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									  The Real Wealth of Nations:
Pathways to Human Development


  Human Development Report 2010
       20th Anniversary Edition


        4 November, Ankara,Turkey
                     HDR 2010
Key aspects of the presentation
• Human Development Defined
• Human Well-Being: A Key concern of Development
• Key Messages of 2010 Report
• Multiplicity of Development Experience
• Perpetuated Inequalities
• Gender-Blind Development

• HD profile of Turkey
• Policy Implications /Future Policy Action
    Human development defined
• HD starts with the premise that development is a
  multifaceted process.
• There may be many manifestations to it as there are
  people,nations and cultures.
• As a process,development may also affect each
  individual and collectives differently
• Despite such diversity,HD approach defines
  deevlopment as that process which should enlarge
  capabilities,create opportunities for people’s
  social,economic and political empowerment,and that,
  it achieves an overall well-being as its end goal.
HD as new development paradigm
• New paradigm of HD promotes therefore a shift
  of focus of development economics from national
  income indicators -to people-policies.
• Mahbub Ul Haq/Amartya Sen as the founding
  fathers of this approach, defined HD as
• an idea to improve human lives by expanding the
  range of things that a person can be and
  do,(e.g.being healthy,well-nourished,being
  educated and knowledgable,and leading decent
  productive lives)
              HD Framework
Defined as such,HD approach also identifies its
  operational framework at the same time:
• Removing alll social,economic and political
  barriers to development,
• Illiteracy,Ill health,lack of access to means and
  opportunities to live productive lives,lack of
  access to resources,civil and political freedoms.
• Supporting achievements found valuable and
  basic HD dimensions essential for development at
  all layers and levels.
    Framework and Policy Guidance

• Three essential choices/ HDI dimensions are not enough- they
  need to be expanded to additional choices, ranging from
  political,social ,cultural,artistic, and ,economic freedoms.
• Thus two issues need to be acted upon:
• First: the formation of human capabilities
  (health,knowledge,skills)
• Second: ensuring use of these acquired capabilities in a
  facilitating social,economic,political and cultural
  environments.
• These two sides need to be available at the same time and
  work together in order for any development to take
  place.Otherwise inequalities,human and societal frustrations
  continue to exist.
      Development as a Process
• HD and capabilities Framework suggest furthermore
  that non-economic terms and diverse social realities
  must be integral to development thinking/ to
  development policy frameworks.
• In this direction, efforts were made by HD approach
  eloborations:
• 1997 HDR:defined poverty by the new term human
  poverty ( a broader concept beyond economic
  understanding/indicators)
• 1994 HDR:human security as a non-military concept; as
  an idea of insecurity in non-economic terms
  (hunger,joblessness etc.) were promoted.
   HDI as Measure of Development
       Tool for Policy Guidance
• HDI: a measure to show that development
  does not benefit people at the same level .
• Policy Message:Economic growth alone is not
  sufficient to promote development.
• HD approach aiming a process of change to
  bring about well-being in all aspects of
  people’s and society’s life and to expand
  capabilities, must be promoted as a new
  policy frame /paradigm of development.
Human Well-Being :A Key Concern of
        Development?
• Global Realities changed.1960s development was
  primarily seen as an automatic process.It was believed
  that improvements in economics would lead to
  improved quality of life.Today,the notion of
  development is no longer conceived as such.
• Experience show that development is uneven and
  growing gaps in distribution of income and benefits of
  development and standards of living between rich
  and the poor has reached alarming levels.
• Urgent attention is called for an integrated
  sustainable human development(economics,social and
  environmental ) at both developed and developing
  country levels,focusing on ‘well-being’ as the primary
  attention area.
        Focusing on Well-being
• Directs us onto two development motives
  that emerge:
• Search for an equitable development built on
  principles of sustainability and achievement of
  overall well-being
• Search for a workable idea of social justice
  represented by an inclusive development and
  human well-being as the end goal.
     Context is Important for human
              development
• Such searches will make contextual analysis essential.
• We will need to look at contexts of Institutional and
  structural arrangements which can play important roles
  to achieve an equal society
• We will need to revisit contexts of culture ,norms and
  traditions to identify their positive and negative effects
  and direct them to support HD transformations
• Contexts of development models and processes
  followed by governments and policy options determine
  how we live and what kind of society we live
  in.Thus,selection and choice are extremely important.
                    Context
• Gender example:Citizenship sharply defined by
  constitutions may be lived by women differently
  at layered traditional societies.Cultural norms and
  customary laws may exist side by side with legal
  norms.Concept of ‘nuanced belonging’ (Nira
  yuval-Davis) .Well-being of women may be
  obscured here.
• A.Sen’s evaluative society notion:adverse cultural
  norms will need to be debated upon ,reevaluated
  and consensus on valued reasonings will be
  reached.Well- being as the goal in sight.
      Focus on Human Well-being:
            Policy Objective
• Concern with well-being is thus a major policy
  objective of the HD approach
• Calls for monitoring of not only national
  averages but evaluating what actually
  happens to people in change processes in
  respect both economic & non-economic
  terms.
             Finally:Context
• HD suggests that we need to see how context
  of a particular value contributes/not
  contribute to formation of essential choices
  and HD capabilities.
• Examining such notions of
  democracy,citizenship and gender equality in
  the social,economic and cultural and local
  context and in HD framework is thus critical.
             HDR -2010 Reaffirms All
• HD is a viable approach for our understanding
  of the multifaceted nature of
  development.Development is:
      • Expansion of human
         capabilities,freedoms,Widening of
         peoples /society’s choices/freedom
         from deprivations and Enhancement of
         availability of things valued as end
         goal of development
13.09.2012                                    15
       HDR 2010 :Key Messages
• HD’s starting basic premises of well-being,
  empowerment and justice is reaffirmed by
  2010 Report.
• Reduction of inequalities is its key directive.
• Deliberation and debate around HD and
  development context is essential.
  Message 1:Development has been
 diverse/ overall progress is achieved
• HDR 2010 reaffirmed that development is experienced
  at many different levels with multiplicity of pathways
  followed.
• Overall positive changes made everywhere (only 3
  countries with lower HDI than starting year)
• People are healthier,live longer, they are better
  educated and wealthier,and, have more opportunities
  to participate in decision making

