RIT Scores 101

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					        Why the MAP RIT Scores are
                                                                    The RIT Scale [http://www.nwea.org/support/article/532/rit-scale]
         Important to ESL Teachers                                  The RIT Scale is a curriculum scale that uses individual item difficulty
For various reasons, English Learners are often below grade         values to estimate student achievement. An advantage of the RIT
level in academic development.                                      scale is that it can relate the numbers on the scale directly to the
                                                                    difficulty of items on the tests. In addition, the RIT scale is an equal
                                                                    interval scale. Equal interval means that
The MAP tests are reported in RIT scores, an “equal
interval” scale. The scale runs between 100 and 300, with           Characteristics of the RIT Scale include:
each point representing the same interval of difficulty or            It is an achievement scale.
learning. That 200-point interval measures the full range of          It is an accurate scale.
expected learning in each content from the time a student             It is an equal interval scale.
enters school until graduation.                                       It helps to measure growth over time.
                                                                      It has the same meaning regardless of grade or age of the student.
For this reason, RIT measures can be used to accurately               the difference between scores is the same regardless of whether
measure growth and learning regardless of where a                       a student is at the top, bottom, or middle of the RIT scale,
student is in their academic development.                             it has the same meaning regardless of grade level.
2011 READING stat us norms (RIT VALUES)
Grade
            Beginning-of-
             Year Mean
                               Middle-of-
                               Year Mean
                                               End-of-Year
                                                 Mean
                                                               Average RIT Growth per
                                                                    Grade Level               Good News for ELs:
   K           142.5             151.0            157.7                  15.2                           Academic Progress
   1           160.3             170.7            176.9                  16.6                            Slows Over Time
   2           175.9             183.6            189.6                  13.7
                                                                                              RIT scores represent equal intervals of
   3           189.9             194.6            199.2                  9.3                  learning. In other words, if you took
   4           199.8             203.2            206.7                  6.9                  everything you had to know about Reading,
   5           207.1             209.8            212.3                  5.2                  lined it up, and chopped it up into 200
                                                                                              pieces, that would be a RIT Interval.
   6           212.3             214.3            216.4                  4.1
                                                                                              The good news for ELs is that for
   7           216.3             218.2            219.7                  3.4                  mainstream students, progress slows down
  8            219.3             221.2            222.4                  3.1                  over time – from 15- and 16-point surges in
  9            221.4             221.9            222.9                  1.5                  the early grades to fractional growth in high
                                                                                              school. This suggests that the system
  10           223.2             223.4            223.8                  0.6                  permits ELs to catch up – if we can just get
  11           223.4             223.5            223.7                  0.3                  them to that critical threshold. Yay!


           NWEA RIT Comparison Chart: A Tool for Planning Differentiated Instruction                                         The grade
                                                                                                                             designations
                                K        1      2       3       4        5       6       7         8      9    10      11    represent
                                                                                                                             beginning-of-
                              161      181     201     215     224      230     236     240       244    246   248    254    year grade
                              153      173     191     205     214      221     227     231       234    237   238    240    levels.

