SE BOARD ECONOMIC POLICY COMMITTEE by 7ikBt8Md

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									            ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE INDICATORS (OCTOBER 2011 UPDATE)


The Scottish Government Economic Strategy (GES) illustrates how sustainable economic
growth can be achieved and highlights three key components of increased growth, the three
P’s: productivity, participation and population. The output of an economy is dependent on
how many people are working and how productive they are. Increasing labour productivity,
the employment rate and the population will support long-term economic growth.




        Source: Scottish Government


Scottish Enterprise monitoring the progress of the Scottish economy over time through the
performance of a small number of indicators. Most of these indicators are drawn from the
National Performance Framework1 set out in the GES, supplemented by those that help
provide a broader assessment of economic performance and those that are more directly
related to Scottish Enterprise activity. The indicators selected are:
.
1      Growth in GDP*
2      GDP per head
3      Employment rate*
4      Productivity*
5      Entrepreneurial activity (business starts)*
6      Research and development:
            - Total R&D as % GDP*
            - Business R&D as % GDP
7      Innovation activity
8      Graduates as % of the population
9      Population dynamics:
            - Population growth*
            - Net migration as a % of the population
10      Export sales growth*
* National Performance Framework indicator




1
    http://www.scotland.gov.uk/About/scotPerforms
SCOTLAND’S RECENT HEADLINE ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE

Growth in GDP between 1999 and 2009 averaged 1.9% a year, placing Scotland 18th out of
31 OECD countries (3rd quartile). Scotland’s GDP grew at a steady pace up until 2008,
when growth slowed, before declining decline in 2009 due to the global recession. Scotland
was ranked 17th in terms of GDP per head, a measure of wealth and prosperity, in 2009 (t3rd
quartile)

DRIVERS OF ECONOMIC GROWTH

GDP growth is driven by productivity, participation and population. The output of the
economy is dependent on the size of its labour force (influenced by population), labour
participation (how many of the labour force are employed) and labour productivity (how
much output labour is able to produce). Increasing labour productivity, the participation
(employment) rate and the population will support long-term economic growth.

Scotland’s relatively low GDP growth rate is caused by below average population
growth, below average productivity levels and only average participation
(employment) rates.


                                  Growth in GDP                   GDP per head




             Productivity                         Participation                  Population




                                                               % of
                                                             Graduates

      R&D              Exports             Entrepreneur-                            Net
                                                ship                              Migration

            Innovation Activity




Population

Scotland’s population has grown by 2.4% over the last ten years, lower than the UK as a
whole and the majority of OECD countries. Scotland ranks 25th against other OECD
countries and is in the 4th quartile. Population growth has improved over the last few years,
however it is still below UK and average OECD levels.

It is projected that Scotland will see a significant increase in the over-60 age group over the
next twenty years. Scotland’s ageing population could adversely affect economic growth
unless the working age population increases through migration (and higher birth rates over
the longer term), and/or labour market participation rates are increased among older people,
and/or productivity is significantly enhanced.




                                                      2
Participation

Scotland’s participation (or employment) rate for Q1 2011 was 71.2%, above the UK level
(70.7%). Scotland has the highest employment rate of UK countries. However, comparing
against the OECD, Scotland ranks 14th out of 31 countries and is at the bottom of the 2nd
quartile. Over the last ten years, Scotland has remained in the 2nd quartile, however the
gap with the OECD top quartile has narrowed. To close the gap Scotland requires an
additional 120,000 people in employment (current employment is 2.4 million)

Productivity

In 2009 Scotland was ranked 17th out of 30 OECD countries for productivity levels (top of the
3rd quartile). For Scotland to reach the top quartile, it needs to increase GDP per hour
worked by £5.20, an 18% increase (equivalent to £20.5 billion additional GDP from a current
level of £114 billion).

DRIVERS OF PRODUCTIVITY

The main drivers of productivity include innovation, enterprise and skills (along with
competition and investment).

Scotland’s below average productivity performance is due to low rates of R&D, low
business innovation activity and low entrepreneurship (investment levels are also
relatively low). Skills levels are just above average and export performance is
relatively strong.

Innovation and R&D

In 2009, gross expenditure on R&D (GERD) in Scotland was £1.9 billion, equivalent to
1.67% of GDP. Scotland is ranked 19th out of 31 OECD countries (3rd quartile). For
Scotland to reach the top quartile GERD would have to be £1.3 billion higher.

Business enterprise R&D (BERD – a component of GERD) was £644 million, equivalent to
0.56% of GDP, placing Scotland in the 4th quartile of OECD countries (25th out of 31). To
reach top quartile BERD would need to be £1.6 billion higher. The gap between Scotland
and top quartile OECD countries has widened over the last ten years.

In terms of innovation, 43% of firms in Scotland are ‘innovation active’ placing Scotland 17 th
out of 21 OECD countries (4th quartile). To reach top quartile performance Scotland would
require an additional 5,000 innovation active firms.

Enterprise

Scotland has low levels of entrepreneurial activity and data suggests that activity been
declining in recent years. In terms of business starts, Scotland had 34 business registrations
per 10,000 adult population in 2009, compared to 47 for the UK as a whole. Scotland’s
performance is in the 3rd quartile of UK regions.

Comparing entrepreneurship internationally, Scotland ranks 15th out of 17 countries and is in
the 4thh quartile for OECD countries for Total Entrepreneurial Activity (TEA). To reach
OECD top quartile performance Scotland would require an additional 125,000 more adults to
be entrepreneurially active.




