Eating for Exercise by 8Ul4aq3R

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									                             Why do we need food?

It is important to know about the food types, healthy eating, and how food can provide
us with the right energy, so that we can be healthy and successful in sport.



    ENERGY                                                        GOOD HEALTH


   Energy from food
  enables the muscles to           WHY DO                        A balanced varied
  work.                            WE NEED                      diet provides the
                                    FOOD?                       nutrients needed for
                                                                good health.
   GROWTH & REPAIR                                               A balanced diet
                                                        Fats    contains 7 essential
                                               Water            components.
   Food provides the
  basic materials needed          Carbohydrates                      Minerals
  for growth & repair.
                                           Vitamins            Proteins
                                                       Fibre




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Balanced Diet




How does what we eat affect our weight?
                                            Weight will remain the same
                                             if the amount of energy our
                                            body needs is the same as the
                   WEIGHT STAYS             energy provided by the food.
                    CONSTANT




                                                        WEIGHT GAINED




       We will put on weight if
        our body needs less
       energy than our diet is
             providing.


           WEIGHT LOST



                                            If our body needs more energy
                                          than our diet is providing then we
                                                    will lose weight.




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  TASK ONE
  Each nutrient component is essential for the body. Use the word wall below to complete
  the boxes explaining why each component is important: (All words are used only once)
    TEMPERATURE         WARM       REACTIONS   GLYCOGEN       DIGESTIVE      BREATH OUT     NERVES
           DISEASE      ENERGY      SLOWLY      CARBOHYDRATE        WASTE     CONSTIPATION
        HEAT      FAT     REPAIR     ENERGY     EFFICIENT     MUSCLES       ORGANS    SWEAT



Carbohydrates → Sugars eg. cakes, jam, beer (simple) & Starches eg. rice, bread (Complex)
 Energy for the working muscles quickly & efficiently.
 Large amounts stored as __________________ in the liver & ____________________ .
 Extra carbohydrate stored as fat.


Fats → Saturated (eg. milk, meat, chocolate) & Unsaturated (eg. fish & nuts)
 Provide energy, although much more __________________ than carbohydrates.
 Keep skin in good condition, keep us ________________ & protect our vital ______________ .


Protein → Eg. Fish, eggs, cheese cereals, nuts, etc.
 Body tissues are made up of proteins, including the skin.
 Needed for repair, growth and ________________ working of tissues.
 Rarely used as an energy source if no ___________________ or ______________ is available.

Vitamins →Water soluble (Vitamins B/C) & Fat soluble (Vitamins A/D/E/K).
 Enable the body to work normally & efficiently. (Vit D – strong bones & teeth)
 Regulate chemical ______________________ of the body.
 Help in the growth and ________________ of body tissues, muscles & ___________________ ,
and in the release of ____________________ from food.
 Help maintain resistance to _____________________ .


Minerals → Minerals cannot be made by the body.
 Enable the body to work normally & efficiently.
 Minerals all have their own functions
                 Calcium                           Iron
             Muscle to work         Red blood cells (carry 02 to muscles)
             Blood clotting
           Bones to be strong


Fibre → Eg. vegetables, fruits, nuts.
 Helps move food through out __________________ system & prevents __________________ .
 Slows down the release of sugars, so we get a more even release of _________________ .


Water → About two thirds of our body weight is made up of water.
 We lose water through ________________, urine, faeces & in the air we __________________
 Helps to carry nutrients, blood cells & ______________________ around the body.
 Helps to control body ____________________ by absorbing _________________ produced during
exercise.

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                                Eating for Exercise

Energy Requirements
Energy is required by the body constantly, even when sleeping or resting:
 Maintain warmth
 Keep heart beating & lungs breathing
 Cell reactions


Everybody needs a certain amount of energy to stay alive, awake, and warm. This is
known as your BASAL METABOLIC RATE (BMR). To digest food and exercise we need
even more energy. This is called WORKING ENERGY, and depends on how active you
are.
For a teenager aged 15, total energy required would be 8800 – 11500 KJ.


