Strategies to Support Integration of
into Program Practices
Consider how you would answer
• How many staff can you supervise?
• How do you define “supervision”?
• How do you collaborate with others?
• What outcomes do your “supervision” activities
• How do you use “supervision” to:
– Focus program vision?
– Further program implementation initiatives?
– Develop skills with other staff?
– Monitor program compliance?
– Continue your professional development?
• Supervision focused on staff development?
• Supervisors saw themselves as facilitators,
guides, mediators, coaches, mentors, and
LEARNERS in a reciprocal process?
• A learning environment was established that
encouraged resource and information sharing,
continuous learning, risk-taking and support?
• Staff development was systematic, supportive of
all members, prioritized and individualized?
• Lead with a clear purpose
• Empower to participate
• Aim for consensus
• Direct the process
to teach others
– Knowledge of strategies
– Importance of leadership development
– Employ potential leaders
– Decentralized and shared decision-making
– Advancement based on teaching others
Models of Coaching/Mentoring
• Social Service
• Medical, and of course
• Recent applications with EI based on
Educational Teams with Medical components
• Supervision • Coaching
– Expert model – Collaborative
– Directive – Interactive
– Top down – Reciprocal
– Monitor – Increase implementation
– Evaluate – Share
– Test – Reflective practice
– Compliance – Fulfill potential
• Develops skills at both individual staff and
• Increases number of team members with the
vision and the capacity to lead
• Develops trust and confidence between team
members and supervisors
• Enhances the confidence and competence of
team to “consult” effectively with families
Coaches and Mentors
• Offers knowledge and • Knowledgeable in at least
skills in multiple areas of one area of program to
program to be developed be developed
• Has program level • May be a peer or team
• Coaching is part of job • Mentoring is voluntary,
description supported by based on skills, and
time and resources supported by time and
• Effective coaching resources to increase
results in mentors effectiveness
Coaching and Mentoring for FC-NE
• Traditional definitions do not apply easily…
• Strategies for adaptations and applications
– Coaches can be identified for each team and family or agency
– Coaches can receive “in house” training on program
implementation plan- a modified “training for trainers”
– Coach can work with a family and team to develop skills
– As skills are implemented, team members can “mentor” other
team members and families systematically
Coaching and Mentoring cont.
• SOMEONE must monitor fidelity of
• Provide support and resources to coach
• Give feedback to new mentors
• Encourage team members with mentors to participate
• Focus implementation plan toward achievable
• Agree on performance standards so team has a
measurement level for accountability
Use SMART in Coaching/Mentoring
• Specific • A jointly identified goal
• Measurable • A standard to assess
• Achievable accomplishment
• Relevant • Realistic sequence of
• Timed steps
• Important for family,
child and provider
• Reasonable timelines
Use a situational
• Directing – Let me explain exactly what I need
• Coaching – Tell me what you think about this
• Supporting – What do you suggest
• Delegating – Let me know if you need help
Give FAST feedback
Handle conflict with style
(the right one for the situation!)
Virtual Coaching and Mentoring
• E-mail messages
• Conference calls/Voice mail messages
• Family notebooks
Can We Coach Providers to Family
• Yes… and we should.
• Coaching principles can be applied to:
– consulting with families…
– identifying preferred routines and activities
– using problem solving skills with families…
– engaging family members in assessment and
• Coaching alone won’t change attitudes about
Do we coach parents?
• Some NE models advocate this approach….
– An empirical base exists that adults learn through coaching
from other adults
– Strategies for implementation and measurement of
– A professionally driven, expert model, is not clearly
congruent with family centered services
– Having a child with a disability is not a “game” or a