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									 Task-based Language Teaching

(Task-based Approach , Task-based
Learning, or Task-based Instruction)
             Looking back

1. Definition
2. What is task?

3. Theoretical basis

4. Main features

5. Types of tasks

6. Teaching procedure

7. Learners & Teachers roles

8. Principles

9. Advantages & disadvantages
Activity 3: Discuss the following questions:

1.What is Task-based Language Teaching?
 What are the features of TBLT?




                   Mind map:思维导图(脑图)
                   Concept map (概念图)
——鲁子问(2005)
—谢忠平 董亚男(2006)
          doing things with(by) language
Involvement                         learning by doing

Inquiry            TBLT                learning for using
                                       learning by using
   Induction                     learning then using
                 Incorporation


 Four dimensions of teaching and learning tasks
 represented by the “four eyes” :Involvement (参与),
 Inquiry (探究), Induction(归纳), Incorporation (整合).
 Definition:

Task-based Language Teaching (TBLT) refers to
an approach based on the use of tasks as the core
unit of instruction in language.
  任务型教学就是以具体
的任务为学习动力或动机,
以完成任务的过程为学习的
过程,以展示任务成果的方
式(而不是以测试的分数)
来体现教学的成就。

—陈 琳 王 蔷 程晓堂(2002:104-105)
  所谓任务型语言教学,其核心思想就是要模
拟人们在社会、学校生活中人们运用语言所从事
的各类活动,把语言教学与学习者在今后的日常
生活中的语言应用结合起来。

                    —转引自张琳琳(2004)


the features of Task-based Language Teaching
1.TBLT offers the opportunity for “natural”
learning inside the classroom.

2.It emphasizes meaning over form but can also
cater for learning form.

3.It is intrinsically motivating.
4.It is compatible with a learner-centered
educational philosophy.

5.It can be used alongside a more traditional
approach.
                                        —Rod Ellis
任务型语言教学的特点:

1. An emphasis on learning to
communicate through interaction in the
target language.强调通过交流来学会交际。

2. The introduction of authentic texts into
  the learning situation.将真实的语言材料引
  入学习的环境。
3.Provision of opportunities for learners to
focus, not only on language, but also on the
learning process itself.关注语言的本身,也关
注学习的过程。

4. An enhancement of the learners’ own
personal experiences as important
contributing elements to classroom
learning.
把学习者个人的经历作为课堂学习的重要因素。
5. An attempt to link classroom language
learning with language activation outside
the classroom.
试图把课内的语言学习与社会的语言活动结合
起来。
                         ( David Nunan 1991)
2.What is the relationship between the TBLT and
The CLT (similarities and differences)?

Task-based Language Teaching is, in fact, a
further development of Communicative Language
Teaching. It shares the same beliefs, such language
should be learned as close as possible to how it is
used in real life. However, it has stressed the
importance to combine form-focused teaching
with communication-focused teaching.
3.How do we define a “task” ?

 A task is an activity which requires learners to
 use language , with emphasis on meaning ,
 to attain an objective.
                         Bygate, Skehan & Swain (2001)

Tasks are activities where the target language is
used by the learner for communicative purpose in
order to achieve an outcome.
 学习者为着某种交际目的而使                       Jane Willis(1996)
 用目的语并能获得某种结果的
 一种活动。
• A task is an activity or action which is carried
out as the result of processing or understanding
language ( i.e.as a response).

              (Richards, Platt and Weber 1986:289)


任务:
人们在学习、理解、
体会语言之后所开展
的活动。
What learners do when they understand:

• drawing a map while
listening to a tape

• look at a set of
pictures and
decide what should be
done

• completing a
banking application
• listening to a weather
forecast and deciding
what to wear

• exchanging name
cards

• responding to a party
invitation

• describing a
photograph of one’s
family
We can define a “task” from the following
aspects:

1.A task is a goal directed.
2.A task involves a primary focus on meaning.
3.The participants choose the linguistic resources
needed to complete the task.
4.A task has a clearly defined outcome.
                                          —Rod Ellis
1. Meaning is primary. (意义是首要的)。
2.There is a communicative problem to be solved. (有某
个交际问题需要解决。)
3.There is some sort of relationship to comparable real-
world activities.(任务具有在现实生活中有发生的可能
性。)
4.Task completion has some priority.(完成任务是首要
考虑。)
5.The assessment of the task is in terms of outcomes.
(根据任务的结果评估任务的执行情况。)
                                     ——Skehan(1998)
PURPOSE    CONTEXT
                      PROCESS



                        OUTCOME

TASK                    MEANING


                AUTHENICITY



          COMMUNICATIVE
The components of a task:

