dimensions of poverty go far beyond inadequate income. • They involve: • poor health and nutrition • low education and skills • ınadequate livelihoods,bad housing, • social exclusion and non-participation Multidimensional Poverty Index-MPI • HPI in the earlier HDRs reflected human deprivations and helped an understanding that poverty has many dimensions • 2010 report introduces MPI which identifies multiple deprivations in the same households in the three dimensions of HDI using additional indicators. • Education: indicators (years of schooling and children enrolled MPI • MPI attempts to capture this multidimensionality especially in less developed countries(indicators selected ). • MPI and Income poverty measures reflect than multidimensional poverty is more frequently experienced. • Individuals and households experience overlapping poverty.High MPIshow high deprivation. • Room for sound social security and poverty reduction policies/strategies. More MPI poor than income poor Percentage of people living in poverty - MPI and income poverty, selected countries Uzbekistan Sri Lanka China Guatemala Morocco Cambodia India $1.25 a day poor MPI headcounts Mauritania Tanzania Rwanda Ethiopia Niger 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Percentage of population considered poor The Real Wealth of Nations: Pathways to Human Development, HDRO-UNDP – November 2010 MPI-TURKEY • Health:Two indicators:Nutrition &Child mortality • Living standards:6 indicators • Availability in household of : cooking fuel,toilet,water,electricity,floor,assets. • Turkey: 8% of population is estimated as suffering multiple deprivations (at least 2-6 of the 10 deprivations/indicators) • 19% are potentially vulnerable to multiple deprivations. HD Profile of Turkey in 2010 HDR • HDI Value: 0.679 • Rank:83rd amongst 169 countries • High HD Country • 40th among 42 High HD countries,thus, closer to medium HD country category. • Turkey’s HDI value increased by 45 percent (0.467 to 0.679) between 1980 and 2010. Turkey • Between 1980-2010 changes in three HD dimensions: • Life expectancy: increased by 12 years.Turks on average live 12 years longer now. • Mean years of schooling:increased approx.4 years • Expected years of schooling: increased 5 years • Gross national Income per capita:increase by 112 percent. Turkey • Educational achievement is slowest and affects negatively Turkey’s rank more than other two dimensions • GNI per capita is high,yet,is not converted into other two HD dimensions. • Life expectancy improved but it is not always attributable to income gain alone • Issues for consideration for future public and social policy and people focused development in Turkey Turkey • Assessment of Turkey’s progress relative to other countries: • 1980:Turkey,Bulgaria and Latvia had HDI values comparable to some of the European countries • 2010: Latvia:48th,Bulgaria:58th,Turkey:83rd..hmmm • 2010:HDI neighbors of Turkey are Azerbaijan 67th, Serbia 60th,Jordan 82,Tunisia 81 hmmmm!!! HDR 2010:Policy Challenges remain • Equity and equality :much work remains to be done.Development approaches need to shift focus on inequalities and distributional aspects • Rising income inequality (early retirement schemes for women support gender inequality) • Overlapping disparities (gender,minority groups,urban poor,children and aged) • Vulnerability&sustainability:unemployment,job security are fragile areas.Environmental sustainability is at stake. HDR 2010:Innovative measures offer new insights/steps in the right direction • Three new indices –Inequality Adjusted HDI (I-HDI) –Gender Inequality Index (GII) –Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) –Good attempts to capture what is happening at layers and guide improved policy for a well-society /data development The Real Wealth of Nations: Pathways to Human Development, HDRO-UNDP – November 2010 Final observations • HD approach contributes to new thinking about development. • HD encourages us to raise issues differently and develop different analytical methods/ and new measurement tools for analysis. • HD approach can change the framework in which we develop public action and policy.Policy issues may be articulated differently. • HD’s emphasis on integration of the social and economic is important for better policy building and impact.Residual status allowed to social in development processes /discourses will need to change. • New Data will need to be made available serving for better understanding,policy and development action. 13.09.2012 45 observations • The extent of what we know so far is sufficent to be able to act fast on human development concern areas. • We thus suggest HD as that framework that can bring together policy and action and promote well- being as a primary policy and development goal. • We also need to know better who is most deprived and how development processes affect people at different layers of the society.Contextual research • This we do,w/out losing sight of workable universal principles and economic and social development goals.MDGs and NAPs are tools for use in this regard. Questions for Discussion HD encourages us to raise such Questions as : • How can we bring governments to become primarily concerned with development with well- being as the focus? • How can we isolate those mechanisms that perpetuate inequalities, poverty and discrimination? • How can we bring closer the ‘social’ and ‘economic’ and support better ‘people-focused’ policies and HD processes benefitting all at multiple layers of the society.
Pages to are hidden for
"ShahidNajam PresentationFile"Please download to view full document