Astronomy Mr by T4zZpUK

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									            Astronomy
               Mr. King




9/12/2012                 1
     1.     Compare the surface
            of the moon with the
            surface of the earth.
               Earth’s atmosphere causes
                erosion.
               Earth’s surface is smooth with
                many changes. New surfaces are
                always being created by
                volcanoes, weather, and erosion.
               Moon has little atmosphere. There
                is no erosion so the surface is
                rough and old.
9/12/2012                                       2
      2.
            Give a brief
            description of the
            moon’s history.
               Craters are very old.
               At one time, the moon went
                through a volcanic period.
               Magma flowed through cracks and
                filled craters.
               Dark areas on the moon (filled
                craters) are called: maries


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            3.   Describe three
                 theories that may
                 account for the origin
                 of the moon.
                    Daughter Theory - moon was part
                     of the earth.
                    Sister Theory - both were formed
                     at the same time.
                    Capture Theory - Moon was
                     traveling and was captured by the
                     earth.

9/12/2012                                            4
            4.   Describe the
                 motions of the earth-
                 moon system.
                    Motion of the moon accounts for
                     the tides.
                    Moon revolves around the earth
                     every 27 days.
                    The moon rotates every 27 days
                     so that the same face of the moon
                     points at the earth.



9/12/2012                                                5
            Describe the
            motions of the earth-
            moon system.
               Motion of the earth accounts for the tides.
               Moon revolves around the earth every 27 days.
               The moon rotates every 27 days so that the same face
                of the moon points at the earth.




9/12/2012                                                          6
            Describe the
            motions of the earth-
            moon system.
               Motion of the earth accounts for the tides.
               Moon revolves around the earth every 27 days.
               The moon rotates every 27 days so that the same face
                of the moon points at the earth.




9/12/2012                                                          7
            Describe the
            motions of the earth-
            moon system.
               Motion of the earth accounts for the tides.
               Moon revolves around the earth every 27 days.
               The moon rotates every 27 days so that the same face
                of the moon points at the earth.




9/12/2012                                                          8
            Describe the
            motions of the earth-
            moon system.
               Motion of the earth accounts for the tides.
               Moon revolves around the earth every 27 days.
               The moon rotates every 27 days so that the same face
                of the moon points at the earth.




9/12/2012                                                          9
            Describe the
            motions of the earth-
            moon system.
               Motion of the earth accounts for the tides.
               Moon revolves around the earth every 27 days.
               The moon rotates every 27 days so that the same face
                of the moon points at the earth.




9/12/2012                                                         10
            Describe the
            motions of the earth-
            moon system.
               Motion of the earth accounts for the tides.
               Moon revolves around the earth every 27 days.
               The moon rotates every 27 days so that the same face
                of the moon points at the earth.




9/12/2012                                                         11
            Describe the
            motions of the earth-
            moon system.
               Motion of the earth accounts for the tides.
               Moon revolves around the earth every 27 days.
               The moon rotates every 27 days so that the same face
                of the moon points at the earth.




9/12/2012                                                         12
            Describe the
            motions of the earth-
            moon system.
               Motion of the earth accounts for the tides.
               Moon revolves around the earth every 27 days.
               The moon rotates every 27 days so that the same face
                of the moon points at the earth.




9/12/2012                                                         13
            Describe the
            motions of the earth-
            moon system.
               Motion of the earth accounts for the tides.
               Moon revolves around the earth every 27 days.
               The moon rotates every 27 days so that the same face
                of the moon points at the earth.




9/12/2012                                                         14
            Describe the
            motions of the earth-
            moon system.
               Motion of the earth accounts for the tides.
               Moon revolves around the earth every 27 days.
               The moon rotates every 27 days so that the same face
                of the moon points at the earth.




9/12/2012                                                         15
            Describe the
            motions of the earth-
            moon system.
               Motion of the earth accounts for the tides.
               Moon revolves around the earth every 27 days.
               The moon rotates every 27 days so that the same face
                of the moon points at the earth.




