World War II 29 by 4U1mf0

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									          World War II
Know?
Want to Know?
Learned?
World War II
World War II
Voices from the past:

 "I would say to the House, as I said to those
  who have joined this Government, I have
  nothing to offer but blood, toil, tears and
  sweat. We have before us an ordeal of the
  most grievous kind. We have before us many
  long months of toil and struggle…

Questions?
World War II
   …You ask what is our policy. I will say, it is to
    wage war with all our might, with all the
    strength that God can give us, to wage war
    against a monstrous tyranny never surpassed
    in the dark, lamentable catalogue of human
    crime…

   Questions?
World War II
   …You ask what is our aim? I can answer in
    one word: Victory. Victory at all costs. Victory
    in spite of all terror. Victory however long and
    hard the road may be. For without victory
    there is no survival.”
   Questions?
   Winston Churchill, Prime Minister of Great
    Britain, 1940.
World War II
-   Given as Britain was being bombed by the German
    air force, awaiting invasion by the German army
    across the English Channel.
-   France had surrendered, leaving Britain to face the
    threat of Mussolini and Hitler alone.
-   Interesting fact:
-   Churchill is considered one of the greatest public
    speakers of the 20th century…
-   Yet he struggled with stuttering when he spoke…
Lady Astor to Churchill:
  "Winston, if you were
  my husband I would
  flavour your coffee with
  poison."

Churchill:
  "Madam, if I were your
  husband, I should drink
  it."
World War II
        Objectives for today:
    1.     To understand the causes of World War II.
    2.     To identify why the United States got involved in the war.
    3.     To observe the scope and scale of the war.
    4.     To forecast the future effects of the war.

        Text: Chapter 29
World War II
   Review
   The Great Depression in the U.S. had ripple effects
    all around the globe.
   Germany, Italy, and other European nations were
    particularly hard hit.
   Question: How does this set the stage for strict
    dictators to rise to power?
   Poverty, joblessness and despair opened the door
    for fascist dictators to rise to power in several
    European nations.
   “Trains will run on time!” – Benito Mussolini, Italy
   1923
       1 American Penny =
        42 billion German Marks

