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MEM18001C Use Hand Tools by 8d4fP1

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									                 USE HAND TOOLS

                    MEM18001C
                         (2 POINTS)




               STUDENT WORKBOOK


Name:      _______________________________________________

Date:      _______________________________________________

Teacher:   _______________________________________________
                               UNIT / MODULE DESCRIPTION

                                   PERFORMANCE CRITERIA

 MEM18001C           USE HAND TOOLS
 1. Use hand tools
       1.1         Hand tools are selected appropriate to the task requirements
                   Hand tools are used to produce desired outcomes to job specifications
       1.2
                   which may include finish, tension, size or shape
       1.3         All safety requirements are adhered to before, during and after use
                   Unsafe or faulty tools are identified and marked for repair according to
       1.4
                   designated procedures before, during and after use
                   Routine maintenance of tools, including hand sharpening is undertaken
       1.5
                   according to standard operational procedures, principles and techniques
                   Hand tools are stored safely in appropriate location according to standard
       1.6
                   operational procedures and manufacturers’ recommendations


REQUIRED SKILLS

Look for evidence that confirms skills in:
    Reading and following information on standard operating procedures
    Following verbal instructions
    Selecting hand tools appropriate to the task
    Using hand tools safely
    Identifying hand tool defects and marking for repair
    Maintaining/sharpening hand tools using appropriate techniques
    Storing hand tools in accordance with manufacturers’/standard operating procedures

REQUIRED KNOWLEDGE

Look for evidence that confirms knowledge of:
    Applications of different hand tools in a general engineering context
    Common faults and/or defects in hand tools
    Procedures for marking unsafe or faulty tools for repair
    Routine maintenance requirements for a range of hand tools
    Storage location and procedures for a range of hand tools
    Hazard and control measures associated with using hand tools
    Use and application of personal protective equipment
    Safe work practices and procedures




Workbooks\2011\MEM18001C                                                                        2
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INTRODUCTION
This training resource package is designed to assist students to increase their knowledge and
skill base in the Use Hand Tools.

It has been developed to assist on-the-job and off-the-job training to achieve competence in
the unit MEM18001C – Use Hand Tools.

The resource is based on the concept of completing one or more related projects or exercises,
which allow for training delivery and assessment of a number of competencies at the same
time.

Where training is being delivered in the workplace, training providers would be expected to
substitute projects that have greater relevance to activities undertaken in the workplace.

Where required, students should complete any pre-requisite units before attempting the
projects in this resource.

Students should also be aware of Occupational Health and Safety issues in the workplace
before commencing any projects.




Workbooks\2011\MEM18001C                                                                        3
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SAFETY

You are required to wear appropriate personal protective equipment when entering designated
areas in the workshop.
An accident or injury, no matter how small that happens during classes must be reported to
your teacher.

REVIEW QUESTIONS

Throughout this workbook there are exercises and review questions for you to do. They are
there to help you summarise and review important parts of each section. When you think you
know the material in each section use the review questions to see how much you can
remember. Answers to the review questions can be found in this book after Section 5.

FOR THE STUDENT

This resource aims to help you develop and demonstrate your competence against the
following unit of competence:

        MEM18001C          Use Hand Tools

It includes:
     o A learning map that explains what you should do at each stage. Follow the learner
        reference side for guidance and consult with your teacher
     o A series of review questions to help with your understanding
     o A series of practical exercises for you to complete that are accompanied by
        instructions and procedure sheets
     o A Progress Record Sheet

ASSESSMENT

Assessment against competency standards relies on your teacher gathering enough evidence
to demonstrate that you can meet the requirements of each unit.
Grading Category – Not Yet Competent (NYC) or Competent (C)
Most of your assessment will be based on successful completion of the exercises. Further
assessment of your underpinning knowledge may also be required. This may be in the form of
oral questioning or a written test. Your teacher will tell you what additional assessment tasks
you will have to satisfy.
Your teacher may also look for additional evidence from other sources, particularly your
workplace. You may wish to speak to your teacher about supplying evidence of competency
you have gained elsewhere (eg. work pieces you have already produced) which may
contribute to your assessment.

The assessment criteria are contained in the competency standard, which is provided.

If you believe you can already meet the assessment criteria for a particular competency
standard(s), or have completed similar training, you may be eligible for Recognition of
Current Competency (RCC) or Recognition of Piror Learning (RPL). Eligibility for RCC
or RPL will reduce the learning time or remove the need for you to complete this unit.
Contact your teacher to discuss this further.




Workbooks\2011\MEM18001C                                                                      4
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PROGRESS RECORD SHEET – MODULE ORGANISER

This student organiser is a list of the activities you’ll carry out as you move through the
module. You can use it to record your progress.

         Section                       Topic                Assessment       Achieved
                                                              criteria

1.   Measure simple         Review questions               1.1 – 1.4
     engineering            Practical exercise     1
     components                                    2
                                                   3
                                                   4
                                                   5
                                                   6


2.   Produce a              Review questions               2.1 – 2.6
     component using        Practical exercise     7
     hand tools                                    8
                                                   9
                                                   10
                                                   11


3.   Dismantle and re-      Review questions               3.1 – 3.6
     assemble a             Practical exercise     12
     component using
     hand tools


Sample assessment
Part A


Sample assessment
Part B




Workbooks\2011\MEM18001C                                                                      5
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   SECTION 1: MEASURING
                                           Purpose
   This section looks at common types of simple measuring tools and how to use them.
   In this section you will learn to identify various types of standard gauges and how to
   correctly use them to gauge engineering workpieces. You will also learn how to use a
   basic graduated measuring device such as a vernier caliper to measure engineering
   components and how to maintain, store and adjust the measuring device whilst
   maintaining safe workplace standards.