                                              3
Export performance can be an indicator of enterprise as businesses look to markets outside
their home economy to grow. Also, exporting businesses tend to be more productive than
non-exporters, and increase productivity further by exporting. Scotland has experienced
good export sales growth over the last few years, outperforming the UK and most OECD
countries. Annual average export sales growth between 2006 and 2009 was 3.5%
(compared to -3.9% for the UK), placing Scotland in the top quartile of OECD countries (5 th
out of 31 countries).

Skills

In 2009 around a fifth (22%) of those aged between 25-64 had a degree level qualification or
above, placing Scotland in the second quartile of OECD countries (14th out of 31 countries).
To reach top OECD top quartile, Scotland requires an additional 95,000 graduates.

Strategy and Economics
October 2011




                                             4
      September 2011 Update


                              Table 1: Scottish Economy/Scottish Enterprise Performance Indicators September 2011 Update


No          Measure              Latest year    Frequency     Source      Scotland’s      To reach OECD top        Scotland’s UK     Latest trend   Latest Trend
                                  full set of       of                   international     quartile, Scotland          region       compared to     compared to
                                     data       publication                 quartile        would need an             quartile      International   UK Regional
                                  available                                 position          additional:                           Top Quartile    Top Quartile
                                                                                                                     position
1.    GDP growth - 10 year          2009          Annual      OECD,           3              £2.1 billion GDP             1
      annual average                                           ONS       (18 out of 31        annual average        (3 out of 12
      (1999-2009)                                                         countries)       growth to match Q1         regions)                          
                                                                                          long term growth rate
                                                                                                 of 3.3%
1a.   GDP growth inc Oil &          2009          Annual      OECD,           2              £1.3 billion GDP            1
      Gas – 10 year annual                                     ONS,      (13 out of 31        annual average        (2 out of 12
      average (1999-2009)                                     Scottish    countries)       growth to match Q1         regions)                          
                                                                Gvt                          long term growth
                                                                                                   rates
2.    GDP per head                  2009          Annual      OECD,            3             £3,000 GDP per               1
                                                                                                                                                        -
                                                               ONS       (17 out of 31)     head from £22,000       (3 out of 12)
3.    Employment rate (15-          2010          Annual      OECD,            2            120,000 more in               2
      64 yr olds)                (2011 Q1 for                 Scottish   (14 out of 31)     employment from         (5 out of 12)         -              
                                 UK regions)                    Gvt                        2.40 to 2.52 million
4.    Productivity (GDP per         2009          Annual      OECD,            3             £5.20 per hour, a            1
      hour worked)                                             ONS       (17 out of 30)     18% increase from       (3 out of 12)
                                                                                             £29.00 to £34.20                                           -
                                                                                           (equivalent to £20.5
                                                                                               billion GDP)
5.    Entrepreneurial               2009          Annual       GEM,            4              125,000 more                3
      activity                                                 ONS       (15 out of 17)      entrepreneurially      (9 out of 12)                       
                                                                                           active from 145,000
                                                                                                to 270,000
6a.   Total R&D relative to         2009          Annual      OECD,            3          £1.3 billion R&D from           2
      GDP                                                     S Govt     (20 out of 31)     £1.9 billion to £3.2    (5 out of 12)                       
                                                                                                    billion




                                                                               5
      September 2011 Update


No              Measure           Latest year     Frequency     Source       Scotland’s      To reach OECD top      Scotland’s UK      Latest trend   Latest Trend
                                   full set of        of                    international     quartile, Scotland        region        compared to     compared to
                                      data        publication                  quartile        would need an           quartile       International   UK Regional
                                   available                                   position          additional:                          Top Quartile    Top Quartile
                                                                                                                       position
6b.       Business R&D                2009          Annual      OECD,             4           £1.6 billion BERD            4
          relative to GDP                                       S Govt      (25 out of 31)   from £640 million to    (10 out of 12)                       
                                                                                                   £2.2 billion
7.        Innovation activity         2008         Biennial     Eurostat,         4            5,000 innovation           4
                                                                  BIS       (17 out of 21)     active firms (from   (11 out of 12)                        
                                                                                              17,000 to 22,000)
8a.       Graduates as % of            2008         Annual      OECD,             2              95,000 more               2
          the population (aged     (2011 for UK                 S Govt      (14 out of 31)      graduates from       (4 out of 12)                        
          25-64)                     regions)                                                605,000 to 700,000
8b.       Population growth            2009         Annual      OECD,             4          430,000 more people          4
          (1999-2009)             (2010 for UK)                 GROS        (25 out of 31)      from 125,000 to     (10 out of 12)                        
                                                                                                    550,000
9.        Net migration as a %        2008          Annual      OECD,             2           14,000 more people           2
          of the population       (2009 for UK                   ONS        (13 out of 28)       from 24,000 to      (4 out of 12)                        
                                    regions)                                                         38,000
10.       Export sales growth -       2009          Annual      OECD,             1            Scotland in top             1
          3 year annual ave                                     S Govt      (5 out of 31)         quartile           (3 out of 12)                        
          (2006-2009)

      For each indicator the most up-to-date data available has been used to assess:

            Scotland’s performance compared to OECD countries and UK regions in terms of quartile position and ranking;
            the size of the gap between Scotland’s performance and that of the top quartile of OECD economies i.e. what Scotland needs to do to
             reach Q1;
            latest trends in terms of the gap between Scotland’s performance and the top OECD/UK quartile i.e. assessing whether the gap is growing
             or narrowing. For most indicators this considers trends since 1999 up to the latest year of data;
            for the National Performance Framework indicators, the scale of the challenge to meet the Government targets.

