preview readings final s12 by 69M6fJ4g


									Level Three Final Exam
‘Extensive Preview’ Reading Passages
Module 2
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) ....................................................................................................... 1
The Water Crisis ...................................................................................................................................... 3
Do we Inherit our Health? ...................................................................................................................... 5
Biomimicry .............................................................................................................................................. 7


      1. What are these?
They are 3 reading passages. One of these will be in your Final Exam. The idea behind these
preview readings is that you get to see what you are going to be tested on, long before the exam.
You will not know which reading will be used so you will have to read them all. And you will not
know what the questions are until the day of the exam. The marks for the exam will count towards
your L3 grade. The maximum possible for the exam will be 20% of your final grade. The midterm
exam you did about 2 weeks ago, was worth 10%. In total, the preview listenings and readings in the
Final Exam are worth about 12% to you. One of these readings alone is worth about 5% of your
total grade.

      2. Why are we doing this?
To help you. This gives you a chance to get higher grades through your own work. We have chosen
Reading and Listening because these were the areas that you did worst in the Level 3 Exams and the
IELTS Exam last semester. In addition, we think that if you work on the Extensive Preview Readings
and Listenings, your reading and listening ability generally will improve. This will be particularly
important if you pass Level 3 and go on to do IELTS. The passages in this exam were specially chosen
because they are very similar to those used in IELTS exams.

      3. What should you do with them?
Work on them independently and with your friends. You will only get a little help in class. Your
teacher will concentrate on your regular course. You will be sent some extra questions to help you
with these passages.

You should read the passages carefully and do everything you need to do to understand them, for

AM, GR, PS April 12                                Preview Reading for L3 Final Exam                                                                     1
        Highlight difficult or new words and find out what they mean.
        Write down in a few words what the topic is.
        Write down in a few words what the topic of each paragraph is.
        Find difficult sentences and ideas and work out exactly what they mean.
        Find all the pronouns (I, you, he, him, her, them, they etc.) and work out what they refer to.
        Make up questions that you think might be in the exam.
        Work with other students who are also repeating Level 3. Compare answers, share
         information, discuss each reading.

    4. What types of questions will be asked in the Reading section of
       the Extensive Preview exam?
Mostly, the same types of questions as in the Level 3 Mid-term and Final Exams, for example:

        Questions that ask about general meaning -
            o Identify the topic of the whole passage
            o Fill in gaps in a summary
            o Identify the topics of paragraphs
        Questions that ask about detailed meaning -
            o Identify specific information – people, things, amounts, names.
            o Identify specific ideas – how, why, what, when, which things happened.
            o Question types such as multiple choice, true/false/not given, matching, fact/opinion
        Questions that ask about certain words in the passage -
            o Choose the correct dictionary definitions
            o Choose the correct meaning of a word

    5. Will these readings be the only things tested in the exam?
No, you will also be tested on 2 of 4 ‘Extensive Preview’ Listening passages too. Also, remember,
you will only be tested on one of these readings. The listenings in the exam will be one dialogue
(conversation) and one lecture. So in the Final Exam there will be six parts:

    1. Listening 1 (a dialogue – conversation – that you have heard before, with 7 questions
    2. Listening 3 (a lecture that you have heard before with about 10 questions)
    3. Listening 4 (a lecture that is new to you with about 10 questions)
    4. Reading 1 /Understanding Graphics (5 Questions on an IELTS Writing Task 1 diagram, flow
       chart or map)
    5. Reading 2 (one of the readings in this reading booklet with 15 questions)
    6. Reading 3 (a reading passage that is new to you, with 15 questions)

Now it is up to you! Work hard and good luck!

AM, GR, PS April 12                Preview Reading for L3 Final Exam                                      2
The Water Crisis
Greater efficiency in water use is needed to meet the growing
demands of a changing world…

                                      A        Water usage per person has been on an upward trend for
                                      many years. As countries and their citizens become richer, their
                                      water usage quickly increases. Annual water usage in the USA, for
                                      example, is about 1,700 cubic metres per person, four times the
                                      level in China and fifty times the level in Ethiopia. In the 21st
                                      century, the world's limited supply of renewable fresh water is
                                       having to meet the demands of both a larger total population and
The reservoir behind Sameura Dam in
        Japan is running low.          increased individual consumption. The only ways to resolve this
                                       problem in the longer term are to charge more and to save more.