• Slide:Countries starting off at THe same level achieved
  varying development levels.
             Diversity of paths

                                                                                       Saudi
                                                       Oman                            Arabia

                                                                                       Tunisia
                                                       China




                                                                                       Congo
                 Nepal
                 Benin
                                                       Djibouti
                                                                                       Zambia


                 Burundi
                                                       DR Congo



                 Zimbabwe




The Real Wealth of Nations: Pathways to Human Development, HDRO-UNDP – November 2010
     Diverse Development/Overall
               Progress
• Overall HDI has risen by some 41%
• Health,education and income are better today
  than 40 years ago
• Gains in education and health in poor countries
  have been significant(61 percent average)
• HDI for all (except 3) is higher
• No single pattern between HDI and
  empowerment,sustainability and well-being.
• Context is thus essential for our understanding.
40 years
   of
progress



                                        Worldwide trends in the Human Development Index, 1970 - 2010

 The Real Wealth of Nations: Pathways to Human Development, HDRO-UNDP – November 2010
  Message 2:Development has been
       uneven and unequal
• There is convergence in HD but not in income.
• Gaps in health and education have narrowed
• But,only a small group of countries remained at the
  top of the world income distribution
• Not many poor countries that started out at lower
  echelons have joined the top income levels.
• Development for women has continued to lag
  behind,overall.
• Slide:shows that income increase does not produce HD
  and that HD flourishes even under modest income
  increases.Contextual analysis is thus called for.
Growth doesn’t always come with human
   development – even over 40 years




    The Real Wealth of Nations: Pathways to Human Development, HDRO-UNDP – November 2010
Inequality Impedes Development
New Measure:Inequality -adjusted HDI
• Income and non-ıncome inequality is
  attempted to be measured
• Focus is on distribution of HD
• Inequality has large impacts on HD
• Losses from inequality ranges from 4 percent
  (Iceland)to 59 percent(Afghanistan)
HDI losses from inequality largest in
  low and medium HDI countries
Loss in HDI due to multidimensional inequality by HDI level
 1.0

 0.9

 0.8                                                                               17%           6%

 0.7
                                                           31%           8%

 0.6                                            14%
                                   44%
 0.5
                       25%
 0.4

 0.3
          45%
 0.2

 0.1

 0.0
       Mozambique     Ghana      Namibia      Moldova     Peru         Ukraine    S. Korea    Czech Rep.

                Low HDI              Medium HDI                High HDI             Very high HDI
          (average loss 32%)      (average loss 24%)      (average loss 20%)      (average loss 10%)

