TVET SECTOR IN JORDAN

1. Background information

1.1. Beneficiary country

Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan

1.2. Contracting Authority

European Commission- Europeaid

1.3. Relevant country background

EC and Jordan jointly agreed an ENP action plan which sets out a strategy and a national
indicative programme (NIP) for the period 2006-2013. The NIP includes a HRD programme with
a particular attention given to support TVET sector reform. The text of the NIP is part of these
Terms of Reference.

With a strong commitment of His Majesty King Abdullah to address key issues in Jordanian
development, new set of reforms for the three years 2004 – 2006 was launched through the
National Social and Economic Plan (NSEP) to contribute to poverty alleviation and achieve
sustainable socioeconomic progress to address regional and governorate disparities. It focuses on
development strategies for 25 sectors or sub-sectors of the economy, including education and
training, water, tourism and health. Efforts are concentrated on strengthening public sector
capacity to deliver adequate services to the population, encouraging private investment and
completing the privatisation process, particularly in the water, transport, energy, electricity and
media sectors. This plan is currently translated through the National Agenda for Jordan (2005),
which has given priority to socioeconomic development and its citizens’ basic needs. The major
objectives of the agenda for the period 2007-2012 are:

   To promote labour-intensive and export-oriented industries;
   To eradicate structural unemployment;
   To expand significantly vocational training and employment support’.
Jordan is well advanced in terms of the Millennium Development Goals relating to the universal
completion of primary schooling and the elimination of gender disparities (in 2000 the primary
completion rate was 99% for both boys and girls). Furthermore, investment in education in the
private and public sectors by both the state and families is increasing, particularly in basic and
higher education.
As concerns Labour market and employment, little has been done to develop coherent policies.
Leadership and institutional weaknesses of the Ministry of Labour need to be addressed. While
separate projects have been launched by the Ministry of Labour to respond to specific needs,
Jordan lacks a comprehensive employment policy. Labour market is segmented between formal
jobs in public and private sector and jobs in informal economy, with very low mobility between
the two. The size of informal sector is increasing as the majority of new jobs is created in that
sector. Another issue is woman employment. In fact, the impressive progress achieved in the
improvement of female education, has not been translated into women’s economic participation.

The Ministry of Labour, the Ministry of Planning and International Cooperation (MoPIC) and the
European commission decided in (date to be inserted) to carry out a prefeasibility study of the
proposed project.

    1.4. Current state of affairs in the relevant sector

    Human resource development (HRD) being considered as a priority in Jordan, where the
    population is seen as the country’s main resource. Several programmes have been set-up to face
    this challenge. The MoE has formulated a ‘Vocational Education Framework: Recommended
    Action for Reform’ (June 2005) provided through the Educational Reform for a Knowledge
    Economy (ERfKE) project. The objectives of the framework are to build and maintain a
    knowledge economy and learning culture develop a skilled and flexible workforce and increase
    students’ options and opportunities for choice. ERfKE (2003–2008) is a major project costing
    USD 380 million that is supported by ten development partners1. The programme has four main

       governance and administrative reform to reorient education policy objectives and strategies;
       development of education programmes for the knowledge economy;
       provision of computers and other aspects of the learning environment;
       promotion of early childhood education.

    The programme covers vocational secondary education (but not Technical and Vocational
    Training), including assistance for strategy development and provision of computer facilities. Of
    particular interest are its experiments with devolution of authority from the central to regional

    Although considered one of the tools for facilitating Jordan’s HRD in a lifelong learning context,
    technical vocational education and training (TVET) has a low status in Jordanian society and
    continues to be perceived as the ‘last resort’ educational option and lacks effective support to
    enable it to adapt to rapid changes in the economy. Developed from a model designed in the
    1970s, with a high level of centralisation and a supply orientation, the current TVET system is
    fragmented and programmes are designed and implemented in the absence of an overall national

    The National Agenda exercise launched by the Government in 2005 identifies proposals for
    Employment and TVET. They go a long way towards establishing a sector policy for TVET,
    mainly in terms of governance and management. It recommends the establishment of an umbrella
    Higher Council on Human Resource Development, an Employment and TVET Council
    (E/TVET), an Employment and Training Fund, an independent Quality Assurance Agency, and
    the remodelling of the Vocational Training Corporation as an autonomous body. These reforms
    are far-reaching and provide an excellent basis for the reform of TVET, but they do not constitute
    a comprehensive sector policy embracing all training providers. The National Agenda moves in
    the right direction and provides many elements of a comprehensive national strategy, but more
    needs to be done to pull the various elements into a coherent national plan.