                              148      166     184     198     207      214     220     224       227    229   230    232    The RIT scores
                                                                                                                             defining each
                              143      160     176     190     200      207     213     217       220    222   223    223    level are
                              137      154     168     183     192      200     206     209       212    214   215    215    separated by
                                                                                                                             1/2 SD except
                              132      147     161     175     185      193     199     202       205    207   208    208    for the highest
                              126      141     153     168     178      186     192     195       197    200   200    200    level which is
                                                                                                                             set at the 95th
                                K        1      2       3       4        5       6       7         8      9    10      11    %ile.
• At all levels, consider differentiated instruction, flexible grouping, or tiered instruction.
• As scores ascend, give more consideration to curriculum-compacting, accelerated instructional pacing, and special programs.
• As scores descend, give more consideration to additional instructional time, one-on-one tutoring, use of short cycle assessments,
and special programs.
• The instructional suggestions in this document are intended to provide initial ideas, not to be an exhaustive list of options.
RIT Scale                         Below 161                              161-170                                 171-180
Word Recognition and        The girl is                         Read the sentence.                  Read the story.
Vocabulary                  sitting at her                      Juan was very blue when his         At last, the children got to school.
Students understand                                             puppy was missing.                  They were happy to see their teacher.
relationships between       1. piano.                                                               The engine on the school bus had
words and can use           2. bed.                             In this sentence, the word blue     broken and was smoking. Another bus
component structures        3. desk.                            means                               had to bring the students to school.
and clues from context      4. book.                            1. cold.           2. sky.
to decipher word                                                3. sad.            4. dog.          In the paragraph, engine means
meaning.                                                                                            1. lunch.          2. camera.
                                                                                                    3. truck.          4. motor.
Reading                     Read the story.                     Read the label.                     Read the story.
Comprehension-Literal       Ryan likes to play ball. He likes   This bug spray can be used on       Jose lives near the store, and his
Students can recall,        his pet dog. His favorite toy is    your grass. You can use it on       friend Ben lives several miles away.
identify, classify, and     a truck. He is a little boy.        your flowers, too. It can even      Ben asked Jose the shortest way to his
sequence details, facts,                                        be used on your trees, but do       home without going by the school.
and stated main ideas       What is he?                         not use it where your pets go.      Jose told him, "Go two blocks south,
from a variety of           I. a dog                                                                six blocks west, and then three blocks
written materials and       2. a girl                           The label says to keep this bug     south. My house is on the corner,
can interpret directions.   3. a boy                            spray away from                     number 8701."
                            4. a ball                           1. trees.
                                                                2. flowers.                         After walking six blocks west, which
                                                                3. grass.                           direction should Ben go?
                                                                4. pets.                            1. north            2. east
                                                                                                    3. south            4. west
Reading                     Read the story.                     Read the directions.                Read the paragraph.
Comprehension-              Mother was getting ready for        Making mud pies is fun. Find        Miss Hill's class was painting a big
Inferential/                Sandy's surprise tomorrow.          some nice sticky mud. Shape it      picture to put on the walls in the hall.
Interpretive                She had baked a cake and            into little pies. Set the pies in   Paintings were all spread out on the
Students can make           invited all of Sandy's friends.     the sun to dry out.                 floor. Suddenly there was a loud
reasonable predictions      Now all she needed was seven                                            noise. It was a fire drill!
before, during, and after   candles for the cake.               This will work best on
reading; can draw                                               1. a sunny day.                     What probably happened next?
inferences necessary for    Tomorrow would be                   2. a rainy day.                     1. The children went right outside, and
understanding; can          1. Sandy's first day at school.     3. a snowy day.                          some paintings were stepped on.
recognize cause-effect      2. Sandy's seventh birthday.        4. a cloudy day.                    2. The other classes waited to leave until
relationships; can          3. a good day to work in the                                                 the paintings were moved.
synthesize information      yard.                                                                   3. The fire drill was called off.
from a variety of written                                                                           4. Miss Hill's class finished the paintings
materials.                                                                                               before they went outside.
Reading                     Which is not a tool?                Which item is a vegetable?          Read the advertisement.
Comprehension-              1. hammer                           1. carrot                           Creamy-smooth Beauty Dew Skin
Evaluation Students         2. wrench                           2. puzzle                           Cream gives your skin a radiant glow.
understand fact, opinion,   3. pliers                           3. hot dog
bias, assumption, and       4. chair                            4. swing                            This ad claims that the product will
elements of persuasion.                                                                             make us
Students can compare                                                                                I. happier.             2. healthier.
works, evaluate                                                                                     3. better-looking.      4. safer.
conclusions, and apply
what is learned.
Literary Response and       Read the sentence.                  Read the story.                     Read the paragraph.
Analysis                    Before the children went            John went to visit his Grandma.     Jim and John went outside for recess.
Students can respond        outside to play, their father       He saw her cows, horses, and        Jim took a basketball with him. John
to stories based on         said, 'Be sure to wear your         pigs. He helped his Grandma         wanted to play with the basketball,
characters, themes,         mittens, warm jackets, hats,        pick apples.                        too. Jim did not want to share the
plot, and setting.          and boots."                                                             ball. They both began to argue.
                                                                John is at a                        Finally, John shoved Jim down and
                            This is part of a                   1. school.                          took the ball away from him.
                            1. poem.                            2. farm.
                            2. story.                           3. zoo.                             What is described in the paragraph?
                            3. song.                            4. circus.                          1. the setting
                            4. letter.                                                              2. the problem
                                                                                                    3. the solution
                                                                                                    4. the main character
                                               181-190                                                         191-200
                            Read the sentence.                                          The words road, rode, and rowed have their meanings listed
 Word Recognition