   Objectives
   At the end of this section you will be able to:
          Compare features on components using standard gauges to an accuracy of ±0.1 mm.

          Measure components using graduated measuring devices

          Check, adjust and store graduated devices appropriately

          Maintain workplace safety standards at all times

   RECOMMENDED RESOURCES
   Tools
          Screw pitch gauge
          Radius gauge
          Feeler gauge
          Thickness gauge
          Form gauge
          Depth gauge
          Rules
          Tapes
          Vernier calipers

   Equipment
        6 different sized and different pitched threads (3 metric and 3 imperial)
        6 components with different sized gaps to be measured with feeler gauges
        3 internal (concave) radii
        3 external (concave) radii
        60°, 55° and 47 ½° screw cutting tools
        3 different gauged pieces of sheet metal
        Components to measure with a rule
Safety reminders
    In the workplace always wear – safety glasses, safety boots, hair protection for long hair
    No running or horseplay
    Use ear muffs or plugs to protect your hearing
    Be careful how you lift heavy objects
    Be careful of tools with sharp points and edges
    Keep work area and floor area clean and tidy to reduce the possibility of accidents



   Workbooks\2011\MEM18001C                                                                       6
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BASIC MEASURING TOOLS

STANDARD GAUGES

Using Gauges
When using screw pitch gauges, radius gauges or form type gauges, you should, where
possible, hold the work piece and gauge in front of a light background. This allows you to
clearly see any differences between the work piece and the gauge.

Screw Pitch Gauges
A screw pitch gauge is used to determine the pitch of a thread. The gauge is a series of thin
blades which have different pitched teeth on each blade. The pitch of the teeth is marked on
each blade. Thread pitch gauges also come in various standard thread forms such as metric,
Whitworth, BSF, UNF, UNC and Acme, which allows not only the pitch of the thread to be
gauged but the form or shape of the thread to be checked as well. Each set of screw pitch
gauges will have the thread form stamped on the protector plate on the outside of the gauges.

Measuring Thread Pitch
Before using a screw pitch gauge, you should measure the approximate pitch of the thread
with a rule. To do this for metric threads:
    Put the rule on the thread parallel to the thread axis
    Line up a major division on the rule with the top or crest of the thread
    Count the number of crests to another major division, usually 20 – 30mm
    Divide the length between the major divisions by the number of crest counted
    The answer is the pitch of the thread
    Then choose the gauge closest to this pitch for the first try

For imperial threads the method is similar except that the pitch is given as threads per inch
(TPI) and so the numbers of crests in one inch are counted.




                                                      Use of screw pitch gauges




Workbooks\2011\MEM18001C                                                                        7
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Radius Gauges
Radius gauges are used to check internal and external radii. The gauges are a set of thin
blades with a convex (external) and concave (internal) radius of the same size on each blade.
The size of the radius is marked on each blade. When the radius on the gauge is less than 90
degrees, the gauge is called a fillet gauge. These gauges are available in metric and imperial
sizes which covers most radiuses up to 15mm.




Feeler Gauges
Feeler gauges are used to check small gaps and clearances between components. The gauge
set is made up from a number of blades each one a different thickness. The thickness is
marked on each blade.

Feeler gauges are used to measure or set
clearances between mating parts or for
measuring the width of small slots or grooves.
In a metric set of feeler gauges the thickness
ranges from 0.05mm to approximately 1mm in
varying steps. The gauges can be built up to
produce the thickness required. When using the
thinner gauges care should be taken to pull the
gauge through a gap rather than push, as by
pushing, the gauge will tend to bend and
wrinkle or possibly if a sideway movement is used the gauge will tear.




Workbooks\2011\MEM18001C                                                                         8
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Thickness Gauges
A thickness gauge is used to quickly measure the thickness of material using a plunger and
dial. These gauges are not to measure sheet materials such as paper, plastics, cardboard,
leather and sheet metals. Because these types of gauges use a delicate dial indicator, they
must be handled carefully and kept away from dirt and moisture. Ideally, they should be
returned to their storage box immediately after use.




Form or Profile Gauges
These types of gauges are used to compare measurements and shapes. Profile gauges may be
a fixed shape or profile, or an adjustable type as shown. With the adjustable type, the gauge is
set to the master shape as shown, and then compared to the shape being checked. One of the
major uses of this type of gauge is in the automotive body repair industry. A fixed profile
gauge is shown.




Workbooks\2011\MEM18001C                                                                       9
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GRADUATED MEASURING TOOLS

Steel Rules
Steel rules are used in industry to measure lengths to a degree of accuracy of approximately ±
0.5mm.

They are readily available in lengths of 150mm
(6in), 300mm (12in), 600mm (24in) and 1m
(39in) and 2m (78in). The smallest metric
graduation is 0.5mm and the smallest inch
graduation is 1/64 inch.

Steel rules are available as metric or
combination inch/metric. Because the steel rule
is such a common instrument, it is often
misused. The end of the rule must be maintained
with its edge square and sharp otherwise
inaccurate measurements will result if the end is
worn. A common error when reading a steel rule
is caused by not sighting across the rule at right
angles to the graduations on the rule and the
workpiece being measured. This error is called
parallax error.




