Biology Chapter 1 by GU9jBy8C


									                                                                      Kurtis Carsch
                                                                  Biology Chapter 1
                                                                          PG. 1 - 27
                       Chapter 1: Themes in the Study of Life

I. Adaptations for survival result of evolution: Channing life of Earth  diversity
        a. Biology: Science of the study of life; relates to health and environmental
        b. Order, Regulation, energy usage, evolution, growth, reproduction, response
II. Evolution = center of biology: idea that living present organisms share common ancestor
        a. Emergent Properties result of arrangement and parts; present with complexity
                a. Unrivaled complexity of biological systems  challenge to study
        b. Reductionism: Making complex system simple to study; interferes with functions
                a. System Biology: Construct models for dynamic behavior of system
                        i. Focus of large-scale research; system  parts combination together
        c. Organisms interact with environment to exchange matter and energy
        d. Ecosystem operation involves cycling of nutrients and flow of energy
        e. Work required energy; energy transforms in state
                a. Sunlight  Producers (chemical energy)  Secondary Consumers/heat
        f. Form fits function; structure leads to function
        g. Cell is lowest level of organization that performs activity of life; basis of all
                a. Enclosed by membrane regulating inside from surroundings
                b. Eukaryotic (plants/animal) cell divided by internal membrane
                        i. Largest organelle in most is nucleus
                c. Prokaryotic (archaea/bacteria) cell has DNA in the cytosol; small
        h. Chromosomes have cell’s genetic material (DNA); DNA contains genes
                a. Blood Group (A, B, AB, O) result of genes from parent to offspring
        i. DNA chromosomes replicate as cell divides; controls development and maintenance
                a. Differences reflect differences between nucleotide sequences
                b. RNA molecules help cellular production of protein and protein-coding genes
                c. “Library” of genetic instructions: Genome; three billion nucleotides
                        i. Entire sequence known; beginning of learning activities of proteins
                d. Apply as system on cellular level; must know components of system
                        i. Must know how parts behave/interact; computers can pool data
                e. “High-throughput” technology can rapidly analyze large amounts of data
                        i. Bioinformatics use computational roots to store/analyze info
                       ii. Interdisciplinary research teams: Groups of diverse specialists
        j. Negative Feedback: Excess production slows process of creation
                a. Positive Feedback: Excess productions stimulates previous step to continue
                b. Example of integration that makes living organisms = sum of parts
III. Levels of Biological Organization:
        a. Biosphere: Contains all environments on Earth that are inhabited by life
        b. Ecosystems: Consist of all living and nonliving things in a particular area
        c. Communities: Entire array of organisms with each form of life (species)
        d. Population: All individual species living in a specific area
        e. Organism: Individual living things
        f. Organs (and Organ Systems): Two or more tissues working together
        g. Tissues: Common group of similar cells
        h. Cell: Fundamental unit of structure and function; 25 micrometers
                                                                         Kurtis Carsch
                                                                    Biology Chapter 1
                                                                            PG. 1 - 27
       i. Organelles: Various functional components that make up the cell
       j. Molecule: Group of atoms covalently bonded making up everything
IV. “Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution” (Dobzhansky)
       a. Species, Genus, Family, Order, Class, Phylum, Kingdom, Domain (Taxonomy)
       b. Five kingdoms: Plant, Animal, Fungi, single-celled eukaryotic, and prokaryotic
               a. Singled-cell domain Bacteria and Archaea; Archaea related to eukaryotes
               b. Domain Eukarya includes Plant, Fungi, and Animals; unity between species
       c. Darwin explained “descent with modification” and “common ancestor” in his book
               a. Natural Selection; evolution occurs as unequal reproductive successes
       d. One species gradually mutates into another species from common ancestor
V. Inquiry: Search for information and explanation; mind drives all progress in biology
       a. Discovery science describes nature while hypothesis science explains nature
       b. Discovery (Descriptive) Science depicts natural structures through observation
       c. Recorded information: data (qualitative or quantitative)
       d. Inductive Reasoning: Generalizations form specific observations
       e. Hypothesis is tentative answer to well-framed question (“If…Then…”)
       f. Scientific Hypothesis leads to predictions that can be true based by experiments
               a. Deductive: General to specific
               b. Hypothesis must be both testable and falsifiable
                      i. Impossible proving hypothesis over doubt (not all alternatives tested)
       g. Scientific Method: Following exact procedure; not rigidly adhered to for inquires
               a. Experimental Group + Control Group  Controlled Experiment
       h. Theory: Broad hypothesis; spins off new hypothesis; supported by evidence
       i. Models simplify situation to explain; technology: applied science for purpose

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