                            Sara has a new red velvet bonnet to wear on her head        below. Choose the word meaning that does not go with one of
  & Vocabulary



                            in the music program.                                       these words.

                            The word bonnet probably means                                1. the past tense of ride.
                            1. dress.       2. hat.                                       2. a machine that looks like a human
                            3. play.        4. green.                                     3. a broad trail
                                                                                          4. to propel a boat with oars
                            Read the story.                                             Read the sentences about four animals.
Reading Comprehension-




                            I can always count on seeing a lineup of sparrows on        A. A large electric eel can release powerful electric shocks.
                            the telephone line outside my window. They are there        B. Currents produced by electric catfish are loud enough to be
                            night and day. The sparrows have become my friends              heard
                            through the summer — I have fed them and they have          C. The snout fish use electric current to communicate.
        Literal .




                            sung me songs.                                              D. The stargazer fish may use electric power to attract a mate.

                            Which title tells the main idea of this story?              What do all these fish have in common?
                            1. My Friends the Sparrows                                    1. All live in fresh water rivers.
                            2. Sparrows Are Fun                                           2. All have the ability to produce electric current.
                            3. What Sparrows Do                                           3. All have the ability to harm humans.
                            4. Sparrows on the line                                       4. They have a way to communicate that is different from all
                                                                                             other animals.
                            Read the paragraph.                                         The following directions tell how to fix a punctured tire inner
Inferential/ Interpretive




                            Making bricks is easy. First, you scrape clay and mud       tube. Which step in the directions suggests that the leak in the
                            into a ball. Then put the clay and mud into small boxes     tube may be a very small hole and hard to find?
     Reading Comp.




                            to give it a brick-like shape. Then you set the blocks of
                            mud and clay in the sun to bake.                              1. Remove the tire from the rim of the wheel.
                                                                                          2. Pull out the inner tube and put air in it.
                            After the blocks of mud and clay are set in the sun,          3. Put the inner tube in water or pass your hand across the
                              1. their shape changes.                                        tube to find the place where the air leaks.
                              2. they turn to dust.                                       4. Rub glue all around the hole and put on a patch that is much
                              3. they dry and harden.                                        bigger than the hole.
                              4. they begin to get softer.
                            Read the breakfast cereal ingredients.                      If you were writing an essay that argued that summer is a better
                                                                                        season than winter, which fact would you include?
Reading Comprehension-




                                                                                          1. Winter snow allows people to ski.
                                                                                          2. Summer heat causes many people to become dehydrated.
      Evaluation




                                                                                          3. Biking and skating trails are clear of snow in the summer.
                                                                                          4. Winter temperatures can often be warm and pleasant.