    Each of the three public elements of the TVET system has developed its own individual strategy,
    but while an HRD strategy was approved by the cabinet in 1999, until end of 2005 no
    comprehensive national strategy exists for TVET. Implementation of each strategy has suffered
    from under funding

    Early 2006 the Ministry of Labour took the leadership with facilitation of the European Training
    Foundation to initiate a process leading to organize the sector reform process to follow-up on the
    recommendations of the National Agenda.

1Including the World Bank (USD 120 million loan), the EC (EUR 42 million grant), the Arab Fund for
Economic and Social Development, CIDA, DFID, KFW, EIB, IDB, JICA and USAID.

Several important Donors (EC, WB, USAID, CIDA, etc) are committed to support the reform
process in agreement with the action plan under the coordination of the Ministry of Labour

Through a participatory process involving a wide range of public, private and non-governmental
stakeholders and Donors a number of activities were initiated. This ranges from the finalization of
a strategy for the E-TVET sector and its subsequent action plan, the setting-up of a donor
coordination process, the development of a Mid Term Expenditure Framework (MTEF) in line
with Ministry of Finance requirements and the drafting of series of laws and bi-laws to support the
reform process (presently with the Cabinet of Ministers for approval). In parallel to these actions
the Ministry is monitoring the reform process of some agencies such as the VTC and the Training
and Employment Fund and has initiated several projects to answer the main labour market
mismatches (NTEP, construction project). Several projects have been initiated with Donor and
private sector support to put the TVET reform plan into action such as the reform of the
Hospitality, Logistic and Construction training schemes at VTC, the elaboration of a pilot national
qualification framework in Tourism and Maintenance sectors and the development of a Human
Resource Information System (HRIS) managed by Al-Manar including a Labour Market
information system and a set of Key Indicators for decision-making.

Nevertheless a wide number of actions need to be taken to further strengthen the sector reform
process. They will require a contribution from all public, private and non governmental HRD
providers, social Partners and enterprises themselves. The Ministry of labour MoL should be given
the strategic role to coordinate all policies linked with employment and TVET with adequate
additional financial and human resources provided by the Government. Donor's role will be
crucial to transform concepts in actions and to contribute to the reform process in a coordinated
way. The role of Social Partners and particularly enterprises in this process is crucial at all levels,
from policy design to curricula developments and from development of a National Qualification
Framework to the contribution in management of vocational training provision. At the same time
attracting more students and workers in initial and continuing training implies to develop active
Labour Market information and guidance and counselling systems.

2. Contract objectives

The pre-feasibility study will provide the decision makers in the Government and the European
commission with sufficient information to make strategic choices in the design of the project
“Support to TVET sector in Jordan” and to prepare further analysis leading to acceptance,
modification or rejection of the proposed project for further financing and implementation.
Particular attention will be paid to the previous and current preparatory work that may have been
achieved, to ensure broad stakeholders participation to the different phases of the process and to
explore prospects of increased donor coordination under the leadership of the Government of

3. Risks

The main risk lies in the political changes at the government level during the process, which might
undermine the Ministry of Labour’s capacity (or indeed of any ministry) to assert its leadership
over a fragmented sector.

4. Scope of work

The preparation of the TVET support project will consist in a two-stage process:

-   a pre-feasibility mission which should result in a study presenting the main scenarios about the
    strategic choices to be made. This mission will end with a first stakeholders stocktaking
    workshop where the main findings will be shared and discussed.

    -   A feasibility mission which should result in a study presenting the specific design and
        planning document for the implementation of the actual programme. This mission will end
        with a second stakeholder workshop where the proposal will be presented and discussed.

The current terms of reference refer to the first stage only. The European Training Foundation will
carry out the mission, supported by external technical expertise to be contracted by the EC Delegation
through the relevant framework contract. The experts profiles are part of these Terms of reference.

    4.1. General

A complete TVET sector review describing the main problems of the sector as well as achievements
and time trends over the last decade should be carried out. Based on this analysis which should take
into account and update previous similar analysis, crucial needs and the potential of development
assistance to contribute to sector development are to be described.

