Middle EAST UNIT INFORMATION SHEET by esOP59

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									                                                   UNIT 2
                                            Geography and Culture
                                                 Middle East

 Unit Focus: The focus of this important first unit is on the Social Studies CONCEPTS (themes and enduring
 understandings). These concepts will be linked to students’ own experience and knowledge in order to apply them
 to their daily lives which will make the Georgia Performance Standard more relevant to the student.

 In addition, this unit focuses on the location of nations and physical features in Southwestern Asia (Middle East); the
 cultural development of the world’s three major monotheistic religions; the division between Sunni and Shia Muslims;
 and the diversity of religions within ethnic groups in the region. This knowledge will help students understand the
 structure of governments and the conflicts and change in the Middle East that is taught in Unit 2.



                                      SOCIAL STUDIES CONCEPTS
                                  (Themes and Enduring Understandings)

      When there is conflict between or within societies, change is the result.
      The culture of a society is the product of the religion, beliefs, customs, traditions, and government of
       that society.
      As a society increases in complexity and interacts with other societies, the complexity of the
       government also increases.
      Humans, their society, and the environment affect each other.
      The movement or migration of people and ideas affects all societies involved.
      Location affects a society’s economy, culture, and development.
      While change occurs over time, there is continuity to the basic structure of that society.
      The production, distribution, and consumption of goods/services produced by the society are affected
       by the location, customs, beliefs, and laws of the society.


SS7G5 ………The student will locate selected features in Southwestern Asia (Middle East).
SS7G5b   Locate on a world and regional political-physical map the nations of Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq,
         Israel, Saudi Arabia, and Turkey.
SS7G5a   Locate on a world and regional political-physical map: Euphrates River, Jordan River, Tigris
         River, Suez Canal, Persian Gulf, Strait of Hormuz, Arabian Sea, Red Sea, and Gaza Strip.

SS7G8 ………The student will describe the diverse cultures of the people who live in Southwest Asia.
SS7G8c   Compare and contrast the prominent religions in Southwest Asia (Middle East):
         Judaism, Islam, and Christianity.
SS7G8d   Explain the reason for the division between Sunni and Shia Muslims.
SS7G8a   Explain the differences between an ethnic group and a religious group.
SS7G8b   Explain the diversity of religions within the Arabs, Persians, and Kurds.




                       Enduring Understandings and Unit Essential Questions
                                           The student will understand that…

Location affects a society’s economy, culture, and development.
    Where are the major physical features and nations of the Middle East located?

Religion plays a role in the development of a culture’s ideas and beliefs and its influence on the world.
     What are some similarities and differences between the religions of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam?

Cultural and religious divisions affect the development of a region.
    Why did Islam split into two sects, and how has that split affected the people of the Middle East?
                                                    UNIT 1 VOCABULARY

Abraham......................              the first monotheist, whose descendants are known as Jews, founder of Judaism
Arab..............................ethnic group located in the Middle East and North Africa; language spoken is Arabic
Bible..............................religious text/book for the Christian religion
Caliph...........................title used by rulers of the Muslim community from 632-1924
Christianity..................a religion that developed out of Judaism and was based on the life and teachings of Jesus
Church..........................place of worship for the Christian religion
Crusades.......................from the 11th century on, armies of Christian soldiers (spurred on by the Pope) led Crusades to
                                 liberate the holy land from the Muslims.
Diaspora.......................exile of the Jews from their holy land in Jerusalem, Jews settled elsewhere for thousands of
                                 years, many returned following the establishment of Israel in 1948
Ethnic Group................belonging to the cultural, racial, religious, or linguistic traditions of a people or country:
Five Pillars of Islam
         Faith.................believe in 1 God, Muhammad was his messenger
         Prayer..............5 times each day in the direction of Mecca
         Charity............donate 2.5% of wealth for charitable purposes
         Fast..................no food or water from sunrise to sunset during the month of Ramadan
         Hajj..................Muslim pilgrimage (religious journey) to Mecca, the birthplace of Muhammad at least
                                 once in a lifetime (if able)
Islam..............................a religion that teaches that there is one God and Muhammad is his messenger
Jesus..............................founder of a religion of love & forgiveness whose followers, called Christians, believe he is the
                                 Messiah or Savior
Jerusalem......................city in Israel considered holy by Jews, Christians, and Muslims
Judaism.........................the first monotheistic religion, founded by Abraham, and whose followers are called Jews
Kurd..............................an ethnic group that lives in the mountainous regions of Armenia, Georgia, Iran, Iraq, Lebanon,
                                 Syria, and turkey; most are Sunni Muslims; Kurds do not have their own state/country
Mecca............................birthplace of Muhammad, city located in the modern country of Saudi Arabia, Muslims try to
                                 make a hajj/pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in their lifetime
Monotheism..................belief in one god
Mosque..........................place of worship for the Islamic religion (Islam)
Muhammad..................founder of Islam whom Muslims believe to be God’s prophet
Muslim..........................follower of the religion of Islam
Orthodox.......................strict observance of a particular religion; (old school)
Persian..........................ethnic group located primarily in Iran (Iran was formally the Persian Empire)
Polytheism....................belief in many gods
Qur’an..........................religious text/book for the Islamic religion (Islam)
Ramadan......................Celebrates the gift of the Qur'an. During the month of Ramadan, Muslims must fast between
                                 sunrise and sunset.
Religious Group...........people who identify closely with a set of beliefs that influence their culture.
                                 Example: Christians and Muslims appeal to many different ethnic groups, whereas,
                                 Judaism is mostly associated with ethnic Jews.
Rosh Hashanah............the Jewish New Year
Secular..........................religion plays a less important role in one’s life; more interest in living a modern way of life
Shia...............................The Shiites believed that Mohammad had designated Ali as his successor and spiritual heir.
                                 There are two important aspects here. First, the idea that Mohammad's heir should be from
                                 Mohammad's family. Second, that unlike the Sunnis, the successor should be a religious and
                                 political leader.
Sunni.............................80%-85% of Muslims are Sunnis, Sunnis believe that Mohammad did not appoint a successor
                                 (replacement), and therefore one had to be appointed by the Muslims themselves. This led to the
                                 establishment of the Caliphate, a series of men who took over Mohammad's worldly power, but
                                 who made no claim to be Mohammad's spiritual successor.
Synagogue.....................place of worship for the Jewish religion (Judaism)
Torah.............................religious text/book for the Jewish religion (Judaism), made up of the first 5 books of the Old
                                 Testament (Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Deuteronomy, Numbers)
Yom Kippur.................Jewish Day of Atonement; a day for fasting and reflecting on one’s sins

								
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