Workbooks\2011\MEM18001C                                                                    10
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Measuring Tapes
Measuring tapes are used to measure long lengths to a reasonable degree of accuracy. They
are available in a variety of lengths from 3m (10ft) to 33m (100ft). Steel tape rules up to 10m
use spring steel for the tape and are semi-rigid whereas steel tapes up to 30m or more use
flexible steel as the blade and have no rigidity. Steel tape rules will rewind automatically but
steel tapes must be rewound manually. Like any other measuring devise care is essential for
reliable operation. The blade or tape must be cleaned as it is withdrawn into the housing
otherwise it may be difficult to withdraw or if the tape is dirty when it is withdrawn the
markings on the tape may be obliterated or damaged causing difficulty in reading.




Vernier calipers
Used as a more accurate measuring instrument, vernier calipers
are available to measure up to 300mm lengths. Standard vernier
calipers measure to within 0.05mm (0.0002in) and 0.02mm
(0.001in). Digital calipers are available with accuracy up to
0.01mm (0.0005in).

Vernier calipers can be used to measure outside, inside and
depth features. Vernier calipers must be stored in a clean, dry
place preferably in the pouch or box in which they were
originally bought. It is essential that the corners of the inside
and outside jaws are protected against damage otherwise
inaccurate readings will result.




                                                                                 Vernier caliper




Workbooks\2011\MEM18001C                                                                      11
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Depth gauge
The type of depth gauge shown has a narrow graduated blade which slides through the body
of the gauge. Accurate depth measurements can be made using a depth gauge. The depth
gauge shown in figure 17 can be used to measure the depth of holds, slots or the distance from
an edge to another surface.




Care during use
When using any measuring instrument, whether it is a gauge or a graduated instrument, the
point listed should be carefully followed.

1.      Never drop the instrument
2.      When not in use leave the instrument in its case or on a clean rag, never on a hard steel
        bench
3.      Never allow dirt, filings, cutting oils or any other foreign substances to come in
        contact with the instrument
4.      Do not put the instrument on top of or under other instruments or tools
5.      Never measure moving objects
6.      Ensure that the instrument is correctly set to zero before use

Storage procedures
Correct storage procedures will lead to long and reliable service from any gauge or graduated
measuring device. The following points should be observed when storing these instruments.

1.    Clean the instrument thoroughly during and after use
2.    Lightly oil or wrap the instrument in oiled paper
3.    Store the instrument in its own case or in a box where it is protected from outside
      damage
4.    Store the instrument in a dry place away from corrosive chemicals or solvents




Workbooks\2011\MEM18001C                                                                      13
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SECTION 1 REVIEW QUESTIONS

These questions will help you revise what you have learnt in Section1.

1.      Identify the following gauges.




A ...............................................................................................................................




B ...............................................................................................................................




C ...............................................................................................................................




D ...............................................................................................................................




Workbooks\2011\MEM18001C                                                                                                            14
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2.    List four practical applications of a feeler gauge

      ..........................................................................................................................

      ..........................................................................................................................

      ..........................................................................................................................

      ..........................................................................................................................

3.    a) which drawing shows the correct method to check the clearance between the two
      blocks with a feeler gauge?




        A                                                           B

      b) Give a reason for your answer.

      .........................................................................................................................................

      .........................................................................................................................................

      .........................................................................................................................................

4.    List three ways to be careful to avoid damage to a set of feeler gauges while using them
      or when they’re being stored.

      .........................................................................................................................................

      .........................................................................................................................................

      .........................................................................................................................................




Workbooks\2011\MEM18001C                                                                                                                          15
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5.    What are two practical uses for a radius gauge?

        ......................................................................................................................................

        ......................................................................................................................................

6.    In each of the following examples, state whether the radius on the workpiece is too big
      or too small, when compared with the radius gauge.




A: ……………..                        B…………….                            C……………….                          D………………


7.    A form gauge is used to check the shape of some special non-standard features on a part
      or component. Give four examples where such a form gauge could be used. Use a sketch
      in each example.



      1. ………………………………….                                                        2. …………………………………..




      3. ……………………………………                                                        4. …………………………………….




Workbooks\2011\MEM18001C                                                                                                                         16
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8.     These sketches show a thread form gauge being used to check the shape of a screw
       cutting tool. State what fault (if any) you can find in each example.




     a) ______________________________ b) _____________________________




c) _______________________________          d) _____________________________




Workbooks\2011\MEM18001C                                                                  17
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9.      List three things that should be done to make sure measuring tools are not damaged
        during storage.

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................


10.     What should be done when a measuring tool is damaged?

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................




Workbooks\2011\MEM18001C                                                                                                              18
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PRACTICAL EXERCISES

Exercise 1 - Feeler Gauging
Use a set of feeler gauges to measure the maximum and minimum gap between the nuts on
the six test pieces your teacher will give you.




    Sample                     Minimum Gap                 Maximum Gap

                  A
                  B
                  C
                  D
                  E
                   F
                  G




Workbooks\2011\MEM18001C                                                                19
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Exercise 2 - Radius Gauging
Use metric and imperial radius gauges to measure the concave and convex radii on the test
piece supplied by your teacher.




                   Radius                       Actual size of radius

                      A
                      B
                      C
                      D
                      E
                      F




Workbooks\2011\MEM18001C                                                                    20
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Exercise 3 - Screw Pitch Gauging
Using metric and imperial screw pitch gauges outside calipers and rule, find the pitch and
outside diameter of the six sample screw threads supplied by your teacher.




               Sample                     Diameter                       Pitch
                                                                      (TPI or mm)

                  A
                  B
                  C
                  D
                  E
                   F
                  G




Workbooks\2011\MEM18001C                                                                     21
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Exercise 4 - Form Gauging
Using a screw cutting tool thread gauge having both 55° and 60° angles, check the four
cutting tool samples provided by your teacher and complete the chart by placing the number
of the sample next to the correct description.