B       About 70% of the world's fresh water is used on farms, so improvements in irrigation could
be the most effective way of saving water. At present, up to 50% of water used in agriculture is
wasted. Simple changes could improve the rate substantially, but, unfortunately, this is difficult to
do in developing countries due to a lack of money and an untrained workforce.

C.      After agriculture, industry is the second biggest user of water. In monetary terms, it is sixty
times more productive than agriculture. However, some industrial processes use vast amounts of
water. For example, production of 1 kg of aluminium might require 1,500 litres, that's 1,500 kg of
water. Paper production uses a great deal of water too. Though new processes have greatly reduced
the amount of water used, a lot more reductions need to be made.

D       In rich countries, water usage has gradually been slowed
down by three things: use of modern technology, recycling and by
increasing the price of water. In the USA, for example, while industrial
production has risen four times since 1950, water consumption has
actually fallen by more than a third. Japan has also improved its use
of water in manufacturing processes. Japanese industry now recycles
more than 75% of the water it uses. In contrast, industrial water
                                                                                Many bodies of water on earth are
consumption in developing countries is continuing to increase sharply                      drying up.
. With domestic and agricultural demands also increasing in these
countries, it is very difficult for water supply systems to keep up.

E         Many experts believe that the best way to stop this trend is to make people pay what water
actually costs to produce. Few governments charge enough for water, especially to farmers. Even in
rich California, farmers get water for less than a tenth of the cost of supply. In many developing
countries there is virtually no charge for water for farming. Water, which was once regarded as a
free gift from heaven, is becoming a commodity which must be bought and sold on the open market
just like oil.

AM, GR, PS April 12                    Preview Reading for L3 Final Exam                                        3
F        Another way to cut back on water consumption is simply to prevent leaks and other
wastage. In some of the biggest cities of the Third World, more than half of the water entering the
system is lost through leaks in pipes, dripping taps and broken installations. Even in the UK, losses
were estimated at 25% in the early 1990s because of the failure to maintain the national water
system, which in many parts of the country is over 150 years old and badly in need of repair. In
addition, millions of tons of water are simply flushed away into rivers or the sea. The modern
approach is to see used water as a resource which can be put to good use - either in irrigation for
farms – or, after careful treatment, as recycled water for use in the home. Singapore, for instance,
has spent heavily on used water treatment. Treated, recycled water accounts for most farm
irrigation there and is even recycled back into domestic systems for drinking.

                         G         Another way of conserving water resources involves better
                         management of the environment generally. Interference with the ecosystem
                         can have a severe effect on both local rainfall patterns and water run-off.
                          Forest clearings associated with India's Kabini dam project reduced local
Finding clean water can   rainfall by 25%. This reduction in rainfall has been seen in several other parts
  be difficult in India.
                          of the world where large-scale deforestation has taken place. This is because
grass and trees act as a sponge which absorbs rainfall and feeds it slowly into the ground. Removal
of the trees means that rainfall runs off the top of the land, increasing erosion instead of being
gradually fed into the soil to renew ground water.

H          Global warming is bound to affect rainfall patterns, though there is considerable
disagreement about its precise effects. But it is likely that, as sea levels rise, countries in low-lying
coastal areas will be affected as seawater mixes with ground water. Other countries will see changes
in rainfall which could have a major impact on agriculture. Some countries will benefit and others
will suffer. In broad terms, it is thought that rainfall zones will move north, meaning even less rain
will fall in Africa, the Middle East and the Mediterranean.

Words: 809

Readability score: 10.6

AM, GR, PS April 12                Preview Reading for L3 Final Exam                                         4
 Do We Inherit Our Health?
 Whether or not we develop certain diseases is a family matter…

 A        We have all heard of people who do everything to stay healthy but then die of a heart attack
 at age 50. We also know of people who eat fatty foods, smoke, and never take exercise and yet live
 until they are 90. Most of us think a healthy diet plus regular exercise will give us a long, healthy life,
 but the reality is that there is another factor in the health equation: genetic

 B       You only have to look at the similarities between members of your own
 family to see that many physical characteristics are inherited by children from
 parents and grandparents. A son may have his mother’s nose; a granddaughter
 may have her grandfather’s eyes. But it is not just physical characteristics like
 hair or eye colour that are passed down from one generation to the next. It is also            Mendelian genetic
 our general health.                                                                            inheritance chart.