      For a small number of indicators, due to data availability, a different dataset has been used to monitor Scotland’s performance with OECD
      economies than has been used to compare Scotland with UK regions. For example, data from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor has been
      used to measure ‘total entrepreneurial activity’ for Scotland and OECD countries whereas Business Birth (VAT/PAYE Registration) data has


                                                                                  6
September 2011 Update


been used as a proxy for entrepreneurial activity for the UK regions. For the innovation measure, the UK regional comparison dataset is based
on the UK Innovation Survey definition of innovation active, which is different to that used in the European-wide Community Innovation Survey.

Also, for a number of indicators, more up-to-date data is available for UK regions than for OECD countries.
Notes:

‘Latest trend’ columns highlights whether the gap has narrowed between Scotland’s performance and the top OECD/UK region quartile (comparing 1999 to
latest year available). For GDP growth, this looks at annual average growth, and whether gaps have been narrowing.

Indicator 1 and 1a: There are two sets of figures for GDP comparisons. One excludes the contribution of offshore oil and gas: one includes the contribution of
offshore oil and gas using the geographical share approach in relation to activities taking place on the UK continental shelf and calculated based on Table 10
of the Scottish National Accounts Project.

For 1a, high oil prices in 1999 and 2000 boosted GDP growth, and falls in prices in 2008 and 2009 reduced GDP growth, and in combination this affected the
performance in terms of closing the GDP growth gap with the OECD and UK regions top quartiles.

Indicator 5: For Scotland and OECD comparisons, Total Entrepreneurial Activity (TEA) is defined as the proportion of individuals in the working age
population who are actively trying to start their own business or running their own business that is less than 3 years old. Figures refer to average TEA scores
for 2007-2009 to reduce the effects of large year-on-year changes that, due to survey sample sizes, may not be statistically significant. VAT/PAYE registration
data is used as a proxy for entrepreneurship in UK regions

Indicator 9: Export sales growth – note Scottish export figures include exports to the rest of the UK. Scotland moved from quartile 3 to the top quartile in 2009
based on three year rolling average figures. This seems to be primarily due to other countries performing less well over the most recent 3-year period.




                                                                                7
September 2011 Update


                          Table 2: Scotland’s Performance Gap – To Achieve Government Economic Strategy Target



                        GES Target                                Performance Gap                From               To

                                                                 £100m extra each year
To raise Scotland's GDP growth rate to the UK level by
                                                           (Scotland average growth is 1.6%,   £109,400m         £109,500m
2011.
                                                              UK average growth is 1.7%)

                                                                 £300m extra each year
To match the GDP growth rate of the small independent
                                                           (Scotland average growth is 1.6%,   £109,400m         £109,700m
EU countries by 2017.
                                                           Small EU average growth is 1.8%)

To rank in the top quartile for productivity amongst our
                                                            Increase GDP per hour by £5.20      £29.00            £34.20
key trading partners in the OECD by 2017.

To close the employment rate gap with the top five OECD
                                                             160,000 more in employment         2.40m             2.56m
economies by 2017.

To maintain labour market participation rate in the UK.     Top performing country in 2009         *                 *

To match average European (EU15) population growth
                                                             12,000 more people each year       16,000            28,000
over the period from 2007 to 2017.

To halve the gap in R&D expenditure compared with EU
                                                             Extra £130m R&D expenditure       £1,920m           £2,050m
average by 2011.

To grow exports at a faster average rate than Scottish
                                                            Exports growing faster than GDP
GDP in current prices over the term of this Parliament.
                                                             Increase the 2006 rate of 36
Increase the business start-up rate.                       VAT/PAYE registrations per 10,000      34                **
                                                                        adults

** No specific target




                                                                          8
September 2011 Update


      Table 3: Current OECD quartile rankings overview for Scotland, Arc of Prosperity Countries and other small EU countries

Indicator             Year       Scotland   Austria   Denmark   Finland   Iceland   Ireland     Lux     Norway    Portugal   Sweden
Avg GDP
growth             1999 -2009       3         3          4        2         2         1          1         3         4          3

Avg GDP
growth inc Oil &   1999-2009        2         3          4        2         2         1          1         3         4          3
Gas
GDP per head
                      2009          3         1          2        2         2         1          1         1         4          2

Employment
rate (15-64 yr        2010          2         2          1        2         1         3          3         1         3          1
olds)
Productivity
                      2009          3         2          2        2         3         1          1         1         4          2
Entrepreneurial
activity           2007 -2009       4          -         3        2         1         2          -         1         -          -

Total R&D as %
GDP                   2009          3         2          1        1         2         3          3         3         3          1
Business R&D
as % GDP              2009          4         1          1        1         2         2          2         3         3          1
Innovation
activity              2008          4         2          2        2         1          -         1         3         1          4
Graduates as %
of the pop.           2008          2         4          1        3         1         2          3         1         4          2
(aged 25-64)
Population
growth (1999-      1999 -2009       4         4          3        3         1         1          1         2         3          2
2009)
Net migration
as % of the           2008          2         2          2        3         3         1          1         1         3          2
population
Export sales
growth -3 yr       2007 - 2009      1         3          3        4         1         2          1         3         3          3
annual avg