                 Sample No                               Description

                                    Exactly 55°
                                    Exactly 60°
                                    Just less than 55°
                                    60° but having one convex cutting edge




Workbooks\2011\MEM18001C                                                                 22
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Exercise 5 - Thickness gauging
Use a thickness gauge to measure the thickness of six sample pieces of sheet metal supplied
by your teacher.


                   Sample                              Thickness

                       A
                       B
                       C
                       D
                       E
                       F




Workbooks\2011\MEM18001C                                                                      23
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Exercise 6 - Rule Measurements
Use a 150mm rule to measure the seven dimensions to the nearest 0.5mm on the stepped
block.




                           Letter                              Rule Size

                             A
                             B
                             C
                             D
                             E
                             F




Workbooks\2011\MEM18001C                                                               24
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SECTION 2: MARKING OUT & MARKING A PART

                                        Purpose
This section looks at marking out tools and equipment and hand cutting tools. In this
section you will learn to identify, select and use a variety of hand tools to mark out
and manufacture an engineering component to specified tolerances. You will also
learn how to maintain, repair and store tools and maintain safe workplace practices
at all times.

Objectives
At the end of this section you will be able to:

       Identify hand tools used to manufacture components
       Select and use appropriate hand tools to mark out a specified component
       Select and use appropriate hand tools to manufacture the marked out component
       Manufacture the marked out component to within the tolerances specified on an
        engineering drawing
       Maintain, repair and store tools appropriately
       Maintain workplace safety standards at all times

Safety reminders
      To survive in one piece in the workshop ALWAYS wear safety glasses, safety
       shoes, protection for your hair and DO NOT wear loose clothing
    Running around and playing around in the workshop is likely to lead to
       accidents
    Protect your hearing by always putting plugs in your ears, or muffs over them
       in the noisy workshop
    Find out the right way to lift and use the correct technique for lifting at all
       times
Special rules for this section
    Don’t use cold chisels with a mushroomed head
    Make sure files have handles, and that files are not damaged or bent

RECOMMENDED RESOURCES

Tools
    Chisels, Files, Snips, Wire cutters and strippers, Side cutters, Hacksaws, Taps, Dies,
      Scrapers, Engineer’s squares, Scribers, Dividers, Odd leg calipers, Trammels, Centre
      punches, Prick punches, Hammers

Equipment
    Material to make a tube spanner
    A test piece to check the accuracy of the lugs
    Material to make a metal gasket blank




Workbooks\2011\MEM18001C                                                                  25
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HAMMERS

Hammers are impact tools used to impart a force either directly or indirectly through another
tool such as a chisel or punch to a workpiece. The most common hammers used by the
mechanical trade’s person are the ball pein (engineers), cross pein and soft faced hammers.


BALL PEIN HAMMERS
The ball pein or engineers hammer is the most common of the hammers used by mechanical
trade’s persons. It has a convex face for striking tools such as punches, chisels, centre punches
or the workpiece itself. The opposite end of the hammer head is a hemispherical ball pein
used to dome or shape the shanks orf rivets or to stretch the surface of a metal workpiece to
straighten it.

All hard faced hammers are made from tool steel by a drop forging process.

After forging, the hammer is carefully heat-treated so that the face and the pein are hardened
and tempered while the metal around the eye is left soft.

Because the hammer head has been heat-treated it must not be subjected to high temperatures,
otherwise the hardness of the face and pein will be spoilt.

The engineer’s hand hammer is made in a range of sizes. The smallest weighs around 100g
and the largest 1500g. The hammer size best suited to average fitter’s work weighs about
600g while a 200g hammer would suit most marking-off purposes.

The weight of the hammer must be chosen to suit the job. For example, where a heavy blow is
required in a confined space, a heavy hammer should be used because its large mass will be
able to deliver a large amount of energy to the workpiece or tool without being made to move
fast. But for normal conditions the heavy hammer would be too tiring to use.

The hammer handle should be in good condition and a size that is comfortable to use.

It should be square with the head and fit tightly into the head.

The hammer should not be used if either the head or the handle is damaged, because a burred
or chipped head will cause injury if it hits the hand holding a tool such as a chisel, while a
split handle may injure the hand holding the hammer.


CROSS PEIN HAMMERS
The special purpose engineering hammer comes in a variety of masses up to 450g (1lb).

The cross pein hammer is used in confined spaces or for straightening or stretching when the
metal is peined at right angles to the direction of stretch or curve.




Workbooks\2011\MEM18001C                                                                      26
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CUTTING TOOLS


CHISELS
Cold chisels are forged from tool steel. Only the point of the chisel is hardened and tempered,
the body being left soft. If the head of the chisel were hard it would chip as the result of the
hammer blows.

The point of the chisel if formed into a cutting edge. This cutting edge is similar in nature to
other cutting edges in that it requires the edge to be sharp.




Clearance or relief angle is shown. The cutting action of a chisel is somewhat different from
that of a lathe tool, in that the clearance or relief angle is determined by the operator in the
manner that the chisel is held in relation to the workpiece.

The size of the cutting angle should be about 70° for soft steel; when chipping harder metal
the angle should be a little larger and for softer metals it can be ground smaller.

Care of chisels
Because chisels are subjected to continual impact loads, they are likely to show signs of metal
fatigue or cracking after a period of use. In this condition they will become dangerous as
small pieces of metal or splinters may fly off at high speed causing injury to the operator or to
people standing nearby.

A new chisel should be used lightly until it is proved to be sound and only then should heavy
blows be used on it.