 C        It has been known for a long time that diseases like heart disease, diabetes and thalassemia
 can be caused by a defective or damaged gene which is passed down in the family. Scientists are
 now discovering that many other diseases also have family roots. These include high blood pressure,
 allergies and even depression and mental illness.

 D         Of course, genes are not the only cause of disease. Environment and lifestyle also play an
 important role. For example, a woman with a family history of lung cancer that lives in a polluted city
 may have an even greater chance of developing the disease because of where she lives. If she lived
 in a city where the air was cleaner, she would lower her risk. Similarly, someone with a strong
 history of family diabetes can lower the probability of getting the disease by having a very healthy
 lifestyle. In these situations, it is a combination of both genes and environment which leads to

 E         It is important to understand, therefore, that most of us inherit a tendency rather than a
Model of DNA. definite disease. This is known as genetic predisposition. A man who has a history of
               heart disease in his family will not definitely suffer a heart attack, but he is more likely to
               have one than a person without this genetic factor. In other words, his or her genetic
               predisposition to heart attack is greater. Knowledge about genetic predisposition is
               helping doctors find the causes of many common diseases as well as to recommend ways
               to stop them occurring. The good news here is that if you know you are genetically
               predisposed to a certain illness, you can change your lifestyle to cut down the risk of
               getting it.

 F      Many of the links between genes and diseases have been discovered through the Human
 Genome Project. In this project, an international team of scientists set out to investigate all the
 information which is stored in human genes and the diseases they may cause. This vast investigation
 was completed in the year 2003, and produced the genome record, a kind of “handbook of human

 AM, GR, PS April 12                 Preview Reading for L3 Final Exam                                         5
life”. It contained a description of every single one of our 25,000 genes of more than 3 billion
chemical base pairs that make them up. It was an enormous project it has brought even more
enormous benefit. Just in terms of money, for example, it cost $3.8 billion dollars, but, according to
the Batelle Report*, has created $796 billion worth of business and jobs.

G        The main benefit, however, has been in terms of health. Finding the genes which lead to
specific diseases is revolutionizing modern medicine. Doctors can print out a baby’s genetic code on
a computer as soon as it is born – or even before birth. This precious information is called our
genetic blueprint. It shows many the diseases which might affect the baby in later life and can even
say what that person will probably die of and when.

H        Similarly for adults, a range of genetic tests can now tell us our chances of getting certain
diseases. This information enables doctors and their patients to take more appropriate action. Such
action might be simple; for example, checking regularly for early signs of a particular type of cancer
so that, if it appears, treatment can be given quickly, before it spreads . Or it might be in terms of
changing diet, eating less red meat, for example, in order to reduce the chances of a heart attack.
Or, increasingly, the action taken might be one of the newer, more complicated treatments. Doctors
are now giving drugs which are specifically designed for people with particular genes. Doctors are
even developing methods of ‘gene replacement’: replacing ‘faulty’ genes with healthy ones.

I        Finally, let us not forget the example we began with: those lucky people who, despite
smoking and eating fatty food, enjoy good health even into their 90s. Apparently, we do not just
inherit ‘faulty’ genes. The Human Genome project has revealed that we can also get protective
genes from our parents and grandparents and these defend us against many diseases, even, in some
cases, the common cold.


Words: 842

Readability score: 10.7

AM, GR, PS April 12                      Preview Reading for L3 Final Exam                           6

        Nature often provides the solutions to man-
        made problems…

        A.       Have you ever wondered how designers decide on the
        shape and properties of the things they design? Take the
        Shinkansen bullet train in Japan, for example. Instead of having      Any similarity? A Japanese ‘bullet train’
        a rounded front like most other trains, the designers of this         and a kingfisher.
        train looked to a bird called the kingfisher for inspiration. This
        bird dives from the air into water at great speed, and its beak helps it to do this. Next time you see a
        picture of the Shinkansen look at the front of the train and notice the similarity with a kingfisher's
        beak. This design feature means that the train can enter tunnels at high speed because there's no
        pressure wave as with ordinary trains. Also, it means that this train uses 15% less electricity than
        conventional trains. The design of the Shinkansen bullet train is just one example of biomimicry.