                               Inequality-adjusted HDI   Loss due to inequality



         The Real Wealth of Nations: Pathways to Human Development, HDRO-UNDP – November 2010
               I-HDI/TURKEY
• Turkey:when calculated for I-HDI, Turkey’s HDI
  value (0.679) drops to 0.518
• Inequality Loss:23.6%
• Index attempts to measure distribution of HD
• Further discussion on technicalities and its
  adaptation to Turkish situation will need to be
  made on adifferent platform.
• Lack of comparable data and technical issues
  may present to be issues related to this Index
• Index open to improvements
   Message 3:Development has not
    Reduced Gender Inequalities
• Disparities for women overall in the work
  force,health,education,and empowerment have
  continued.
• Despite important progress women continue to
  be deprived from even basic benefits of
  development.
• Changing cultural and religious context and
  economic and social upheavals impact negatively
  on women’s participation in the society.
       GII:Measure of overlapping
      Inequalities faced by Women
• New Index GII:measures disadvantages for women
  through additional indicators developed for each of
  HDI dimensions.Index need to be refined.But it tells us
  more about empowerment and well-being.
• Reflects that gender inequality remains as major
  barrier to human development, despite strides made,
  equity in full not yet achieved for women and girls.
• Loss due to gender equality across HDI spectrum is
  huge. Norway moves from 1st to 5th place,Turkey
  moves from 83rd to 99th place when ranked by GII.
Gender Inequality Index –GII-TURKEY
• New Index reflects women’s disadvantages in three
  dimensions:Turkey ranks 77th of 138 countries
  (Azerbaijan 62nd)
• Reproductive health measured by maternal
  mortality&adolescent fertility rates: 44 per 100.000
  livebirths/39 births per 1000 aged 15-19
• Empowerment measured by parliamentary seats
  occupied by gender&attaintment of secondary and
  higher education by gender:9%&27% respectively
• Economic activity measured by labour market
  participation by gender:27 % (24.9% TUİK 2010)
    Message 4:HDI Changes do not
 readily translate into Empowerment
2010 HDR shows :
• High HDI in a country does not automatically lead
  to empowerment.Graphic shows higher HDI does
  not achieve fuller empowerment.
• Synergies of HD dimensions are not easily
  translated into political liberties,human rights,
  democracy and freedom of choice
• Adoption of democracy is higher at large-
  empowerment trend is upward at both individual
  and institutional levels.
            Beyond the HDI: Good things don’t
                 always come together
                                           EMPOWERMENT                                                                       ENVIRONMENTAL
                                               SUSTAINABILITY
                           12                                                                                     100
                                    23%                            42%                                                   21%                        31%




                                                                                 Adjusted net savings, % of GNI
Measure of political freedom




                               8
                                                                                                                   50
                               4
        (Polity IV)




                               0                                                                                    0

                               -4
                                                                                                                   -50
                               -8

                                     21%                           14%                                                   22%                        25%
                        -12                                                                                       -100
                               LO0.0      0.2    0.4     0.6    0.8     1.0                                          LO0.0    0.2   0.4     0.6   0.8     1.0
                                                       HDI                                                                                HDI



                                    The Real Wealth of Nations: Pathways to Human Development, HDRO-UNDP – November 2010
Political freedoms are increasing




   The Real Wealth of Nations: Pathways to Human Development, HDRO-UNDP – November 2010
   Lack of sustainability is arguably the
greatest challenge to human development
Worsening of key measures of sustainability, 1970-2006/8




             The Real Wealth of Nations: Pathways to Human Development, HDRO-UNDP – November 2010
          Message 5:Poverty is
           multidimensional
• A focus on deprivation is fundamental to HD
• The dimensions of poverty go far beyond
  inadequate income.
• They involve:
• poor health and nutrition
• low education and skills
• ınadequate livelihoods,bad housing,
• social exclusion and non-participation
Multidimensional Poverty Index-MPI
• HPI in the earlier HDRs reflected human
  deprivations and helped an understanding
  that poverty has many dimensions
• 2010 report introduces MPI which identifies
  multiple deprivations in the same
  households in the three dimensions of HDI
  using additional indicators.
• Education: indicators (years of schooling and
  children enrolled
                      MPI
• MPI attempts to capture this multidimensionality
  especially in less developed countries(indicators
  selected ).
• MPI and Income poverty measures reflect than
  multidimensional poverty is more frequently
  experienced.
• Individuals and households experience
  overlapping poverty.High MPIshow high
  deprivation.
• Room for sound social security and poverty
  reduction policies/strategies.
More MPI poor than income poor
Percentage of people living in poverty - MPI and income poverty, selected countries