                            Kay is trying to eat less salt She will probably eat
                            1. any of these cereals.                2. PUFFO.
                            3. GRAIN-O.                             4. BIG KID.
                            Read the passage.                                           Read the passage.
                            Mary Ann worked all afternoon to clean the house. She       Tina's arm was tired of turning the jump rope. Would Carrie ever
Literary Response and




                            folded the clothes and put her little brother's toys        miss? "100!" Carrie puffed, "one hundred one, one hundred
                            away. She washed and put away all of the dirty dishes       two..." "Peppers!" yelled Tina, suddenly turning as fast as she
                            in the sink. She even vacuumed the carpets in the           could. Carrie stumbled and missed. "No fair!" she wailed.
       Analysis




                            house. When her mother came home she said, "I am so
                            happy you cleaned the house! You are such a good            What was Carrie's problem here?
                            daughter!" Mary Ann's face beamed!                           1. She is not good at jumping.
                                                                                         2. She cannot count past 100.
                            What word best describes how Mary Ann feels?                 3. Tina stole her jump rope.
                            1. tired                 2. hungry                           4. Tina treated her unfairly.
                            3. sleepy                4. happy
                                               201-210                                                          211-220
                            Which set of words all have the same root word?               If the prefix "poly-" means many, then which of these words is
Word. &


                                                                                          a polysyllable?
Vocab.


                            1. extra, relax, pretext
                            2, knowledge, unknown, knowing                                1. princess                2. sculpture
                            3. here, where, there                                         3. personality             4. conscience
                            4. contain, restrain, plain
                            Read the passage.                                             Read the label from a prescription.
                            The Presidential Physical Fitness Award can be earned by      Medicine Center | 9-6 p.m., Closed Sunday
Comprehension-Literal .




                            any boy or girl 10 years or over. The award is presented to   (208) 555-5250        | Dr. C. Smith
                            students who meet the goals for these seven activities:       No.2211                | Two refills
                            30-yard dash, 50-yard dash, 600-yard endurance run,           For: Doug Jones
                            standing jump, sit-ups, pull-ups or arm-hangs, and softball   Directions: Take 2 capsules with milk now, then 1 capsule 4
      Reading




                            throw. Only 15 out of every 100 children in the U.S. are      times a day for six days.
                            able to qualify Others find it impossible to meet the goal
                            for one or more of the events.                                When should Doug drink milk?
                                                                                           1. with the first two capsules to wash them down
                            What is tile main idea of the passage?                         2. 2-3 hours after a meal
                              1. You must be 10 years old to participate.                  3. after he has taken all of the capsules
                              2. You must meet goals to earn this award.                   4. at least four times a day
                              3. Fifteen out of 100 students fail.
                              4. There are 7 activities in the Physical Fitness Test.
                            Read the passage.                                             Read the paragraph.
                            Once the flower buds are formed, it doesn't matter if the     The 1965 Voting Rights Law was an outgrowth of the protest
                            plant is kept indoors or in deep shade. Full sun tends to     demonstrations organized by African Americans to draw
Inferential/ Interpretive
 RDG: Comprehension-




                            fade the flowers faster, while cool temperatures prolong      attention to discriminatory voter registration practices in
                            their staying power. Although a light frost won't harm        national elections. The law abolished tests of literacy,
                            most mums, play it safe and bring them indoors if a cold      knowledge, and character as qualifications for voting. It
                            snap threatens.                                               empowered federal registrars to register potential voters in any
                                                                                          county where such tests had been suspended. The Attorney
                            In the passage, the phrase "full sun" means                   General also had the right to take legal action deemed
                              1. no shade.                                                necessary to eliminate any equivalent of the poll tax.
                              2. light half of the day.
                              3. deep shade.                                              Which words best describe the author's purpose?
                              4. cool temperatures.                                         1. to inform readers about the Voting Rights Law
                                                                                            2. to persuade people to register and vote
                                                                                            3. to inspire readers to work for civil rights
                                                                                            4. to entertain readers
                            Read the paragraph.                                           Read the following sentences.
RDG: Comprehension-