                                    B.       So, what is 'biomimicry' exactly? The word was first used by
                                    Janine Benyus, a natural history writer, in 1998. It is made from two
                                    words: 'bio' meaning life and ‘mimic’ meaning imitate or copy.
                                    Biomimicry is a new field that studies nature's best ideas and then tries
                                    to use these designs and processes to solve human problems. As Janine
Velcro – simple idea, multiple      says, "It's important to look at nature - after all, it has had 3.8 billion
uses                                years to come up with ideas."

        C.       Of course, there were early examples of biomimicry. The Wright brothers, for instance,
        spent years observing pigeons as part of their attempts to build the first aeroplane, which they
        finally completed in 1903. Several decades later, businesses began to realize that nature could help
        them, too. Probably one of the most well-known nature-inspired technologies of the last century is
        the fastener, Velcro. The man who invented this, George de Mestral, is said to have been inspired by
        burrs (seeds that stick clothes and other surfaces and are difficult to take off). He constantly had to
        remove these from his dog's fur. De Mestral went on to invent Velcro, widely used today as a
        fastener for shoes, wallets and other items.

        D.      However, it wasn't until the late 20th century that many companies really started to spend
        time and money looking at biological solutions for technological challenges. After Janine Benyus's
        book, Biomimicry: Innovation Inspired by Nature, was published, entrepreneurs from all over the
        world started calling her, seeking advice on resolving a particular issue in a non-traditional, nature-
        copying way. The world's first Biomimicry Institute was set up in 2005, with a team of consultants
        trained to help businesses."Product designers contact us, we learn what it is they're trying to do, and
        we look for that same function in the natural world." says Ms Benyus. Her clients range from NASA
        to a multitude of companies.

        E.      "There are three types of biomimicry - one is copying form and shape, another is copying a
        process, like photosynthesis in a leaf, and the third is trying to copy an ecosystem, like building a

        AM, GR, PS April 12                Preview Reading for L3 Final Exam                                      7
 nature-inspired city," says Ms Benyus. “Businesses are usually interested
 in the first two categories,” she adds. One example of an idea that has
 been adopted on a large scale is a kind of paint that makes use of the
 shape of a lotus leaf. This species of plant has small bumps on its leaves
 and this makes them self-cleaning: the tiny bumps mean that when it
 rains the dirt on the leaves is washed off. The paint company, Lotusan,    Raindrops sliding off a lotus leaf
 has developed a paint that works in the same way and, up to now, this
 self-cleaning paint has been used on more than 350,000 buildings in Europe.

 F.       The lotus leaf-inspired paint shows that solutions from nature can be more environmentally-
 friendly than man-made ideas; if paint on buildings is self-cleaning it lasts longer so buildings don't
 need to be repainted as often. The company benefits because maintenance costs are reduced and
 also the environment benefits because resources are used more wisely. This point is key because if
 designers and inventors look to nature for ideas, solutions are likely to be more ecologically sound.
 Natural processes and designs tend to be efficient. They use less material and energy and are less
 damaging to the environment than many man-made inventions.

 G.        A good example of a “green building” is the Eastgate Centre in Harare, Zimbabwe. The
 architects who designed this office and shopping complex wanted a building that used very little
 energy. They were so successful that they came up with a building that uses only 10% of the energy
                         that a similarly-sized building would normally consume. How did they do it?
                         Surprisingly, they made use of the cleverness of the termite, an insect that
                         builds a hill out of soil, in which it keeps its food source. The hill must be kept
                         at a certain temperature and termites maintain the temperature by opening
                         and closing holes in the hill. The architects used this idea and the Eastgate
                         Centre has a series of vents, or holes, which mean that the building can be
Just perfect – a termite kept at a constant temperature without the use of air-conditioning or heating.

 H.      "I'm sure all of the answers to what we want to solve exist in some form or another, in
 nature," says Ms Welch, a designer who has used biomimicry principles in her work."Nature provides
 balanced solutions."Human beings have demonstrated a terrible track record of maintaining
 environmental balance in trying to solve 'problems'. So copying nature may just be the way to go."

 900 words
 Readability Score: 10.1
 Adapted from:Biomimicry: Beaks on trains and flipper-like turbinesby Katia Moskvitch ( Other
 sources: www.inhabit; comwww.biomimicryinstitute

 AM, GR, PS April 12                Preview Reading for L3 Final Exam                                     8

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