                                                                  9
September 2011 Update


                                             Table 4: Scotland’s OECD quartile ranking 1999 - latest

                                           1999    2000      2001      2002       2003      2004      2005      2006      2007      2008   2009
Growth in GDP
                                            4        4         2         3         2          3         3         3         4        3      3
(10 year annual average % growth)
Growth in GDP inc Oil & Gas
                                                                                                                                            2
(10 year annual average % growth)
GDP per head                                3        3         3         3         2          2         2         2         3        3      3

Employment rate                             2        2         2         2         2          2         2         2         2        2      2

Productivity - GDP per hour worked          3        3         3         3         2          2         2         2         3        3      3

Entrepreneurial activity (annual % rate)    -        -         -          3        3          3         2         3         3        4      4

Total R&D as % of GDP                       2        2         2         2         3          3         3         3         3        3      3

Business R&D as % of GDP                    3        3         3         3         3          3         3         3         4        4      4

Innovation activity                                                                           2                   3                  4
Graduates as % of population (aged 25
                                            3        -         2         2         2          2         2         2         2        2
to 64)
Population growth (annual % growth)         -        4         4         4         4          3         3         3         3        3      4

Net migration as % of population            3        4         3         4         2          2         2         2         2        2

Export growth (annual % growth)             -        -         -         -         2          4         4         4         2        4      1


Notes:

Entrepreneurial activity measures annual TEA scores (figures in Tables 1 and 2 refer a three year average)
Population growth measures annual percentage changes (figures in Tables 1 and 2 refer to population growth between 1999 and 2008)
Exports growth measures annual percentage growth (figures in Tables 1 and 2 refer to three year annual average growth)




                                                                         10
                                            0.0
                                                  0.5
                                                        1.0
                                                              1.5
                                                                    2.0
                                                                          2.5
                                                                                3.0
                                                                                      3.5
                                                                                            4.0
                                                                                                  4.5
                                                                                                        5.0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         0.0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               0.5
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     1.0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           1.5
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 2.0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       2.5
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             3.0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   3.5
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         4.0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               4.5
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     5.0




                                                                                                                                                                             Figure 2
                         Slovak Republic                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Slovak Republic
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Figure 1
                                  Korea                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Korea




     Source: OECD, ONS
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Source: OECD, ONS
                                 Poland                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Poland
                                 Turkey                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Turkey
                                 Ireland                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Ireland
                            Luxembourg                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Luxembourg
                         Czech Republic                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Czech Republic
                                 Greece                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Greece
                                 Iceland
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Iceland
                               Australia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Australia
                            New Zealand
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         New Zealand
                                  Spain
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Spain
                               Scotland
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Hungary
                                Hungary
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Finland
                                 Finland
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Canada




11
                                Canada
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Mexico
                                 Mexico




                                                                                                                                                                                        Note – Figures are in constant prices and constant PPPs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Sweden
                                Sweden
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Scotland
                                Norway
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Norway
                           United States
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        United States
                             Switzerland
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Switzerland
                                 Austria
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Austria
                         United Kingdom
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      United Kingdom
                            Netherlands
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Netherlands
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Annual Average GDP Growth Rate, 1999-2009 (%)




                                Belgium
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Belgium
                                 France
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              France
                                Portugal
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Portugal


                                                                                                              Annual Average GDP Growth Rate inc. Oil & Gas (1999-2009), %
                               Germany
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Germany
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Data Chart Appendix (Scotland and small EU countries highlighted)




                               Denmark
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Denmark
                                  Japan
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Japan
                                    Italy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Italy
Figure 3

                       Recent Economic performance - GDP Growth 2008-09,
                           Scotland and Small European Countries (%)
    0.0

   -1.0

   -2.0

   -3.0

   -4.0

   -5.0

   -6.0

   -7.0

   -8.0

   -9.0
              Norway     Portugal   Scotland     Luxembourg Austria       Denmark    Iceland    Ireland     Finland




Source: OECD, ONS




Figure 4

            Recent Economic Performance - GDP Growth inc. Oil & Gas 2008-
                    09, Scotland and Small European Countries (%)
    0.0

   -1.0

   -2.0

   -3.0

   -4.0

   -5.0

   -6.0

   -7.0

   -8.0

   -9.0
                                                 Austria
              Norway




                                                                           Iceland




                                                                                                             Finland
                                    Luxembourg




                                                                                      Ireland




                                                                                                 Scotland
                                                                Denmark
                         Portugal




Source: OECD, ONS




                                                           12
                                     0.0
                                           0.5
                                                 1.0
                                                       1.5
                                                             2.0
                                                                   2.5
                                                                         3.0
                                                                                                                                                                         0.0
                                                                                                                                                                               0.5
                                                                                                                                                                                     1.0
                                                                                                                                                                                           1.5
                                                                                                                                                                                                 2.0
                                                                                                                                                                                                       2.5
                                                                                                                                                                                                             3.0




     Source: ONS
                                                                                                                                Figure 6
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Figure 5




                                                                                                                                           Source: ONS
                          London
                                                                                                                                                              London



                         Scotland
                                                                                                                                              East of England



                   East of England
                                                                                                                                                             Scotland



                       South West
                                                                                                                                                           South West


                         Northern
                          Ireland                                                                                                          Northern Ireland



                       South East
                                                                                                                                                           South East




13
                    East Midlands
                                                                                                                                                         East Midlands



                       North East
                                                                                                                                                            North East