The objective of the prefeasibility study is to provide decision makers in the Jordanian Government
and the European commission with sufficient information to reach a joint relevant decision on the
strategic choice concerning the design of the TVET programme and to identify the means by which
the programme objective as stipulated in the NIP 2007-2010 can be achieved ( NIP to be quoted).
English will be the working language of the mission.

To do so, the following results are to be achieved and documented:

    -   Assess the proposed programme’s coherence with the EC’s Country Strategy Paper and NIP.
    -   Assess the proposed programme coherence with the Partner Government development policy
        (specially the National Agenda and Jordan 1st programme) and sector policies and
        expenditure plans; specially provide an analysis of the state of implementation of the E-TVET
        strategy and action plan.
    -   Analyse and as appropriate re-formulate preliminary programme objectives
    -   Identify key stakeholders and target groups (including gender analysis and analysis of other
        vulnerable groups), and assess institutional capacity issues and degree of local ownership. In
        view of the work previously done on the preparation of a sector strategy, assess the
        involvement and participation of the main stakeholders to the preparatory process ensuring
        that the outcome of pre-feasibility mission is shared among the main stakeholders or clear
        identification of diverging views and their background
    -   Identify the key problem to be addressed and development opportunities
    -   Identify lessons learnt from past experience and analyse the proposed project’s coherence
        with ongoing initiatives
    -   Analyse and as appropriate re-formulate preliminary proposed management/ coordination
    -   Analyse and documents sustainability issues –including the likely financial and economic
        sustainability of the proposed measure
    -   Analyse and document cross-cutting issues –including gender, environment and human right
        implications (including the human rights of disabled people)
    -   Analyse and documents likely resources/cost implications.
    -   Identification of critical conditions of success, which are beyond the immediate scope of the
        intended project (e.g. public spending on TVET)
    -   Highlight areas requiring further analysis and provide clear recommendations on next steps.

When considering the alternative strategies and the necessary inputs, a thorough judgment should be
made as to whether the mechanism of a conventional separate project should be chosen or whether the
prospect of a sector wide approach should be further investigated. This should be part of an analysis
stating the existing strategic options and alternative scenarios for the design of the EC support.

The recommendations on which option to follow for future EC support should be documented based
on further specific activities linked to the sector analysis.

    4.2. Specific activities

    From the methodological point of view, the following steps should be followed:

    -       Desk research based on the abundant existing literature. The available information should be
            appraised and critically reviewed and updated when appropriate.

    -       Analysis of the following sectoral key questions:

    (i)       National strategy and policy: as the existence of country-owned national policy will drive
               reform process, the extent of commitment, leadership and ownership of these reforms is
               critical for their successful implementation. An assessment of the E-TVET strategy as
               presented in its logframe matrix: relevance, feasibility and quality, especially with regards
               to the time trends and year by year priorities.

    (ii)        Macro-economic framework: the mission should ensure that a stability-oriented macro-
                economic policy is in place or under implementation as such a stable framework will
                greatly contribute to ensuring the conformity of actual expenditure forecasts with budget

    (iii)       As success or failure of implementation of national policies and strategies is strongly
                affected by the quality of the public management system, the PFM system should be
                critically assessed. What matters is the existence of a credible commitment by the country
                to implement policies providing pertinent answers to the identified weaknesses.

    (iv)        Preliminary approach of performance monitoring capacity of the Beneficiary

    (v)         The existence of real or potential coordination of donors under the leadership of the
                Beneficiary should be assessed and recommendation on how to further develop it should
                be included.

    -       Drafting of a study considered as the output of the mission. This study should include

    (i)         A preliminary description of objectives, purpose and results of the EC support and any
                complementary support. Attention should be drawn to any issues relating to the
                consistency of the proposed programme with the Paris Declaration and EU commitments
                on the aid effectiveness agenda.
    (ii)        Demonstrate the willingness of the country to use performance criteria and indicators and
                to take the lead on donor coordination

    (iii)       Make preliminary proposals on implementation issues: project or budget support and its

    (iv)        Set out the next steps for formulating the EC support programme

The consultants will submit a preliminary report before the start of the stocktaking workshop which
will single out various key problems and a first set of alternative strategies should be developed. This
report shall be submitted to a stakeholder consultation where the logframe methodology will be used
(analysis of problems, objectives, expected results, choice of strategy). The planning horizon should
transcend the limit of a potential future EC-supported programme.