9/12/2012                                                         16
            Describe the
            motions of the earth-
            moon system.
               Motion of the earth accounts for the tides.
               Moon revolves around the earth every 27 days.
               The moon rotates every 27 days so that the same face
                of the moon points at the earth.




9/12/2012                                                         17
            Describe the
            motions of the earth-
            moon system.
               Motion of the earth accounts for the tides.
               Moon revolves around the earth every 27 days.
               The moon rotates every 27 days so that the same face
                of the moon points at the earth.




9/12/2012                                                         18
       5.   Explain how eclipses
            of the sun and moon
            occur.
               Solar Eclipse: Moon is between the
                sun and the earth - happens at a
                new moon.



               Lunar Eclipse: Earth is between
                the sun and the moon - happens at
                a full moon

9/12/2012                                       19
        6.
             Describe ways of
             gaining information
             about the stars.
                Stars give off: infrared, x-rays,
                 ultraviolet, radio wave and different
                 colors of light.
                By spectroscope, each star’s light
                 is split into colors. Each star has a
                 different set of colors.



9/12/2012                                            20
9/12/2012   21
            7.   List two ways of
                 finding the distance
                 between the earth and
                 a star.
                    Parallax - use angles to find the
                     distance.




                    Brightness - the closer a star is to
                     us, the brighter.
9/12/2012                                                   22
             List two ways of
             finding the distance
             between the earth and
             a star.
                Parallax - use angles to find the
                 distance.
            Known
            distance




                Brightness - the closer a star is to
                 us, the brighter.
9/12/2012                                               23
             List two ways of
             finding the distance
             between the earth and
             a star.
                Parallax - use angles to find the
                 distance.
            Known
            distance




                Brightness - the closer a star is to
                 us, the brighter.
9/12/2012                                               24
             List two ways of
             finding the distance
             between the earth and
             a star.
                Parallax - use angles to find the
                 distance.
            Known
            distance


                                  Angle-side-angle

                Brightness - the closer a star is to
                 us, the brighter.
9/12/2012                                               25
            8.
                 Be able to identify
                 these constellations.




9/12/2012                                26
            Be able to identify
            these constellations.
                     Orion




9/12/2012                           27
            Be able to identify
            these constellations.
                         Orion




                 Little Dipper
9/12/2012                           28
            Be able to identify
            these constellations.
                         Orion




                                 Big Dipper

                 Little Dipper
9/12/2012                                     29
            Be able to identify
            these constellations.
                                   Leo the
                         Orion     Lion




                                 Big Dipper

                 Little Dipper
9/12/2012                                     30
            Be able to identify
            these constellations.
                                   Leo the
                         Orion     Lion



                 Cassiopeia




                                 Big Dipper

                 Little Dipper
9/12/2012                                     31
            Be able to identify
            these constellations.
                                       Leo the
                             Orion     Lion



                     Cassiopeia




                                     Big Dipper

                     Little Dipper
9/12/2012   Cygnus                                32
            Be able to identify
            these constellations.
                                       Leo the
                             Orion     Lion



                     Cassiopeia




                                     Big Dipper

                     Little Dipper
9/12/2012   Cygnus                                33
            Be able to identify
            these constellations.
                                       Leo the
                             Orion     Lion



                     Cassiopeia




                                     Big Dipper

                     Little Dipper
9/12/2012   Cygnus                                34
            Be able to identify
            these constellations.
                                          Leo the
                             Orion        Lion



                     Cassiopeia
                 Polaris (North Star)


                                        Big Dipper

                     Little Dipper
9/12/2012   Cygnus                                   35
     9.     Relate the color of a
            star to its age and
            temperature
               Nebula: (Gas cloud) low or no
                temperature
               1st stage: Main sequence star medium
                temperature the color is usually yellow -
                our own sun is this.
               2nd stage: Red Giant, color red and the
                star is at a cooler temp.
               3rd stage: White Dwarf - white or blue -
                very hot will blow up in a Nova
               Final stage Neutron star - Black hole