                                                                                          UK Regions 1999-2009
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       UK Regions 1999 - 2009




                    Yorkshire and
                                                                                                                                                         Yorkshire and
                     The Humber
                                                                                                                                                          The Humber
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Annual Average GDP Growth (%),




                       North West
                                                                                                                                                           North West



                            Wales                                              Annual Average Growth Rate inc. Oil & Gas (%),
                                                                                                                                                                Wales



                    West Midlands
                                                                                                                                                    West Midlands


                          United
                         Kingdom                                                                                                           United Kingdom
                                       5,000
                                               10,000
                                                        15,000
                                                                 20,000
                                                                          25,000
                                                                                   30,000
                                                                                                   35,000
                                                                                                            40,000




                                   0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             10,000
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      20,000
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               30,000
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        40,000
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 50,000
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          60,000
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   70,000
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             80,000
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      90,000




                                                                                                                                                                   Figure 8
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Figure 7




     Source: ONS
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Luxembourg




     current prices
                         London
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Norway




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Source: OECD, ONS
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        United States
                      South East                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Switzerland
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Netherlands
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Australia
                        Scotland
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Ireland
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Austria
           East of England
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Canada
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Denmark
                      South West                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Sweden
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Iceland
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Germany
                East Midlands
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Belgium
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Finland




14
                      North West
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      United Kingdom
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Scotland
              West Midlands                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   France
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Italy

     Yorkshire and The                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Spain




                                                                                                                                                                              Note: In-commuting to Luxembourg inflates its GDP per head figure
         Humber
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Japan
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Greece
         Northern Ireland
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         New Zealand
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Korea




                                                                                                                     GVA per Head, UK Regions, 1999 and 2009 (£)
                      North East                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Czech Republic
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               GDP per Head US$, OECD Countries 1999 and 2009




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Portugal
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Slovak Republic




                                                                                    2009
                                                                                            1999
                          Wales
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Hungary
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2009
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1999




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Poland
         United Kingdom
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Mexico
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Turkey
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              10
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        30
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             40
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  50
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       60
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            70
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   80
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        90




                                                                                                                      0
                                                                                                                          10
                                                                                                                               20
                                                                                                                                    30
                                                                                                                                         40
                                                                                                                                              50
                                                                                                                                                   60
                                                                                                                                                        70
                                                                                                                                                             80
                                                                                                                                                                    90
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Iceland
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Figure 9




                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Figure 10
                                                                                                        South East                                                                                                                                                         Switzerland
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Norway
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Netherlands
                                                                                                   East of England
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Denmark
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Sweden




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Source: OECD, Scottish Government
                                                                                                       South West
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Australia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          New Zealand
                                                                                                     East Midlands                                                                                                                                                             Austria
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Canada
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Germany
                                                                                                          Scotland
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Japan
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       United Kingdom
                                                                                                        North West
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Scotland
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Finland
                                                                                                  Yorkshire and the




15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         United States
                                                                                                      Humber
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Portugal




     Source: BIS Regional Economic Performance Indicators, ONS (Data refers to Spring quarters)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Luxembourg
                                                                                                           London
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Czech Republic
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               France
                                                                                                             Wales
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Korea




                                                                                                                                                                               UK Regions 1999 and 2011 (%)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    OECD Countries 1999 and 2010




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Belgium

                                                                                                    West Midlands                                                                                                                                                              Ireland
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Mexico




                                                                                                                                                                         Employment Rates (% of working age people),
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Greece
                                                                                                   Northern Ireland
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Employment Rate (% of Population Aged 15/16-64),




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Spain




                                                                                                                                                             2011
                                                                                                                                                             1999
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Poland
                                                                                                        North East                                                                                                                                                     Slovak Republic
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 2010
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 1999




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Italy

                                                                                                   United Kingdom                                                                                                                                                             Hungary
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Turkey
                                   0
                                       20
                                            40
                                                 60
                                                      80
                                                           100
                                                                  120
                                                                        140
                                                                                                                                                                              0
                                                                                                                                                                                  20
                                                                                                                                                                                       40
                                                                                                                                                                                            60
                                                                                                                                                                                                 80
                                                                                                                                                                                                      100
                                                                                                                                                                                                            120
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         140
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 160




     Source: ONS
                                                                                                                                                              Luxembourg
                        London




                                                                                                                           Figure 12
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Figure 11




                                                                                                                                       Source: OECD, ONS
                                                                                                                                                                  Norway
                                                                                                                                                                   Ireland
                     South East
                                                                                                                                                             United States
                                                                                                                                                                  Belgium

                       Scotland                                                                                                                               Netherlands
                                                                                                                                                                   France
                                                                                                                                                                 Germany
       East of England
                                                                                                                                                                   Austria
                                                                                                                                                                  Sweden
                   East Midlands                                                                                                                                 Australia
                                                                                                                                                                 Denmark

                     South West                                                                                                                                Switzerland
                                                                                                                                                                    Spain

                    North West &
                                                                                                                                                                   Finland




16
                     Merseyside                                                                                                                            United Kingdom
                                                                                                                                                                 Scotland
                      North East                                                                                                                                      Italy
                                                                                                                                                                  Canada
                     Yorkshire &                                                                                                                                   Iceland
                     humberside
                                                                                                                                                                    Japan
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Index USA = 100, 1999 and 2009




                                                                                                                                                                   Greece




                                                                                 Productivity (GVA per hour worked),
             West Midlands
                                                                                                                                                           Slovak Republic