A major problem associated with the use of chisels is the mushrooming of the head due to the
fact that the head is soft and the constant hammering on the head distorts the metal as shown.
The head of the chisel should be kept in good repair by keeping the chamfer ground clean.




Workbooks\2011\MEM18001C                                                                       28
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When resharpening a chisel, care must be taken not to raise the temperature of the cutting
edge above the temper temperature. Ideally when grinding a chisel cutting edge no colour
should show on the surface but a very light straw colour would not reduce the hardness of the
chisel edge.




Six common chisel shapes are shown below




FILES
Files are used to reduce or smooth the surface of metal or other material.

Description of a file
Files are made from a high grade tool steel and pass through a process which includes
forging, dressing of the surfaces by filing or grinding, forming of the teeth and heat treatment.

In their finished form, files are very hard and brittle and must not be used as levers, packing
or wedges, nor should they be hit because of the danger of shattering.

If they do shatter, there is great likelihood of small pieces of the file seriously injuring a
person nearby.




Workbooks\2011\MEM18001C                                                                          29
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The figure below describes the general terms applied to the shape of a file.




Convexity of a file
Most files are made with their faces slightly “bellied” or convex, along the length.




Files are bellied for the following reasons:

       Slight warping is likely to occur during heat treatment and if files were cut perfectly
        flat; one side might be concave after heat treatment and be useless for filing flat.

       If perfectly flat in the natural state, the pressure applied at the ends when filing would
        cause the file to bend and become concave on the cutting face while the operation was
        in progress.

       The convexity of a file restricts the number of teeth which contact the work surface
        and thus reduces the load required to make the teeth penetrate the surface of the work.

       The convexity will make a small allowance for the tendency to rock the file as it is
        used, and will thus make it easier to file flat.

Single cut and double cut tiles
The teeth of a file are formed in one of two ways in that they maybe “single” cut or “double”
cut.




Workbooks\2011\MEM18001C                                                                          30
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The teeth of a single cut file extend from one edge of the file to the other without interruption.
This broad, continuous tooth has a scraping action on the work surface and produces a good
finish. The teeth of a double cut file are pointed and area able to bite more deeply into the
work surface than the single cut file. They are able to cut quickly and do not clog (this is,
become “pinned”) as easily as the single cut file. Most files are double cut.

Coarseness of Cut
For the more commonly used files, the coarseness of cut is defined by name: rough, coarse,
bastard, second cut, smooth and dead smooth. The most commonly used grades of cut are
bastard, second cut and smooth. The figure below shows a comparison between these grades.




                  The three common grades of cut of file teeth. The illustration
                   above shows the actual spacing of the teeth of a 16inch file


These terms, expressing the grade of cut of a file, are related to the size of the file in that a
300mm second cut file is coarser than a 150mm second cut file. The cut of very small files is
classified by numbers. Numbers 00, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8. Number 00 is the coarsest. The
most commonly used grades are numbers 0, 2, 4 and 6.

File Shapes and Types
Files are made in a wide range of shapes and types, some for general purpose and use others
for special applications.




Workbooks\2011\MEM18001C                                                                       31
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The Common File Shapes




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The Size of the File
The size of a file is specified by its length as measured from the heel to the pint.

Classification of a File
In general, files are classified by length, name or type and grade of cut.

For example: 300mm flat second-cut file
             200mm half round bastard cut file

Care of Files
Storage
Files should be stored in a clean, dry place to avoid the possibility of rusting or having oil or
other liquids come in contact with the cutting face.

The cutting edges of a file must be protected from damage by keeping files separated form
other files or hard metals. That is, they should not be placed or thrown across each other on
the work bench or stored by bundling them together in a drawer.

It is good practice to clean files before storage so that they are ready for use when needed.

File Safety
Never use a file as a lever. Files are very hard and brittle and are likely to snap if used in this
way.

Never use a file without a correctly fitting handle as the tang of the file is likely to pierce your
hand as you push forward on the working stroke.

A poorly fitted handle can come off the tang on the return stroke in which case you may lose
balance and fall over or suddenly find yourself pushing forward towards an exposed tang.

Never use a file with a split or splintered handle.




Workbooks\2011\MEM18001C                                                                          33
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Removal of Scale
Scale on black steel is hard and abrasive and will quickly spoil the sharpness of the cutting
edges. The cutting edges can be protected by removing scale from the surface of the
workpiece with the edge of the file or with an old file or in some cases with a hammer and
chisel.

Order of Use
It is good practice, where possible for the first use of a file to be on softer materials such as
brass, bronze or grey cast iron, and after it has lost its initial sharpness to use it on steel.

Pinning
Particles of metal are likely to wedge in between the teeth of a file. This is called “pinning”.
These particles of metal may stand higher than the teeth and can cause scratches in the work
surface. Pinning can be minimized by rubbing chalk into the face of the file.

Cleaning files
Files can be brushed and cleaned with a small stiff brush known as a “file card”




HACKSAWS
Hacksaw blades are made from alloy tool-steels and high-speed steel.

High-speed steel blades give the better performance, but are more expensive.

The blades are available in two types. These are:

All hard
The “all hard” type blade is hardened throughout and is more rigid than the second type. It is
recommended where the workpiece is securely supported and an accurate cut is required.

Flexible
The flexible blade is hardened on the cutting edge only, the remaining portion of the blade
being in a toughened state.




Workbooks\2011\MEM18001C                                                                            34
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The blades are unbreakable in normal use and are preferred where the workpiece is not
securely held or where the operator, due to his position, is unable to control the movement of
the saw properly.