9/12/2012                                                   36
     10.
            Explain what a light
            year is.
               A light year is the distance it takes for
                light to travel in one year.
               Alpha Centauri is our closets star (not
                including our own sun) that is 4.5 light
                years away.
               Light travels 300,000 meters in one
                second




9/12/2012                                                   37
     11.    Describe the
            structure of the Milky
            Way Galaxy.
               It is a spiral galaxy
               Our solar system is about
                30,000 light years away from
                the center
               The diameter of the Galaxy is
                about 100,000 light years
                across.
               About 400 billion stars.
9/12/2012                                       38
     12.
            Explain Red Shift.
               It is just like the Doppler effect
                where as a train nears you the
                sound waves are at a higher
                pitch than when it passes you.
               Light from stars does this also.
                When a star is moving away
                from us, it gives off a red glow,
                when it comes towards us,
                there is a blue glow.
9/12/2012                                        39
     13.    Define: Quasar,
            supernova, nebula
            and Black hole
               Quasar: Very distant large
                galaxies that give off a red
                shift.
               Supernova: This is when a
                star explodes.
               Nebula: Start of a new star;
                large pockets of gas.
               Black hole: A star that
                collapses where there is no
9/12/2012       space between the atoms.       40
     14.
            Name and Describe
            the layers of the sun.
               Central Core 15,000,000 K
                Makes the energy - turns
                hydrogen into helium.
               Photosphere is the light ball at
                6,000 K
               Atmosphere or
                Chromospheres gives off a
                faint red light
               Coronae creates the solar
9/12/2012       wind.                          41
            15.
                  Describe sunspots
                  and prominences
                     Sunspots are cooler areas of
                      the sun. They go through a 10
                      year period of many sunspots
                      to few. Some years, tree rings
                      are smaller indicating more
                      sunspots.
                     Prominences are solar flares or
                      hot spots on the sun that shoot
                      high up in the chromospheres.
9/12/2012                                         42
            15.
                  Explain how the sun
                  affects the earth.
                     The sun gives all energy to the
                      earth (minus geothermal
                      energy)- plants take in the
                      energy and transfer to animals.
                     However, harmful rays from
                      the solar winds are deflected
                      by the atmosphere and
                      magnetic field of the earth.