                            Some people don't like to use computers. They think that      Mrs. Smith, who has taught junior high school math for the
                            they are too hard to use and they break down too often.       past 30 years, received a certificate of appreciation honoring
                            Don't they realize that computers save us time and            her for her years of service.
     Evaluation




                            effort? Surely, people who don't like computers are
                            confused.                                                     Which statement is the most objective, fair, clear, and
                                                                                          accurate?
                            What is the underlying assumption in this paragraph?            1. She is the best teacher in junior high school.
                              1. Everyone should use and appreciate computers.              2. Math is a difficult subject to teach.
                              2. Most computers don't break down.                           3. She should be appreciated for her long career.
                              3. People are breaking the computers.                         4. She was recognized for her years of service.
                              4. Computers can help educate students.
                            Read the passage.                                             Read the paragraph and answer the question.
                            Juan watched the sparkles dancing on the river. He loved      Just as the clock struck midnight, Greg was awakened by a
Literary Response and




                            the bright sun on the water and the feel of the soft breeze   sound coming from outside his window. He jumped out of bed
                            on his face. The sky above was a brilliant blue. What a       to inquire about the sound. As he approached the window he
                            good day!                                                     saw Robot GB-47 landing his spacecraft. The bright green lights
       Analysis




                                                                                          from the spacecraft's anti-gravity boosters caused Greg to cry
                            This passage seems to be part of a                            out in excitement.
                              1. poem.
                              2. joke.                                                    What does the author portray in this paragraph?
                              3. report.                                                   1. a science fiction setting
                              4. story.                                                    2. a historical fiction setting
                                                                                           3. a tall tale setting
                                                                                           4. a mystery setting
     RIT Scale                                                               221-230
Word Recognition and              The proud athlete spurned any offer of assistance.
Vocabulary                        What does spurned mean?
Students understand
relationships between words                    I. condemned                2. rejected with disdain
and can use component                          3. withheld                 4. reluctantly turned down
structures and clues from
context to decipher word
meaning.
Reading                           The following precautions are listed in the operating manual for a small stereo FM radio:
Comprehension-                        A. Power only with three size AA batteries.
                                      B. Do not leave the set in a location near heat sources.
Literal                               C. Indoor radio reception may be difficult or noisier. Try listening near a window.
Students can recall, identify,        D. Avoid listening at high levels in situations where hearing outside sounds must not be
classify, and sequence                   impaired.
details, facts, and stated
main ideas from a variety of            Which is not stated in these directions?
written materials and can                1. If reception is bad, listen near a window.
interpret directions.                    2. Do not listen at high volume if it is important to hear outside sounds.
                                         3. Use only three size AA batteries.
                                         4. Do not turn the set on near a heat source.
Reading                   Read the opening paragraph of Spencer Heinz' "Cityscape" column, from The Times, October 10,
Comprehension-            1989.
Inferential/ Interpretive         The day was one of those bonus days, a miracle day in early fall with a million miles of sky.
Students can make reasonable              But the park was mostly empty. The boombox summer was gone.
predictions before, during, and
after reading; can draw                        The author wants us to think that
inferences necessary for                       1. early fall is a dreary time of year.
understanding; can recognize                   2. summer is a better season than fall.
cause-effect relationships; can
                                               3. fall is a time of wonderful weather.
synthesize information from a
variety of written materials.                  4. fall is quieter than summer in the park.

Reading                           Which headline is factual and unbiased?
Comprehension-
Evaluation                                1. City Paralyzed by Freak Storm
Students understand fact,                 2. Record Snowfall Hits City
opinion, bias, assumption, and
elements of persuasion.                   3. Merry Mood Follows Incredible Snowstorm
Students can compare works,
evaluate conclusions, and apply           4. Heroic City Survives Worst Storm of Century
what is learned.