The logframe methodology should be used in a flexible way, so as (i) to allow for improved donor co-
ordination on sector development and sectoral targets, (ii) to present a view of the way the EC support
is expected to be able to support national development and policy objectives, by helping improve the
functioning of a public sector “causality chain”: the EC input lead to changes in the way donors and
partner country work together, which in turn lead to a better performing government and public sector,
and onward through the causality chain to higher level impact on key areas related to growth, stability
and good neighbourliness.

Participants for this workshop should target key policymakers in the sector. The EC delegation and the
relevant sectoral unit of EuropAid will participate in the workshop, which should be moderated by a
neutral logframe facilitator (who should therefore have no role in the mission). This facilitator will
also produce a workshop report that will be sent to all the participants, the MOPI, Ministry of Labour
and the EC Delegation immediately after the workshop.

    4.3. Actors’ tasks & responsibilities

The European Training Foundation will

    a) provide the TVET expertise in numbers and qualifications as required and as described below
       for experts 1 and 2
    b) carry out the requested analysis, help develop the requested strategies and project approaches,
    c) produce the requested reports and communicate results to the main stakeholders in such a way
       that maximum ownership is achieved.

The contracting Authorities (EC) will

    a) provide the expertise in numbers and qualifications as required and as described below for
       experts 3, 4 and 5
    b) provide the relevant reports and documents to the extent of their availability. make the
       necessary provisions for financing transport, translation, office and meeting facilities.
    c) take all necessary steps to organise the final workshop in cooperation with the Programme

The Beneficiary (MoL) will

            (i)     take a leading role in the entire planning exercise, also ensuring staff availability,
                    co-ordination and strategic decision-making

            (ii)    appoint a contact person who will direct and coordinate the Jordanian contribution
                    to the study.

            (iii)   facilitate access to all stakeholders in the country, specially the Ministry of
                    Finance, Ministry of Planning and international Cooperation and the Ministry of
                    Education and Higher Education

            (iv)    take an active role in the preparation of the mission (agenda appointments) and to
                    the final workshop

            (v)     invite other relevant donors to this workshop

            (vi)    Assure relevant coordination with all relevant stakeholders especially with the
                    Ministry of education.

5. Logistics and timing

5.1. Programme location

    Hashemite kingdom of Jordan

5.2. Programme period and time schedule

The following schedule describes the estimated time frame and components of the pre-feasibility

   PHASES               WHAT                 WHEN             WHERE                      WHO
Preparation      Preparatory work         28-30           Jordan               Mission team
Mission          Briefing meeting         31/10/07        EC Delegation        EC            Delegation
                 Field mission        01/11/07            Jordan               Mission team
                                      11/11/07            Amman                Key stakeholders
                 Preparation of draft 12/09/07            Jordan Amman         Mission team
                 report and workshop 18/11/07             MoL
                 Final workshop       19/11/07            Amman                Mission team and all
                                                          Conference           relevant stakeholders
                 Debriefing               20/11/07        Amman      EC        EC            Delegation
                                                          Delegation           Representative/mission
Reporting        Pre-feasibility report   By 01/12/07     ETF                  Mission team

Depending on the progress during pre-feasibility mission and the negotiations thereafter, a feasibility
study is likely to follow once the final option is taken by the decision-makers (appraisal stage).
Depending on the progress, this appraisal mission might take place between March and June 2008.

    5. Profiles and tasks of the experts.

Expert 1: Team Leader Senior Expert in TVET sector, policy analyst, team leader. He/she should
have graduated from higher education, and show extensive experience in advising and supporting E-
TVET sector reform processes at the senior executive level of Ministries of Education and Training
with a five years experience in a developing country. He should have a working knowledge of the EC
project approach and of the sector wide approach. He should have good communication and
facilitation abilities and a proven capacity to lead a team in a multicultural context. He will act as the
counterpart of the team to the EC Delegation and to Jordanian authorities.