• 目标 (Goals)
• 信息输入( Input Data)
   语言信息( Verbal data)
    非语言信息(Non-verbal data )
• 活动 (Activities)
• 结果 (Outcome)
   语言结果( Verbal outcome)
    非语言结果(Non-verbal outcome )
Goal: Exchanging personal information
Input: Questionnaire on sleeping habits
Activity: 1) Reading questionnaire
          2) Asking and answering
             questions about sleeping habits
Teacher role: Monitor and facilitator
               to specify what is regarded as
               successful completion of the task
Learner role: Conversational partner
Setting: Classroom / pair work
                         —转引自张琳琳(2004)
4. What are differences between tasks and exercises?

                    exercises                   tasks

 focus       form                     meaning

 situation   no situation             real-life situation

 outcome     correct form             accomplishment of task

  language practice of assigned form choice of form and content


  error      immediate correction    delayed correction
5) .Here are some activities adopted in the
present text books. Please check if they are tasks.
Activity 1: Listen to Alexis and Joe.
         Number the pictures[1-3]


Activity 2: Listen again. Fill in the blanks
         with the correct verbs from the box.

                            ——Go for it, 8B P5
Activity 3:On a piece of paper, write about your
life in ten years. Don’t write your name on the
paper. Put all the students’ paper together. Take
turns reading the papers, Then guess who wrote
them.
                              ——Go for it, 8B P6

Activity 4: Read the letter to Aunt Chen’s
column and then write some advice.

                           ——Go for it, 8B P15
Activity 5: Look at the pictures. Listen
           and check what Lingling can do.
                 —New Standard English 7A P8
Activity 7: Look at the pictures and
           complete the sentences.
                —New Standard English 7A P12
Activity 6: Listen and choose the correct
           picture.
                —New Standard English 7A P14
全日制普通高级中学英语教科书Revised SEFC的
         编写依据
1、2000年颁发的《全日制普通高级中学英语教学
  大纲(试验修订版)》
2、2001年颁发的《全日制义务教育普通高级中学
  英语课程标准(实验稿)》的精神 (话题、任
  务型教学等),其中词汇要求又参照了2003年4
  月最新颁发的《普通高中英语课程标准(实
  验)》的词汇表(初中 1300—1500词;高中
  出口3000多词汇;目前大纲仍为2000词)
                 —陈琳(2003)
 编写原则:
  仍运用“话题+结构+功能” 的教材编写
路子并融入“任务型教学”的教学理念.
  在采用话题、功能、结构相结合的教学方
法的基础上,设计了“任务型”的活动。
(如 1. Writing an e-mail message.
     2. Work together with your partner or a
group and see who can make up the best story
from one of the pictures below. P 15 1 )

                            —陈琳(2003)
RSEFC Student’s Book 1A:
  P 9,13,14,15,16,18,19,28, 29,
   35, 39,43,48,54, 60, 70, 77, 84.
6.What are the two approaches to using tasks ?
Which is more workable and practical in the
Chinese context?

The two approaches to using tasks are:
1.Use tasks to support a Type A approach.
 - task-supported teaching (Type A)
 - weak form of communicative language teaching
2.Use tasks as the basis for teaching
 - task-based teaching (Type B)
 - strong form of communicative language teaching
7.What are three principal phases in TBLT lessons?

 Three phases in a task-based lesson:

 1.Pre-task phase;
 2.While (Main, During) -task phase;
 3.Post-task phase
Willis’ model for task-based instruction (Willis, 1996:127)

                         Pre-task

               Introduce to topic and task


                        Task cycle

                           Task
                         Planning
                          Repot


                     Language focus

                         Analysis
                         Practice                        Long 1991
 阶 段          目 标      典型技巧


           重构句子、思维创建 培养语言意识,
Pre-task
           语言减轻认知压力 准备、计划


Main task 平衡、融合语言的准 选择任务、控
          确度和流利度    制压力

Post-task1 关注语言的准确性鼓 演示分析测试
           励语言重构

Post-task2 综合、分析、演练   排序归类
    Pre-task phase:
   Three purposes:
--to serve to introduce new language that learners
   can use while performing the task;
--to mobilize existing linguistic resources;
--to ease processing load, and to push learners to
   interpret tasks in more demanding ways.
• Some options:
Allow the students time to plan.
1. Provide a model
2. Do a similar task
3. Pre-teach key linguistic items
 On general cognitive demands of the task
   对任务要求的总体感知
 An emphasis on linguistic factors 关注语言因素
 Supporting learners in performing a task
  similar to the task they will perform in the
  during-task phase of the lesson 让学生做一些
  在后面完成任务时需要的准备工作
 Non-task preparation activities
  --- brain storming 大脑风暴
  --- mind map 思维图
While-task phase:
Some options:
1. Participatory structure 参与方式: Whole-class
   vs. small group work; individual or interaction
2. Set a time for completing the task.
3. Vary the number of participants.
4. Introduce a surprise element.
5. Tell students they will have to present a report
   to the whole class.
• pair and group work are seen as central        to
   task-based teaching; not all tasks are
   interactive
At this stage, learners are reminded that fluency
is not the only goal during task completion, and
that restructuring and accuracy also have
importance