Literary Response                 Read the sentences.
and Analysis                      The engine coughed.
Students can respond to           The wind sighed.
stories based on characters,      Fortune smiled on her.
themes, plot, and setting.        The photograph leered from the wall.

                                          What type of figurative language is used in the sentences?
                                                  1. simile
                                                  2. metaphor
                                                  3. personification
                                                  4. symbolism
RIT Scale                                                                    Above 230
Word Recognition and             We mold our character through our living acts. As the years roll on, the accomplishments of yesteryear should
                                 be crystallized in a crowning tribute, symbolizing one's life in respected simplicity. One of our memorials,
Vocabulary                       selected while you live, will imperishably preserve your personality and continue the cherished ideals of your
Students understand              family name because the permanency of this inimitable, blue-gray granite is guaranteed.
relationships between words      Choose an antonym for imperishably.
and can use component
                                          1. invulnerable                    2. extinguishable
structures and clues from
context to decipher word                  3. permanently                     4. indestructibly
meaning.
Reading                          Read the passage.
                                 The print Storm on the Great Bridge is a beautifully balanced and evocative work of the great
Comprehension-                   Hiroshige (1791-1858)... Above the bridge, bands of muted blue-greens angle up and away to define
Literal                          the sky and trees along the far shore... The composition is a celebration of triangular patterns...At
Students can recall, identify,   first glance a simple picture, Storm on the Great Bridge has underlying grace and complexity that
classify, and sequence           compel and fascinate the viewer long after the work has become familiar. (passage excerpt)
details, facts, and stated
main ideas from a variety of              What does the writer find compelling about the picture?
                                           1. The composition is busy and full of detail, yet balanced.
written materials and can
                                           2. It appears simple, but has grace, balance, and underlying complexity.
interpret directions.                      3. The writer's favorite colors used forcefully in this print.
                                           4. Without portraying recognizable objects, it somehow suggests human experiences
                                             and feelings.
Reading                          Read the paragraph.
                                 The ocean has many things people need. It is a storing place for water, acting like a huge holding
Comprehension-                   tank. It also is a source of food. Fish are the most important food found in the ocean. Oil and gas,
Inferential/ Interpretive        which are found under the ocean's floor, are used for heat and transportation. And the top of the
Students can make                ocean's floor supplies manganese and diamonds.
reasonable predictions
before, during, and after        What can we conclude from this paragraph?
reading; can draw inferences      1. The ocean's floor is as important a supplier of our needs as the actual ocean itself.
                                  2. The ocean is the most important supplier of our basic resources.
necessary for understanding;
                                  3. Human welfare is linked to the ocean as a supplier of our needs.
can recognize cause-effect        4. Our basic industries are dependent upon the ocean as their main supplier.
relationships; can synthesize
information from a variety of
written materials.
Reading                          Read the paragraph.
                                 Contrary to popular belief, not all cats are loners. One of the most famous examples was the female
Comprehension-                   cat, Rosy, who saved her kittens from a burning building. It was an old, deserted warehouse, and
Evaluation                       she and her offspring were living in an abandoned locker. When the building began to burn, dozens
Students understand fact,        of people witnessed her carrying her babies out one by one. They were later adopted by a kind vet
opinion, bias, assumption,       who treated Rosy's burns and nursed the kittens back to health.
and elements of persuasion.
Students can compare works,               What stereotype does the author expect the readers to have about cats?
                                            1. They are afraid of tires.
evaluate conclusions, and
                                            2. They love kittens.
apply what is learned.                      3. They are often adopted.
                                            4. They prefer to live by themselves.
Literary Response                Which literary device does Carl Sandburg employ in his poem "Fog"?
and Analysis                              The fog comes
Students can respond to                   on little cat feet.
stories based on characters,
                                          It sits looking
themes, plot, and setting.                over harbor and city
                                          on silent haunches
                                          and then moves on.
                                                   1. onomatopoeia                        2. oxymoron
                                                   3. parallelism                         4. extended metaphor

				
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