9/12/2012                                         43
            16.
                  How do the planets
                  move?
                     The farther out the planets the
                      longer it takes for planets to
                      revolve around the sun.
                     Gravity holds the planets in
                      orbit.
                     Speed of the planet would
                      cause it to move in a straight
                      line, but gravity from the sun
                      holds the planet in orbit.
9/12/2012                                          44
            16.
                  How do the planets
                  move?
                     The farther out the planets the
                      longer it takes for planets to
                      revolve around the sun.
                     Gravity holds the planets in
                      orbit.
                     Speed of the planet would
                      cause it to move in a straight
                      line, but gravity from the sun
                      holds the planet in orbit.
9/12/2012                                          45
            16.
                  How do the planets
                  move?
                     The farther out the planets the
                      longer it takes for planets to
                      revolve around the sun.
                     Gravity holds the planets in
                      orbit.
                     Speed of the planet would
                      cause it to move in a straight
                      line, but gravity from the sun
                      holds the planet in orbit.
9/12/2012                                          46
            16.
                  How do the planets
                  move?
                     The farther out the planets the
                      longer it takes for planets to
                      revolve around the sun.
                     Gravity holds the planets in
                      orbit.
                     Speed of the planet would
                      cause it to move in a straight
                      line, but gravity from the sun
                      holds the planet in orbit.
9/12/2012                                          47
            16.
                  How do the planets
                  move?
                     The farther out the planets the
                      longer it takes for planets to
                      revolve around the sun.
                     Gravity holds the planets in
                      orbit.
                     Speed of the planet would
                      cause it to move in a straight
                      line, but gravity from the sun
                      holds the planet in orbit.
9/12/2012                                          48
            16.
                  How do the planets
                  move?
                     The farther out the planets the
                      longer it takes for planets to
                      revolve around the sun.
                     Gravity holds the planets in
                      orbit.
                     Speed of the planet would
                      cause it to move in a straight
                      line, but gravity from the sun
                      holds the planet in orbit.
9/12/2012                                          49
            16.
                  How do the planets
                  move?
                     The farther out the planets the
                      longer it takes for planets to
                      revolve around the sun.
                     Gravity holds the planets in
                      orbit.
                     Speed of the planet would
                      cause it to move in a straight
                      line, but gravity from the sun
                      holds the planet in orbit.
9/12/2012                                          50
            16.
                  How do the planets
                  move?
                     The farther out the planets the
                      longer it takes for planets to
                      revolve around the sun.
                     Gravity holds the planets in
                      orbit.
                     Speed of the planet would
                      cause it to move in a straight
                      line, but gravity from the sun
                      holds the planet in orbit.
9/12/2012                                          51
            16.
                  How do the planets
                  move?
                     The farther out the planets the
                      longer it takes for planets to
                      revolve around the sun.
                     Gravity holds the planets in
                      orbit.
                     Speed of the planet would
                      cause it to move in a straight
                      line, but gravity from the sun
                      holds the planet in orbit.
9/12/2012                                          52
            16.
                  How do the planets
                  move?
                     The farther out the planets the
                      longer it takes for planets to revolve
                      around the sun.
                     Gravity holds the planets in orbit.
                     Speed of the planet would cause it
                      to move in a straight line, but
                      gravity from the sun holds the
                      planet in orbit.
                     Planets move in an elliptical or
                      eggshaped orbit. (2 focus points)
9/12/2012                                                53
            17.
                  Explain Seasons of
                  the earth.
                     Summer in Northern Hemisphere




9/12/2012                                         54
            17.
                  Explain Seasons of
                  the earth.
                     Summer in Northern Hemisphere




9/12/2012                                         55
            17.
                  Explain Seasons of
                  the earth.
                     Summer in Northern Hemisphere




9/12/2012                                         56
            17.
                  Explain Seasons of
                  the earth.
                     Summer in Northern Hemisphere




9/12/2012                                         57
            17.
                  Explain Seasons of
                  the earth.
                     Summer in Northern Hemisphere




9/12/2012                                         58
            17.
                  Explain Seasons of
                  the earth.
                     Fall in Northern Hemisphere




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            17.
                  Explain Seasons of
                  the earth.
                     Fall in Northern Hemisphere




9/12/2012                                           60
            17.
                  Explain Seasons of
                  the earth.
                     Fall in Northern Hemisphere




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            17.
                  Explain Seasons of
                  the earth.
                     Fall in Northern Hemisphere




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            17.
                  Explain Seasons of
                  the earth.
                     Fall in Northern Hemisphere




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            17.
                  Explain Seasons of
                  the earth.
                     Winter in Northern Hemisphere




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            17.
                  Explain Seasons of
                  the earth.
                     Winter in Northern Hemisphere




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            17.
                  Explain Seasons of
                  the earth.
                     Winter in Northern Hemisphere




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            17.
                  Explain Seasons of
                  the earth.
                     Winter in Northern Hemisphere




9/12/2012                                             67
            17.
                  Explain Seasons of
                  the earth.
                     Winter in Northern Hemisphere




9/12/2012                                             68
            17.
                  Explain Seasons of
                  the earth.
                     Spring in Northern Hemisphere




9/12/2012                                             69
            17.
                  Explain Seasons of
                  the earth.
                     Spring in Northern Hemisphere