                                                                              UK Regions 1999 and 2009 (Index, UK = 100)
                                                                                                                                                              New Zealand
                          Wales                                                                                                                                   Portugal
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Productivity (GDP per hour worked), OECD Countries




                                                                                                                                                           Czech Republic




                                                                 2009
                                                                 1999
                                                                                                                                                                  Hungary
     Northern Ireland
                                                                                                                                                                    Korea
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2009
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1999




                                                                                                                                                                   Turkey
     United Kingdom
                                                                                                                                                                   Poland
                                                                                                                                                                   Mexico
Figure 13

                                                                                 Total Entrepreneurial Activity Rates,
                                                                                OECD Countries 2007-2009 Average (%)

      12


      10


      8


      6


      4


      2


      0




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Germany
                                                                                                        Hungary




                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Italy
                                            Greece


                                                                       Norway




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         France
                                                                                                                        Spain


                                                                                                                                             Finland


                                                                                                                                                                       Netherlands




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Japan
               Iceland




                                                                                              Ireland




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Scotland
                                                                                                                                                                                                         Denmark




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Belgium
                                                                                                                                                                                       Kingdom
                         United States




                                                                                                                                                                                        United


Source: GEM



Note - Total Entrepreneurial Activity (TEA) is defined as the proportion of individuals in the working
age population who are actively trying to start their own business or running their own business that is
less than 3 years old.


Figure 14

                                                                       Business Births per 10,000 Adult Population,
                                                                               UK Regions 2002 and 2009

 90

 80
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   2002
 70                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2009

 60

 50

 40

 30

 20

 10

  0
           London




                                                                                                                                                                                                              Scotland
                               South East




                                                     East of England




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Wales




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  North East




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Northern Ireland




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    United Kingdom
                                                                                 North West




                                                                                                                                                                                     Yorkshire and the
                                                                                                                                South West




                                                                                                                                                       East Midlands
                                                                                                        West Midlands




                                                                                                                                                                                         Humber




 Source: ONS




                                                                                                                                                       17
Figure 15

                                                                           Total Gross Expenditure on R&D as a % of GDP,
                                                                                   OECD Countries (1999 and 2009)
  4.5

  4.0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             1999
  3.5                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2009

  3.0

  2.5

  2.0

  1.5

  1.0

  0.5

  0.0




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Turkey
                                                                                                                        Austria


                                                                                                                                              Australia
                                                                                                             Germany




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Italy


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hungary




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Slovak Republic
                                                                                                                                                                   France




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Poland
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Greece
         Finland


                                     Korea
                                             Japan




                                                                                                                                    Iceland




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Mexico
                                                                                                                                                                                             Canada


                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Netherlands


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Norway
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Ireland




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Scotland


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Czech Republic
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Spain
                                                            Denmark




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Luxembourg
                                                                                             United States




                                                                                                                                                                            Belgium




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Portugal
                                                                                                                                                                                                      United Kingdom
                     Sweden




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    New Zealand
                                                                      Switzerland




Source: OECD, Scottish Government



Gross expenditure = business, government and higher education


Figure 16

                                                                      Total (Gross) Expenditure on R&D relative to GDP,
                                                                                UK Regions 1999 and 2009 (%)
   4.5

   4.0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     1999
   3.5                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               2009

   3.0

   2.5

   2.0

   1.5

   1.0

   0.5

   0.0
                                                                                                                                                                                      Scotland




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     London
                   East of England




                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Northern Ireland




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       North East
                                               South East




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Wales




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Yorkshire and
                                                                                    North West




                                                                                                                       South West




                                                                                                                                                   East Midlands




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            West Midlands




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           United Kingdom
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     the Humber




 Source: Scottish Government



Gross expenditure = business, government and higher education




                                                                                                                                                                                                                 18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     0.0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           0.5
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 1.0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       1.5
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             2.0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             2.5
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   3.0




                                                      0.0
                                                            0.5
                                                                  1.0
                                                                        1.5
                                                                              2.0
                                                                                    2.5
                                                                                           3.0
                                                                                                 3.5
                                                                                                                                                                                                          Finland




                                                                                                                                                  Figure 18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Figure 17


                                   East of England                                                                                                                                                       Sweden
                                                                                                                                                                                                           Korea
                                                                                                                                                                                                           Japan




     Source: Scottish Government
                                        South East
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Switzerland




                                                                                                                                                              Source: OECD, Scottish Government
                                                                                                                                                                                                    United States
                                        North West
                                                                                                                                                                                                        Denmark
                                                                                                                                                                                                          Austria
                                       South West                                                                                                                                                       Germany
                                                                                                                                                                                                          Iceland

                                     East Midlands                                                                                                                                                        France
                                                                                                                                                                                                        Australia
                                                                                                                                                                                                         Belgium
                                   Northern Ireland
                                                                                                                                                                                                     Luxembourg
                                                                                                                                                                                                          Ireland




19
                                    West Midlands                                                                                                                                                 United Kingdom
                                                                                                                                                                                                         Canada

                                        North East                                                                                                                                                Czech Republic
                                                                                                                                                                                                         Norway
                                                                                                                                                                                                     Netherlands
                                             Wales
                                                                                                                                                                                                         Portugal




                                                                                                            UK Regions 1999 and 2009 (%)
                                                                                                                                                                                                           Spain
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            OECD Countries 1999 and 2009 (%)




