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Geology 101 - Fall 2006 Exam #3 Here are some potential answers for questions 1-15 below. Put the correct letters in the blanks to the left of the questions. Some of these answers may not be used and some may be used more than once. a. continental crust l. mid ocean ridge b. oceanic crust m. subduction zone c. lithosphere n. passive margin d. asthenosphere o. continental rift e. upper mantle p. continent-continent collision f. lower mantle q. transform fault g. outer core r. P-wave h. inner core s. S-wave I. Benioff zone t. Surface wave j. hot spot u. Mercalli wave k. continental rift v. Richter wave 1. Parts of the Earth are solid, and parts are molten. Where in the Earth is most of the molten material found? 2. Which part of Earth is primarily basalt? 3. The plates that are drifting around on our globe are part of Earths what? 4. What type of plate boundary is associated with the Himalayas? 5. What type of plate boundary is associated with the east coast of the United States? 6. What type of plate boundary is associated with the Cascade Mountains of Washington and Oregon? 7. What type of plate boundary is associated with the Red Sea? 8. Where on Earth is new crust being created? 9. Where on Earth is crust being consumed? 10. Which part of the Earth is made primarily of solid iron with lesser amounts of nickel, sulfur and other elements? 11. What tectonic feature is responsible for the creation of Mauna Kea? 12. Deep ocean trenches are associated with what tectonic feature? 13. S-waves cannot travel through the ________________. 14. What type of seismic wave is often responsible for the most damage to buildings? 15. What kind of seismic wave arrives at a seismometer the soonest after an earthquake occurs? 16. The 1988 Armenian earthquake had a Richter magnitude of 6.9, less than the 1994 Northridge California earthquake. Nevertheless, the loss of life was greater in the Armenian event. Why? 17. If you were to take a trip to the center of the Earth, you would notice a significant change as you traveled from the mantle into the outer core. Describe the nature and composition of the material on both sides of the core-mantle boundary. 18. What are "apparent polar wander paths" and how do we measure/determine them? How do they support the theory of plate tectonics? 19. Where are the deepest parts of the ocean found, and why? 20. Describe the supercontinent cycle. 21. Which of the following may form in places where the earth's crust is being extended (pulled apart)? (Circle all that are correct.) anticlines synclines normal faults reverse faults 22. Name one island arc and explain how it formed. 23. Where are the world's tallest mountains found today? How were they formed? 24. Most of the world's mountain belts are near the edges of continents. Why? 25. How do geologists determine absolute (numerical) age dates, and how do they determine relative as dates? 26. Geologists use different radioactive element to determine the age of a particular rock or mineral. Uranium-lead dating works best for older rocks, whereas potassium-argon dating works better for younger rocks. Why? Why are some radioactive dating techniques best for young rocks and some best for older rocks? 27. In general, absolute ages are more easily and accurately determined for igneous rocks than they are for sedimentary or metamorphic rocks. Why?
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