       Hyperinflation caused by
        overprinting money.
World War II
   Review
   These dictators blamed the ruin and
    economic disaster of their countries on
    foreigners, Communists, and in some cases,
    Jews.
   Facism: a military dictatorship built on racist
    and nationalistic principles.
         Benito Mussolini – Italy
         Adolf Hitler – Germany
World War II
“The Eternal Jew”
Causes
   Appeasement
       Germany:
         Hitler absorbed Austria and Czechoslovakia with no
           resistance (1938-39).
       Italy:
         Mussolini supported the overthrow of the Spanish Republic
           and invaded Ethiopia (1935-36).
       Japan:
         Takes Manchuria and Peking (1931, 1937).
       The U.S., unwilling to get involved in another European
        conflict, passes the Neutrality Act in 1935.
       FDR signs the act reluctantly.
Causes
This map shows the
  spread of dictatorships
  in Europe during WWII.
Causes
Involvement
   The U.S. eased into WW II.
   The American public was in no mood for another
    war.
   Hitler takes Czechoslovakia and Poland, and Britain
    and France respond by declaring war on Germany.
   Roosevelt urges Congress to allow the U.S. to sell
    weapons to G.B. and France.
   Cash and carry policy: Allies buy weapons with cash
    and transport in their own ships.
Blitzkrieg: The Lightning War
Involvement
   Hitler invades Norway, Denmark, the
    Netherlands, and Belgium.
   France surrenders, G.B. stands alone.
   U.S. steps up aid, providing 50 old WW I
    destroyers.
   Lend-lease policy: the U.S. lends war
    supplies that would be returned by G.B.
   U.S. gets involved in the battle for the
    Atlantic.
Involvement
Involvement
   Germany turns on the USSR, a former ally
    through their non-aggression pact.
   Churchill in response to U.S. aid to the
    USSR:
   “I have only one purpose, the destruction of
    Hitler…If Hitler invaded Hell I would at least
    make a favorable reference to the Devil in the
    House of Commons.”
Involvement
   Pearl Harbor
       The U.S. sought peace with Japan, which was
        rejected by Japan.
   December 7, 1941
       “Air Raid on Pearl Harbor. This is no Drill.”
       Conspiracy theory?
   Japanese victories in the Pacific:
       Guam, Wake Island, Hong Kong, Singapore,
        Thailand, Bataan, Philippines, Burma, East
        Indies.
Scope and Scale
   German success in Europe:
       Occupies most of Europe, North Africa, deep into
        the Soviet Union.
   Turning Point:
       The Battle of Stalingrad
       Four months of desperate, house-to-house
        fighting
       The city was destroyed, 1.5 million dead.
       The Red Army surrounds Hitler’s freezing army in
        February 1943.
Scope and Scale
   North Africa
       American and British forces push Erwin Rommel
        (The “Desert Fox”) and his Afrika Korps out of
        North Africa
       This ends the war in North Africa.
       Exposes the “soft underbelly” of Europe.
   Erwin Rommel
   “The Desert Fox”
Scope and Scale
   Italy:
   British and Americans invade Italy
   Mussolini is overthrown and the new
    government quickly surrenders.
Scope and Scale
   Normandy Invasion
   June 6, 1944
   “Operation Overlord”
   176,000 Allied troops
   Largest amphibious force in history
   60 mile coastline in France
Scope and Scale
   Soviet advance
   Closing in from the east.
   Eventually meet the American forces in
    Germany.
Scope and Scale
   The End of the War - 1945
   Feb 4: The Yalta Conference
       Roosevelt, Churchill, Stalin (The Big Three)
       Discuss final invasion of Germany
       Agree to create a peace organization in San
        Francisco later that year.
Scope and Scale
   April 12: Roosevelt Dies
       Massive cerebral hemorrhage in Georgia.
       V.P. Harry Truman sworn in.
   April 24: Manhattan Project
       Top secret plan to develop atomic bomb revealed
        to Truman.
       He is reluctant to use it.
Scope and Scale
   April 30: Hitler Commits Suicide
       In a bomb-proof Berlin bunker, Hitler marries his
        mistress, Eva Braun.
       He poisons her, then kills himself.
       His remains are never recovered.
   May 7: German Surrender
       The Germans officially surrender to Gen.
        Eisenhower at Rheims, France.
       To the Soviets in Berlin.
       “V Day” is May 8.
Scope and Scale
   August 6: Hiroshima
       Enola Gay drops the bomb on this industrial city of
        344,000.
       80,000 die immediately, 100,000 seriously injured.
       98% of city’s buildings leveled.
       Even the makers of the weapon are astounded by its
        destructive capability.
       Ethical questions surround Truman’s decision to use the
        bomb.
   August 9: Nagasaki
   August 14: Japan Surrenders
       Gen. MacArthur accepts the formal, unconditional
        surrender of Japan aboard the USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay.
Effects of WW II
   War Deaths
       American Civil War – 620,000
       WWI combat total – 10,000,000 dead (16X)
       WWII combat total – 30,000,000 dead (48X)
       WWII total death – 55,000,000 dead (88X)
       Populations today:
           Australia – 20 mil.
           Canada – 33 mil.
           South Korea – 49 mil.
           Italy – 58 mil.
Effects of WW II
   The “Final Solution”
       6 million Jews perish in concentration camps.
       Slavs, East Europeans, gypsies and homosexuals
        are likewise killed in the millions.
   Further reading:
       Art Spiegelman’s Maus I and II
Effects of WW II
   American Losses in the Pacific
   Iwo Jima
       March 16, 1945 (1 month long)
       25,000 U.S. Marines die
       Last line of radar defense for Japan
   Okinawa
       April 1, 1945 (Easter Sunday/April Fools)
       80,000 American casualties
       Costliest of the Pacific battles
Effects of WW II
   Future Ramifications
   Eastern Europe and parts of China were given to Stalin in return
    for his declaration of war against Germany.
   Similar to the Treaty of Versailles that ended WWI.
   The Soviets begin building a bloc of buffer states: Eastern
    Europe, China, North Korea, etc.
   In part, the U.S. decided to drop the bomb on Japan as a
    deterrent to the new threat of the Soviets.
   This ushers in a new world order in which the U.S.A. and USSR
    vie for world dominance, commonly known as
   THE COLD WAR
   To be continued…
Homework
   Thinking Maps
       Discussion Webs:
       Should the U.S. have entered WW II?
       Should one country intervene militarily in the
        affairs of another to protect property owned by its
        citizens?
       Timeline
       Choose a topic from the following list:
Projects
   Topics for further exploration: (Groups of 3)
       The Manhattan Project
       Concentration camps
       New weaponry in WWII
       Normandy Beach landing
       Japanese internment
       Social change in the U.S. during WWII

       Dunkirk evacuation
       Iwo Jima
       Swiss neutrality
Projects
   Find, read and print one source of
    information.
   No wikipedia! Only authoritative sources.
   Share information and discuss the important
    facts to be shared with the class.
   You choose the method by which your topic
    will be shared.
   5 minute allotment.

								
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