Expert 2: Senior expert in TVET sector specialised in policy advice, quality management with an in-
depth knowledge of TVET sector in Jordan. He/she should have graduated from higher education. He
should have a minimum of fifteen years experience in this field, especially in the assessment of TVET
systems at macro level and the area of institutional capacity building in the sector. He should have a
working knowledge of the EC project approach and of the sector wide approach. He/she should also

have a good command of planning tools and a proven record of cooperation projects in similar
countries. The capacity to work in a team is a prerequisite.

Expert 3: Category I Senior Expert on Public Finance Management. He/she should have graduated
from Higher Education in the field, have a 15 year experience in public finance analysis and
assessment and related issues and at least a third of this devoted to developing countries. He should
have a working knowledge of the EC project approach and of the sector wide approach. The capacity
to work in a team is a prerequisite. Knowledge of Arabic language will be an asset. His/her input will
cover three main areas:

- Macro-economic analysis of a country (evolution, projected level of domestic funding of the budget,
analysis of treasury management and budget programming) based on a working knowledge of the
relevant sources.

- Analysis of the Medium term expenditure framework (weaknesses and inconsistencies, political
commitment to the sector policy)

- Assessment of public finances

Beside participating and providing input to all phases and deliverables of the mission as described
above, the expert will draft a 10 pages mission report summarising his input in every phase of the
mission to be delivered to the EC Delegation.

Expert 4: Category II Expert in policy formulation- Policy formulation is the development of effective
and acceptable courses of action for addressing what has been placed on the policy agenda. He/she
should have a long standing knowledge of the TVET sector in Jordan; he should have experience in
policy planning and/or public policy analysis. Strong analytical and communication skills are
essential. An overall academic background in politics and economics helps. The capacity to work in a
team is a prerequisite. He/she will have recorded experience in policy analysis in an international

Beside participating and providing input to all phases and deliverables of the mission as described
above, the expert will draft a 10 pages mission report summarising his input in every phase of the
mission to be delivered to the EC Delegation...

Expert 5: 1 Facilitator, cat III with proven training and experience in moderating planning
workshops, following the log frame methodology, having moderated several workshops in Arabic
speaking countries.

                                         Man/days table
Missions phases        Expert       Expert 2    Expert 3             Expert 4          Expert 5
                       1 (TL)                                                          (Facilitator)
Preparatory work       3            3               3                3
Travels Europe –Jordan 2            2               2                2                 2
                       1            1               1                1                 1
Briefing meeting
Field mission          10           10              10               10
Preparation of draft 3              3               3                3                 1
report and workshop
Final workshop         1            1               1                1                 1
Debriefing meeting     1            1               1                1

Pre-feasibility report    8         8               5                5

Mission report                                       1                1
Workshop       summary                                                                  1
Total                  29            29              27               27                5

    Except the three days of preparatory work, NO Europe based working days are planned in order to
    get a finished product at the end of the mission.

    6. Reporting

The consultants will submit a preliminary report before the start of the final workshop, which will
identify key problems areas that could become object of the EC assistance and identifying key
decisions and crucial changes that would be required to achieve the project purpose. The study format
will be provided to the mission team during the briefing meeting in Amman.

The draft pre-feasibility study report is to be transmitted in e-copies and 4 hard copies each to
Delegation Amman for comments two weeks after the end of the mission. Within one week,
comments will be received from the EC commission services. The mission team will take these
comments into account in preparing the final pre-feasibility report (30 pages excluding annexes). The
final report in English in 2 copies is to be submitted to the EC services by ETF. ETF will be in charge
of assessing the inputs delivered by external expert.

    7. Duration and organisation

The mission will start on 28/10/2007. The mission will take place mainly in Amman and will include
two missions out of the capital.

The mission budget is four fold:

    -   all costs for Expert 1 and 2 will be covered by ETF

    -   costs for experts 3, 4 and 5 will be paid through the EC framework contract procedure.
    -   The financial proposal for the FWC mission should take into account local transport costs
        allowing necessary field visits in Jordan for the mission. For this purpose a lump sum of 1000
        € should be included in the offer (direct costs -reimbursable).
    -    The financial proposal for the FWC mission should take into account costs for any necessary
        translation and interpretation and any costs relating to the organisation of the planning
        workshop. A lump sum of 4000 € should be included in the offer (direct costs -reimbursable).

The mission will be organised by the Delegation of the Commission to Jordan with ETF technical
support in coordination with the Ministry of Labour, the Ministry of Education and the Ministry of
Planning and International Cooperation.


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