                                          Scotland                                                                                                                                                       Hungary




                                                                                                       Business Enterprise R&D Relative to GDP,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Business Enterprise R&D Relative to GDP,




                                                                                                                                                                                                             Italy
                                     Yorkshire and                                                                                                                                                      Scotland
                                      the Humber
                                                                                                                                                                                                     New Zealand
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   2009
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1999




                                                                                                                                                                                                          Turkey
                                           London




                                                                                          2009
                                                                                          1999
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Slovak Republic
                                                                                                                                                                                                          Poland
                                   United Kingdom                                                                                                                                                         Mexico
                                                                                                                                                                                                          Greece
                                      50
                                           52
                                                54
                                                     56
                                                          58
                                                               60
                                                                     62
                                                                           64
                                                                                                                                                                                              0
                                                                                                                                                                                                  10
                                                                                                                                                                                                       20
                                                                                                                                                                                                            30
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 40
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      50
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           60
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                70
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       80
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            90




     Source: BIS
                                                                                                                                                                                  Germany




                                                                                                                                        Figure 20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Figure 19


                        South East




                                                                                                                                                    Source: Eurostat, BIS
                                                                                                                                                                              Luxembourg
                     Yorkshire and
                      The Humber                                                                                                                                                  Belgium

                                                                                                                                                                                  Portugal
                        North East

                                                                                                                                                                                   Ireland

                   East of England                                                                                                                                                 Austria

                                                                                                                                                                            Czech Republic
                    West Midlands
                                                                                                                                                                                  Sweden

                             Wales                                                                                                                                                    Italy

                                                                                                                                                                                   Finland
                       South West




20
                                                                                                                                                                                 Denmark


                        North West                                                                                                                                                 France

                                                                                                                                                                                   Norway

                           London
                                                                                                                                                                   United Kingdom

                                                                                                                                                                               Netherlands
                     East Midlands
                                                                                                                                                                                    Spain

                          Scotland                                                                                                                                                Scotland

                                                                                                                                                                                  Slovakia
                                                                                Innovation Active Firms, UK Regions 2004 and 2008 (%)




                                                                    2008
                                                                    2004
                   Northern Ireland
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Innovation Active Firms, OECD Countries 2004 and 2008 (%)




                                                                                                                                                                                  Romania
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2004




                                UK                                                                                                                                                Hungary

                                                                                                                                                                                   Poland
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        5
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            10
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           25
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                30
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     35
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          40




                                                                        0%
                                                                             5%
                                                                                  10%
                                                                                        15%
                                                                                              20%
                                                                                                    25%
                                                                                                          30%
                                                                                                                35%
                                                                                                                             40%
                                                                                                                                     45%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Norway




                                                                                                                                                                                                  Figure 22
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Figure 21


                                                              London                                                                                                                                                                               United States
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Netherlands
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Iceland
                                                           South East
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Australia




                                                                                                                                                                                                              Source: OECD Scottish Government
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Denmark
                                                          South West                                                                                                                                                                                      Korea
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Canada
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    New Zealand




     Source: Scottish Government/ Labour Force Survey
                                                             Scotland
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Japan
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 United Kingdom
                                                              Eastern                                                                                                                                                                                   Sweden
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Switzerland

                                                               Wales                                                                                                                                                                                   Scotland
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Ireland
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Finland




21
                                                           North West
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Spain
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Luxembourg
                                                          Yorkshire &                                                                                                                                                                                    Poland
                                                          Humberside
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hungary
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Germany




                                                                                                                                                        UK Regions 1999 and 2011
                                                        East Midlands
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Greece
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            OECD Countries 1999 and 2008




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Belgium
                                                 Northern Ireland                                                                                                                                                                                        France
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Mexico
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Czech Republic
                                                        West Midlands
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Portugal
                                                                                                                                           Graduates as a Proportion of Working Age Population,                                                             Italy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Graduates as a Proportion of Population (24-64 age group),




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1999




                                                           North East




                                                                                                                      2011
                                                                                                                              1999
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Slovak Republic
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Turkey
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Austria
                                                    United Kingdom
                                                                                                                                                                                                           -5
                                                                                                                                                                                                                0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    5
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        10
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       25




                                      0.0
                                            1.0
                                                  2.0
                                                        3.0
                                                              4.0
                                                                    5.0
                                                                          6.0
                                                                                7.0
                                                                                      8.0
                                                                                            9.0
                                                                                                  10.0
                                                                                                                                                                                                Ireland




     Source: ONS
                                                                                                                                                       Figure 24
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Figure 23


                                                                                                                                                                                              Australia
                           London
                                                                                                                                                                                                Iceland




                                                                                                                                                                   Source: OECD, GROS
                                                                                                                                                                                                 Spain
                              East
                                                                                                                                                                                           Luxembourg
                                                                                                                                                                                                Turkey

                       South West                                                                                                                                                          New Zealand
                                                                                                                                                                                               Canada
                                                                                                                                                                                                Mexico
                     East Midlands
                                                                                                                                                                                          United States
                                                                                                                                                                                            Switzerland
                   Northern Ireland                                                                                                                                                            Norway
                                                                                                                                                                                                France

                        South East                                                                                                                                                             Belgium
                                                                                                                                                                                               Sweden




22
                     Yorkshire and                                                                                                                                                                 Italy
                      The Humber                                                                                                                                                                 Korea
                                                                                                                                                                                           Netherlands
                             Wales                                                                                                                                                             Portugal
                                                                                                                                                                                        United Kingdom