Task choice: the appropriate difficulty level.
1 too difficult: excessive mental processing – to
   communicate any sort of meaning: ellipsis, context,
   strategies and lexicalization which reduce the
   pedagogic value of a task-based approach.
2 too easy: boring, no serious engagement – no gain in
   terms of stretching interlanguage or automaticity
   development (Swain, 1985)
The post-task phase:
Three major pedagogical goals:
-- to provide an opportunity for a repeat
performance of the task(提供再做任务的机会)
-- to encourage reflection on how the task was
performed(反思任务是怎样完成的)
-- to encourage attention to form(关注语言的形式)
 Reviewing of learner errors反思错误
 Consciousness-raising tasks语法意识
 Production-practice activities操练活动
 Noticing accuracy 注意语言的准确
  Consciousness-raising tasks
•There is an attempt to isolate a specific linguistic feature for
focused attention      就某一语法现象单独讲解
•The learners are provided with data that illustrate the
targeted feature or an explicit rule describing or explaining
the feature
   给例子说明语法用法或对语法详细描述
•The learners are expected to utilize intellectual effort to
understand the targeted features 通过思考理解语法用法
•Learners may be optionally required to verbalize a rule
describing the grammatical structure 可以是学生口头表达
•To direct students to attend explicitly to a specific form they
used incorrectly or failed to use at all in the main task
补充不足
Production-practice activities:

 Repetition              重复活动
 Substitution            替换练习
 Gapped sentences        填空练习
 Jumbled sentences       打乱的句子
 Transformation drills   变换句型
 Dialogues               对话
    Reflecting on the task:

 Present a report on how they did the task and
  what they decided or discovered – oral or written
 Summary the outcome of the task
 Reflect or evaluate of their own performance
  (fluency, complicity or accuracy)
 Metacognitive strategies 元认知策略
  (planning,monitoring and evaluating)
8.Do we have any difficulty in carrying out TBLT
in the Chinese context?

a. Beginning with production, TBLT might
weaken the input and language form practice.

 b. It is very difficult for the designers to select,
 grade and sequence the tasks scientifically.
 c. It neglects the differences between different
 cultures.
TBLT places a high demand on the teachers and
classroom conditions (the teachers’ English
proficiency; the big size of the class; the limited
class time; the lack of language situation; the
test-oriented language learning; the assessment
system).
9.Can we use TBLT alongside some “traditional ”
approaches (such as 3P)?
2001年课标六个基本理念:
(四)采用活动途径,倡导体验参与
  本课程倡导任务型的教学模式,让学生在教师的指导下,
通过感知、体验、实践、参与和合作等方式,实现任务的目标,
感受成功。在学习过程中进行情感和策略调整,以形成积极的学
习态度,促进语言实际运用能力的提高。
即将颁布的修订课标:
(四)强调学习过程,倡导体验参与
   现代外语教育理念注重语言学习的过程,提倡采用任务型
语言教学等各种强调学习过程的语言教学途径和方法。
                          ——引自张献臣 (2006)
10 . What’s our proper attitude toward
TBLT?


We’d better acquire a compromise viewpoint.
An eclectic method can be more workable and
practical in the Chinese context. We should
adapt TBLT to our concrete conditions. We
cannot copy it mechanically. TBLT is not the
only feasible way for the foreign language
teaching in our country.
  任务型教学代表了西方重视输出的语言学习
文化,其引进和倡导对改变我国传统的英语课堂
教学具有重要的借鉴意义。同时还应看到,我国
特有的将英语作为外语来学的语言学习环境和条
件,与西方国家许多英语学习者将英语作为第二
语言来学的特定环境和条件有许多不同,加上任
务型教学本身的问题和局限,我们对任务型教学
的借鉴应该抓住其本质与合理内核,促进其与我
国传统外语教学方式相互取长补短,而不是形式
上的盲目模仿。
          ——魏永红(2004:
 “张思忠教学法”、“三文治故事教学法”、“全息
全感儿童英语教学法”、“逆向教学法”、“情感教
学法”、“愉快教学法”、“兴趣教学法”、“连贯
式教学法”、“M7英语听说教学法”、“讨论式教学
法”、“听说领先教学法”、“新范文教学法”、
“大学英语口语层次教学法”、“联想式教学法”、
“赏析教学法”、“英语十字教学法”、“一字法”、
“双向法”、“三维法”、“四会法”、“五步法”、
“逆向英语学习法”、“五步双重活动英语教学法”、
“二十四字立体英语教学法”、“三十二字双脑英语
教学法”、“四要点英语教学法”、“字母、音素、
音标三位一体教学法”、“直呼式韵律英语教学法”、
“简笔画情景教学法”、“神奇美语一字教学法”、
“四位一体教学法”、“疯狂英语”等等。(32种教
学法)
    Activity 4:The students compare two
instructional designs in the TBLT framework to
decide which is better and tell the reason.




 Activity 5:In groups the students present their
teaching designs based on TBLT; the rest of
class comment the presentations.


                                           END

								
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