9/12/2012                                             70
            17.
                  Explain Seasons of
                  the earth.
                     Spring in Northern Hemisphere




9/12/2012                                             71
            17.
                  Explain Seasons of
                  the earth.
                     Spring in Northern Hemisphere




9/12/2012                                             72
            17.
                  Explain Seasons of
                  the earth.
                     Spring in Northern Hemisphere




9/12/2012                                             73
            17.
                  Explain Seasons of
                  the earth.
                     Summer in Northern Hemisphere




9/12/2012                                         74
            17.
                  Explain Seasons of
                  the earth.
                     Summer in Northern Hemisphere




                     Tilt of the earth plus the revolution around
9/12/2012                                                       75
                      the sun accounts for the season.
            18.   Explain why the solar
                  system contains two
                  general kinds of
                  planets.
                     The first four planets, Mercury, Venus,
                      Earth and Mars are rock planets with a
                      nickel and iron core. They are much
                      more dense than the gas planets.
                     The gas planets are much further from
                      the sun and are made of helium,
                      hydrogen and methane. They all have
                      rings only Saturn’s rings are very visible.
                     The order of the gas planets are Jupiter,
                      Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune
                     Pluto is no longer considered a planet.
9/12/2012                                                      76
            19.   Explain how the
                  asteroids may have
                  been formed and
                  where they are
                  located
                     It could have been another rock planet
                      that did not completely form. Instead the
                      baby planet broke up and created the
                      asteroid belt.
                     The asteroid belt is between Mars the
                      rock planet and Jupiter the largest gas
                      planet.
                     The asteroid belt could be considered the
                      “ring” of the sun.

9/12/2012                                                   77
            Rock Planets
 Planet     Atmosp    Moon   Rotate     Revolve Km from
                                                 Sun
Mercury      None      0     59 days    88 days   58

  Venus      Heavy     0     Backwar     255      108
              Acid           243 day     days
  Earth     Moderat    1     24 hours    365      150
            N2 02                        days
   Mars       Thin     2     24 hours    687      228
              C02                        days

9/12/2012                                                 78
            Gas Planets
 Planet       Dia     Moon   Rotate   Revolve Km from
              Km                               Sun
 Jupiter    142,800    16    9.9 h     11.8     778
                                      Years   Million K
 Saturn     120.000    17    10.3 h   29.47    1,427
                                      Years   Million K
 Uranus     51,800     5     10.7 h     84     4,486
                                      Years   Million K
Neptune     49,500     2      15 h    164.8    5,900
                                      Years   Million K

9/12/2012                                                 79
            Compare the
            properties of meteors
            and comets
               Comets are large bodies in our
                solar system that are too small to
                be a planet and have too much
                speed to be an asteroid so they
                orbit around the sun in a very
                elliptical orbit.
               Meteors are space debris that
                usually burns in our atmosphere
                before hitting the surface.
9/12/2012                                            80
            The pathway of a
            comet.




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            The pathway of a
            comet.




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            The pathway of a
            comet.




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            The pathway of a
            comet.




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            The pathway of a
            comet.




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            The pathway of a
            comet.




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            The pathway of a
            comet.




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            The pathway of a
            comet.




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            The pathway of a
            comet.




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            The pathway of a
            comet.




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            The pathway of a
            comet.




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            The pathway of a
            comet.




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            The pathway of a
            comet.




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            The pathway of a
            comet.




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            The pathway of a
            comet.




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            The pathway of a
            comet.




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            The pathway of a
            comet.




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            The pathway of a
            comet.




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            The pathway of a
            comet.




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            The pathway of a
            comet.




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            The pathway of a
            comet.




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            The pathway of a
            comet.




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            The pathway of a
            comet.




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            The pathway of a
            comet.




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            The pathway of a
            comet.




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            The pathway of a
            comet.




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            The pathway of a
            comet.




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            The pathway of a
            comet.




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            The pathway of a
            comet.




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