Pitch of the Teeth
Hacksaw blades are made with a range of tooth pitches to enable them to cope with a variety
of job situations.

The pitches commonly available and their purposes are listed below:

1.8mm pitch:               for cutting large solid sections of soft materials
1.4mm pitch:               for cutting smaller solid sections of soft materials and larger solid
                           sections of hard materials
1.0mm pitch:               for cutting smaller solid sections of hard materials and sections
                           between 3mm and 6mm thick, for example, heavy tubing and sheets,
                           rolled steel sections. This is the most suitable size for general use.
0.8mm pitch:               for cutting sections less than 3mm thick, such as thin walled tubing,
                           sheets and light angles.




Workbooks\2011\MEM18001C                                                                           35
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The Hacksaw Frame
The hacksaw frame is either fixed in length to take a certain length of blade or adjustable and
able to take a range of blade lengths. The frame shown below is an adjustable frame.




All hacksaw frames have a means of tensioning the blade because it is most important that the
blade be properly secured.

If the blade is not tight enough the downwards cutting load will unduly bend it and it will
likely break. It will also be difficult to guide the blade, during the cut, because of its lack of
stiffness. Over tightening of the blade will also lead to blade breakage.

The blade will be sufficiently tight when it cannot be easily deflected by either the fingers or
the cutting force.

When the hacksaw is not in use the tension should be let off the blade and frame by loosening
the wing nut by one or two turns.

Hacksaws, like any other tool require regular maintenance. The tension piece and wing nut
should be cleaned and lightly oiled from time to time and the handle should be checked for
any burrs, sharp edges or splinters or cracks if it is a wooden handle.




Workbooks\2011\MEM18001C                                                                             36
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TIN SNIPS
Tin snips or snips are used to cut sheet metal. They come in a variety of styles for different
cutting operations.


The two main types of snips are universal snips and aviation snips.




Both these types of snips may be obtained in right hand or left hand cut, and in straight or
offset style.

The figure below shows the correct side the waste should be on when using right hand or left
hand snips.




Workbooks\2011\MEM18001C                                                                         37
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Safety with Snips
When cutting sheet metal, sharp edges are formed that can cut a hand or finger very easily.
Therefore take extra care when cutting with snips, that your hand or fingers are well clear of
the sharp metal edges.

Some snips have handles that come together when the snip is closed. Ensure that the palm of
your hand will not be nipped by the handles when they come together.

Care of Snips
Only use snips for the material they were designed to cut. Never use snips to cut wire as the
cutting edge will be nicked and further clean cuts will be impossible to make.

Keep the cutting edges in good condition by lightly honing with an abrasive stone or by
regrinding on a bench grinder.

The pivot point should be kept lightly oiled and in good adjustment so that the faces of the
blades slide together firmly with minimum clearance.


CUTTERS AND STRIPPERS
There is a wide variety of cutters which cut round metals up to approximately 13mm in
diameter, depending on the tool capabilities.

Cutters used for cutting round metals above 3mm diameter are generally known as bolt cutters
whereas cutters that are used to cut round metal below 3mm diameter are side cutters. A range
of cutters and pliers is shown below.




Strippers are used to remove (strip) the plastic insulation off electrical and other coated
wiring.




Workbooks\2011\MEM18001C                                                                        38
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HAND TAPS
Hand taps are used to produce internal threads by hand.

Hand taps are made in sets of three and comprise a “taper” tap, and “intermediate” tap and a
“plug” tap.

The driving end of the tap is formed into a square to take a tap wrench.




The tap wrench is adjustable to take a limited range of tap sizes; it is also double ended in that
the driving force, from the operator’s hands, is applied to each end of the wrench. By
applying a driving force to each end of the wrench, (ie. by using a proper tap wrench and not
a spanner) there is less chance of breaking the tap due to bending it, because the force applied
by one hand balances the other. It is important to use the correct size wrench for a tap,
because a large wrench will multiply the force of the hands up to a level where the tap may be
overloaded and broken.




The Tapping Hole Size
Before a hole can be tapped it must be drilled the correct size to allow sufficient metal in the
hole for the thread to be formed by the tap.
If too much metal is left in the hole it will make tapping difficult and increase the possibility
of breaking the tap.
If not enough metal is left in the hole, the tapped thread will be weak and possibly be stripped
when a bolt is tightened into it.
The correct size drill to use is best found by referring to tapping size drill tables and using the
recommended size drill for the material and application.
A typical tapping size drill table is shown below.


Workbooks\2011\MEM18001C                                                                         39
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                                    Tapping Drill Table

    (Reproduced from the “Ajax handbook” with the permission of the Ajax Fastener Co.)

To east the strain of a tap the minor diameter of a nut thread should be produced by the
recommended tapping drill




Workbooks\2011\MEM18001C                                                                   40
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DIES
Three types of die are in common use:
    The divided disc type which is made in two separate pieces. The two halves are
       attached to a guide plate which secures then and guides the die squarely onto the shaft
       to be threaded. The guide plate and dies are held in an elastic stock
    The button die, which is a disc in one piece, split on one side, is adjusted by means of
       a screw
    The die nut which is either hexagonal or square in shape, is operated by a spanner and
       is used only for cleaning a thread or for removing burrs. An exception is the pipe
       threading die nut which is used for thread cutting.




SCRAPERS
Scrapers are used to remove small inaccuracies in surfaces produced by the ordinary methods
of machining such as turning, milling, shaping or planing or by filing.

The scraper is, therefore, used where curved or flat surfaces must be fitted accurately to each
other.