                    West Midlands                                                                                                                                                             Denmark
                                                                                                                                                                                                Greece
                                                                                                                                                                                                Finland
                          Scotland
                                                                                                                                                                                                Austria



                                                                                                         Population Growth, UK Regions 1999-2010 (%)
                                                                                                                                                                                              Scotland
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Population Growth, OECD Countries 1999-2009 (%)




                        North West                                                                                                                                                      Czech Republic
                                                                                                                                                                                                 Japan

                        North East                                                                                                                                                      Slovak Republic
                                                                                                                                                                                              Germany
                                                                                                                                                                                                Poland
                   United Kingdom
                                                                                                                                                                                               Hungary
Figure 25

                                         Net Migration as a Proportion of the Population,
                                               OECD Countries 1999 and 2008 (%)
     2.0
                                                                                                                                                                         1999
                                                                                                                                                                         2008
     1.5



     1.0



     0.5



     0.0



    -0.5
           Spain LuxembourgNorway Czech Republic Belgium Austria Iceland United States
               Ireland Switzerland Canada ItalySweden
                           Australia                    Scotland
                                                  Denmark       Greece PortugalUnited Kingdom Slovak Republic Japan
                                                                                       Netherlands    New ZealandPoland
                                                                                   Finland HungaryFrance Germany




Source: OECD, ONS




Figure 26

                                         Net Migration as a Proportion of the Population,
                                                 UK Regions 1999 and 2009 (%)
     1.0


     0.8                                                                                                                                                               1999
                                                                                                                                                                       2009
     0.6


     0.4


     0.2


     0.0


    -0.2


    -0.4
              East




                                                       Scotland




                                                                                                                                                                          London
                                                                               North East
                                          South East




                                                                                                                            Wales




                                                                                                                                                                                   United Kingdom
                                                                                                             North West &
                                                                  South West




                                                                                             East Midlands
                     Yorkshire and The




                                                                                                                                    West Midlands
                                                                                                             Merseryside




                                                                                                                                                    Northern Ireland
                         Humber




Source: ONS




                                                                                            23
                                                            -8
                                                                 -6
                                                                      -4
                                                                           -2
                                                                                0
                                                                                    2
                                                                                        4
                                                                                            6
                                                                                                      8
                                                                                                                10
                                                                                                                     12
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  -8.0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         -6.0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                -4.0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       -2.0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0.0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2.0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4.0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                6.0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      8.0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            10.0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   12.0
                                                 Iceland
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Iceland




                                                                                                                                                                               Figure 28
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Figure 27


                                                  Korea
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Korea
                                                Hungary
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hungary
                                               Australia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Australia
                                               Scotland
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Scotland
                                         Czech Republic




     Source: OECD, Scottish Government
                                                                                                                                                                                           Source: OECD, Scottish Government
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Czech Republic
                                                 Poland
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Poland
                                            Luxembourg
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Luxembourg
                                           United States
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 United States
                                                 Turkey
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Turkey
                                            New Zealand
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  New Zealand
                                             Switzerland
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Switzerland
                                                 Ireland
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Ireland
                                         Slovak Republic
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Slovak Republic
                                            Netherlands
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Netherlands




24
                                                Norway
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Norway
                                               Germany
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Germany
                                                Portugal
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Portugal
                                               Denmark
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Denmark




                                                                                                                                         OECD Countries (%)
                                                Belgium
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Belgium
                                                Sweden
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Sweden
                                                  Spain
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Spain
                                                 Austria
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Austria
                                                 Finland
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Finland
                                                 Mexico
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Mexico
                                                 Greece
                                                 France                                                                   Annual Average 2007-2009 Growth in Export and GDP,                                                           Greece




                                                                                                GDP
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       France
                                         United Kingdom




                                                                                                      Exports
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Export Growth, OECD Countries 2007-2009 Annual Average (%)




                                                                                                                                                                                                                               United Kingdom
                                                  Japan
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Japan
                                                Canada
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Canada
                                                    Italy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Italy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        -10
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              -8
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   -6
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        -4
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             -2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              6




                                                                                   -10
                                                                                         -8
                                                                                              -6
                                                                                                   -4
                                                                                                        -2
                                                                                                             0
                                                                                                                 2
                                                                                                                      4
                                                                                                                               6
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          North East




                                                                                                                                                                                   Figure 30
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Figure 29


                                                                     North East


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          South East
                                                                     South East



                                                                       Scotland                                                                                                                                                                             Scotland



                                                                 East of England                                                                                                                                                                      East of England




                                                                                                                                                                                               Source: BIS Regional Economic Performance Indicators
                                                                       Northern




     Source: BIS Regional Economic Performance Indicators, ONS
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Northern Ireland
                                                                        Ireland


                                                                     North West                                                                                                                                                                           North West




25
                                                                     South West
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          South West


                                                                          Wales
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Wales




                                                                                                                                              UK Regions 2007- 2009
                                                                 United Kingdom
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Yorkshire and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        the Humber
                                                                  Yorkshire and
                                                                   The Humber
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       East Midlands




                                                                                                                                   Annual Average Growth in Exports and GDP (%),
                                                                  East Midlands
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       West Midlands




                                                                                                                     GVA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Annual Average Export Growth, UK Regions 2007-2009 (%)




                                                                  West Midlands




                                                                                                                     Exports
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             London

                                                                        London

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         United Kingdom

								
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