Uzbekistan

  Sri Lanka

     China

Guatemala

  Morocco

 Cambodia

      India                                                                             $1.25 a day poor
                                                                                        MPI headcounts
Mauritania

  Tanzania

   Rwanda

   Ethiopia

     Niger

              0   10    20       30     40      50     60     70        80   90   100
                             Percentage of population considered poor



        The Real Wealth of Nations: Pathways to Human Development, HDRO-UNDP – November 2010
                MPI-TURKEY
• Health:Two indicators:Nutrition &Child mortality
• Living standards:6 indicators
• Availability in household of : cooking
  fuel,toilet,water,electricity,floor,assets.
• Turkey: 8% of population is estimated as
  suffering multiple deprivations (at least 2-6 of
  the 10 deprivations/indicators)
• 19% are potentially vulnerable to multiple
  deprivations.
    HD Profile of Turkey in 2010 HDR
• HDI Value: 0.679
• Rank:83rd amongst 169 countries
• High HD Country
• 40th among 42 High HD countries,thus, closer
  to medium HD country category.
• Turkey’s HDI value increased by 45 percent
  (0.467 to 0.679) between 1980 and 2010.
                   Turkey
• Between 1980-2010 changes in three HD
  dimensions:
• Life expectancy: increased by 12 years.Turks
  on average live 12 years longer now.
• Mean years of schooling:increased approx.4
  years
• Expected years of schooling: increased 5 years
• Gross national Income per capita:increase by
  112 percent.
                    Turkey
• Educational achievement is slowest and affects
  negatively Turkey’s rank more than other two
  dimensions
• GNI per capita is high,yet,is not converted into
  other two HD dimensions.
• Life expectancy improved but it is not always
  attributable to income gain alone
• Issues for consideration for future public and
  social policy and people focused development in
  Turkey
                    Turkey
• Assessment of Turkey’s progress relative to
  other countries:
• 1980:Turkey,Bulgaria and Latvia had HDI values
  comparable to some of the European countries
• 2010:
  Latvia:48th,Bulgaria:58th,Turkey:83rd..hmmm
• 2010:HDI neighbors of Turkey are Azerbaijan
  67th, Serbia 60th,Jordan 82,Tunisia 81
                   hmmmm!!!
 HDR 2010:Policy Challenges remain
• Equity and equality :much work remains to be
  done.Development approaches need to shift
  focus on inequalities and distributional aspects
• Rising income inequality (early retirement
  schemes for women support gender inequality)
• Overlapping disparities (gender,minority
  groups,urban poor,children and aged)
• Vulnerability&sustainability:unemployment,job
  security are fragile areas.Environmental
  sustainability is at stake.
HDR 2010:Innovative measures offer
  new insights/steps in the right
            direction
• Three new indices
  –Inequality Adjusted HDI (I-HDI)
  –Gender Inequality Index (GII)
  –Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI)
  –Good attempts to capture what is happening at
  layers and guide improved policy for a well-society
  /data development



      The Real Wealth of Nations: Pathways to Human Development, HDRO-UNDP – November 2010
                  Final observations
• HD approach contributes to new thinking about development.
• HD encourages us to raise issues differently and develop different
  analytical methods/ and new measurement tools for analysis.

• HD approach can change the framework in which we develop public
  action and policy.Policy issues may be articulated differently.

• HD’s emphasis on integration of the social and economic is important
  for better policy building and impact.Residual status allowed to social
  in development processes /discourses will need to change.
• New Data will need to be made available serving for better
  understanding,policy and development action.




13.09.2012                                                              45
                 observations
• The extent of what we know so far is sufficent to be
  able to act fast on human development concern areas.
• We thus suggest HD as that framework that can
  bring together policy and action and promote well-
  being as a primary policy and development goal.
• We also need to know better who is most deprived
  and how development processes affect people at
  different layers of the society.Contextual research
• This we do,w/out losing sight of workable universal
  principles and economic and social development
  goals.MDGs and NAPs are tools for use in this regard.
       Questions for Discussion
HD encourages us to raise such Questions as :
• How can we bring governments to become
  primarily concerned with development with well-
  being as the focus?
• How can we isolate those mechanisms that
  perpetuate inequalities, poverty and
  discrimination?
• How can we bring closer the ‘social’ and
  ‘economic’ and support better ‘people-focused’
  policies and HD processes benefitting all at
  multiple layers of the society.

								
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