The scraper is sometimes used to give ornamental effects to machine parts even when they are
not finished to a high degree of accuracy.

Scrapers can be made from tool steels or sintered carbide.

Tool steels are more commonly used than is sintered carbide, because of their cheapness and
ease of sharpening.
Scrapers are made in various forms, as follows:




Workbooks\2011\MEM18001C                                                                      41
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The Flat Scraper
Flat scrapers are used for scraping flat surfaces. They range in size from about 150mm to
300mm or more in length. The tang should be fitted with a file handle.




The Half Round Scraper
The half round scraper is designed for scraping curved surfaces such as bearings. It is made in
a range of sizes. As with other scrapers it should be fitted with a file handle.




The Three Square Scraper
These scrapers are also used on curved surfaces, but usually small in diameter. The three
square scraper is also used for removing burrs from the mouth of a hole while the job is in the
lathe. Three square scrapers can be easily made from a three square file.




The Bull-nose Scraper
Bull-nose scrapers are used for scraping large brasses or half bearings. This scraper, being
round on the cutting edge end, can be used with the same action as the flat scraper and can
also be used with the same action as the half round scraper. It is very useful as a roughing
down scraper, but needs to be followed by a half round scraper for fine fitting.




Workbooks\2011\MEM18001C                                                                       42
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MARKING OUT TOOLS

Engineer’s Squares
Engineer’s squares are available in a variety of sizes. They are accurately made with an angle
of 90°. Squares are used to mark out right angles and to check internal and external right
angles.




Combination Set
A combination set is made up of a steel rule, a square head, a protractor head and a centre
square head. The steel rule is used in whichever head is needed for the job at hand. The square
head will also give accurate 45° angles.




Workbooks\2011\MEM18001C                                                                    43
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Centre Squares
Centre squares are used to mark out the centre of round material
                                       .Centring a disc




Protractor
A protractor is used for marking and testing angles. They can be ordinary protractors as
shown, part of a combination set or vernier protractors.




Scriber
Scribers are made from hardened steel. They are used to mark clear, sharp lines into metal
surfaces. A rule, square or other surface is used as a guide for the scriber.




Workbooks\2011\MEM18001C                                                                     44
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Dividers
Dividers have hard points. They are used to scribe clear and sharp circles and arcs into metal
surfaces.




Trammels
Trammels are used to mark out large diameter circles.




Workbooks\2011\MEM18001C                                                                     45
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Hermaphrodite Calipers (jenny, odd leg calipers)
Hermaphrodite calipers have a hardened point which is used to scribe lines in metal surfaces.
They are used to find the centre of round material or to mark a line parallel to an edge.




Prick and Centre Punches
A prick punch has a smaller diameter point than a centre punch which is ground at an angle of
60°. A centre punch is used to make a large indent for starting a drill and is ground at an angle
of 90°. A prick punch is used to lightly mark marking out lines so they don’t disappear during
other work.




CARE OF HAND TOOLS

Safety
For any job, select and use the hand tool that will allow the job to be done safely and within a
reasonable amount of time.

Always use the hand tool for the job it was designed for. Example, do not use tin snips to cut
wire instead of side cutters simply because they may be close at hand.

Good job planning will ensure you have the correct tools on hand when required during the
job.

Always use the tools safely and wear appropriate safety clothing and personal protective
equipment.




Workbooks\2011\MEM18001C                                                                      46
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Storage
To prevent damage to hand tools during storage manufacturers recommendations should be
followed these usually include:

       Protection of cutting edges and points by covering with a soft or plastic covering
       Cleaning before storage
       Application of a rust inhibitor where appropriate
       Store in individual compartments/sleeves to prevent damage through contact with
        other tools
       Release of tension where needed

Where a number of people share hand tools, the tools should always be returned to the same
place in good working order.

Faulty tool Procedures
Faulty tools should be taken out of service immediately and repaired or replaced at the earliest
possible time.

Never put a tool back into store or a toolbox if it requires repair.

Where a fault is obvious or suspected, a qualified person should determine whether the tool
can be repaired or needs to be replaced.

Repairs should only be done by someone with the necessary skills and/or training.
Replacement tools should be obtained through normal workplace procedures.

Faulty tools should be tagged or marked so they are not used while faulty.

Faulty tools that cannot be repaired should be made inoperative to prevent accidental use.

Routine Maintenance
Routine maintenance of hand tools involves keeping the tools in good working condition.
This may involve:

       Sharpening
       Removal of burrs or unwanted sharp edges/corners
       Cleaning
       Lubricating moving parts
       Applying rust preventative
       Checking and adjusting settings




Workbooks\2011\MEM18001C                                                                      47
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SECTION 2 REVIEW QUESTIONS

These questions will help you revise what you have learnt in Section 2.
1.     Identify each of the measuring, marking off and cutting tools shown, by placing the
number of the correct names in brackets.

a.   half round scraper    (       )        k.    adjustable depth gauge           (         )
b.   rule                  (       )        l.    hand tap                         (         )
c.   flat file             (       )        m.    engineers square                 (         )
d.   half round file       (       )        n.    combination set                  (         )
e.   measuring tape        (       )        o.    centre square                    (         )
f.   scriber               (       )        p.    hacksaw                          (         )
g.   flat chisel           (       )        q.    button die                       (         )
h.   trammels              (       )        r.    twist drill                      (         )
i.   centre punch          (       )        s.    jenny calipers                   (         )
j.   Ball pein hammer      (       )        t.    dividers                         (         )




Workbooks\2011\MEM18001C                                                                     48
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2.      List the four markings mediums usually used to coat the surface of a job before marking
        off

..................................................................................................................................................