             TOTAL ENERGY REQUIRED = BMR + WORKING ENERGY
                (It is measured in kilojoules – KJ, or kilocalories - C)

Name three factors that determine our energy needs:                                  [3]
1)     ____________________________________________________________

2)     ____________________________________________________________

3)     ____________________________________________________________


How does training affect our energy needs? – Research using the books available      [3]

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                   How Should we eat to Maximise Performance?

Eating Before Exercise
 Eat main meal at least 3-4 hours and snack meals at least one hour before exercise to
allow time for digestion.
 Include starches (bread, cereals, etc.) to give a slow and steady energy release.
 Avoid simple sugars (eg. cakes, jam, etc.) which will make you feel tired.
 Avoid foods high in fat and protein because they take longer to digest.
 Avoid dehydration by including plenty of water.

Eating During Exercise
 Take small amounts of fluids regularly (even if not feeling thirsty).
 Drink liquid glucose if possible to save limited stores of glycogen.

Eating After Exercise
 Replace any lost fluid.
Within an hour of exercising eat a high carbohydrate meal to replace glycogen stores
quickly.

Carbohydrate Loading (Carbo-loading)
Carbohydrate loading is a means of increasing the amount of carbohydrate, and
therefore glycogen, in our bodies. People who compete in events requiring a high level of
endurance, will often adopt a high carbohydrate diet. This helps provide energy for long
periods of time.
Endurance athletes will probably change their diet just before a major competition.
1) Intense training & reduced carbohydrate diet. (This will use glycogen stores). This is
achieved by consuming a diet high in protein and fats. This is done for a period of 3
days, a week before an event.

2) The level of exercise is reduced and the amount of carbohydrate in the diet
increased at least three days before competition. Athletes normally have pasta meals to
increase their carb stores. The muscles now store more glycogen than usual and can now
work for longer.

Carbo-loading is unnecessary in events that last less than 2 hours (continuous exercise)


What happens as we get older?
People tend to gain weight as they get older because the body’s metabolism slows down.
In the 40’s the body starts to lose lean muscle mass, meaning that fewer calories are
required. Additionally, there is a tendency to dehydrate quicker because the body
preserves less fluid.


                                             5
Sports foods that will improve performance

Drinks
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Food & Food Supplements
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Question
Describe the diet of a weightlifter and a marathon runner, in order to highlight the
differences between the two. Give examples of particular food types that might play
an important role in each athlete’s diet.
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                        PAST PAPER TYPE QUESTIONS


1) i) What happens to the carbohydrate and fat we take in but don’t use for energy? [1]
    ______________________________________________________________
  ii) How might exercise affect your weight?                                        [1]
    ______________________________________________________________
    ______________________________________________________________
  iii) How can lifestyles affect the energy needs of a person?                      [1]
    ______________________________________________________________
    ______________________________________________________________
  iv) Why is fluid intake an important consideration for a sports person?           [1]
    ______________________________________________________________
    ______________________________________________________________


2) “Weight can be lost by combining exercise with a healthy balanced diet.”

   i) What is meant by a balanced diet?                                            [1]
    ______________________________________________________________
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   ii) Suggest two reasons to support the statement above.                         [2]
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3) Some sports people have a high intake of carbohydrate before continuous exercise.
Suggest reasons for this.                                                          [4]
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4) [spec paper Q3(d) part ii]                                                [4]
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5) i) Explain how the blood circulatory system helps to stop the body over-heating
during exercise?                                                                     [1]
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  ii) Explain the meaning of the term dehydration.                                   [1]
    ______________________________________________________________
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  iii) How can dehydration affect a sportspersons performance                        [1]
    ______________________________________________________________
    ______________________________________________________________




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2005/06       TOTAL = 25 MARKS




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