..................................................................................................................................................

..................................................................................................................................................

..................................................................................................................................................

3.      While marking off a job, what three things should be checked?

..................................................................................................................................................

..................................................................................................................................................

..................................................................................................................................................

4.      Use simple sketches to show two uses for jenny calipers




5.      What are trammels used for?

..................................................................................................................................................

..................................................................................................................................................

..................................................................................................................................................

..................................................................................................................................................




Workbooks\2011\MEM18001C                                                                                                                             51
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6.    Use an arrow to show which direction the teeth should face on this hacksaw frame.




7.    When using a hacksaw to cut thin material why a fine pitch blade would be used instead
      of a coarse pitched blade?

      .........................................................................................................................................

      .........................................................................................................................................

      .........................................................................................................................................

8.    When it is necessary to cut and file to a line marked on a workpiece, what can be done
      during marking out to ensure that the position of the line will be known even if it is
      wiped off during the cutting?

      .........................................................................................................................................

      .........................................................................................................................................

      .........................................................................................................................................

      .........................................................................................................................................




Workbooks\2011\MEM18001C                                                                                                                          52
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9.    State the term given to the shape of the head of this cold chisel and list two reasons why
      it is dangerous.

      .........................................................................................................................................

      .........................................................................................................................................

      .........................................................................................................................................




10.   Show on the sketch how the hole being tapped can be checked to see if it is square to the
      surface of the job.




Workbooks\2011\MEM18001C                                                                                                                          53
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PRACTICAL EXERCISES
Practical Exercise 7




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Practical Exercise 8




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Practical Exercise 9




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Practical Exercise 10




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Practical Exercise 11

Make a Tube Spanner



Suggested duration         2 hours

Task                       Use hand tools to make a tube spanner to suit a nut supplied

Procedure                  1. Procedure a detailed job plan for making the tube spanner

                           2. List all the tools correctly named required to produce the tube
                             spanner

                           3. Submit your job plan and tool list to your teacher for approval.
                             DO NOT start the job until your job plan has been approved

                           4. File both ends of the tube, square and to size

                           5. Following your job plan

                           6. Check that the tube spanner conforms to the drawing and fits
                              the nut supplied

                           7. Ask your teacher to check your tube spanner




Workbooks\2011\MEM18001C                                                                     58
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Make a Tube Spanner




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SECTION 3: DISMANTLING AND ASSEMBLING

                                        Purpose

This section looks at the common mechanical hand tools used to dismantle and
assemble machinery and how to use those tools correctly. In this section you will
learn to identify and select the correct hand tools for marking out and manufacturing
an engineering component to drawing tolerances.



Objectives

At the end of this section you will be able to:

       Identify hand tools used to dismantle and assemble engineering components

       Select and use appropriate hand tools to dismantle and assemble without damaging the
        components or tools

       Record the sizes of components from the assembly

       Select and use appropriate hand tools to re-assemble the assembly without damaging
        the components or tools

       Maintain, repair and store tools appropriately

       Maintain workplace safety standards at all times




Workbooks\2011\MEM18001C                                                                 60
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RECOMMENDED RESOURCES

Tools

       Spanners – open end, ring, open end/ring, sockets and sets
       Screw drivers – flat and Phillips
       Pliers – various
       Vice grips
       Punches
       Torque wrench
       Pot rivet guns
       Hexagon drive keys

Equipment

   A valve similar to the one shown in the exercise



Safety reminders

       Always wear safety glasses, safety shoes, hair protection and suitable clothing
        while in the workshop
       Lift the correct way
       Do not use a machine fitted with a red danger tag
       Know where the First Aid kit is
       No running or horseplay
       Use earmuffs or plugs for protection against noise

Special rules for this section

       Make sure you select the right type and size of spanner for each job
       Make sure the machine is held securely
       Check the drawing before removing any components to avoid being injured by
        a flying spring etc




Workbooks\2011\MEM18001C                                                                  61
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MECHANICAL TOOLS
SPANNERS
When undoing and/or doing up nuts and bolts, the correct size and type of spanner should
always be used. Using the correct size and type of spanner greatly reduces the risk of damage
to the nut or bolt and the spanner. The risk of personal injury that can happen when a spanner
slips is also minimised.

Single End Spanner
Single end spanners come in a wide range of sizes from very small (5mm) to very large
(75mm) or more. They are normally of a heavier construction than other spanners in the larger
sizes so that nuts and bolts may be tightened or loosened by hitting the spanner with a
hammer.




Podge Spanner
The podge spanner is used on bridge and construction work where holes drilled in steel
girders have to be aligned so that rivets or bolts may be put through the holes. The tapered
point is used to enter the two holes and lever them into alignment.




Open Ended Spanners
Open ended spanners are available in ranges of imperial and metric sizes. They generally have
different sizes on each end. Open ended spanners are usually the easiest to slip over a
hexagon but can slip off.




Workbooks\2011\MEM18001C                                                                       62
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Ring Spanners
Ring spanners are the least likely to slip and/or damage the hexagon they are trying to undo.
They also have different sizes on each end. Ring spanners are offset to allow clearance for the
operators knuckles. Because of the offset there is a slight tendency for the spanner to roll off
the top of the nut when force is applied




Combination Open End and Ring Spanners
Combination spanners have the same size at both ends. They give the advantages of both the
open end and ring spanners in a single tool. Because the spanner is straight with no offset,
force is applied directly in line with the not or bolt head and there is not tendency for a
correctly fitting spanner to roll off the top of the nut or bolt head




Tube or Box Spanners
Tub or box spanners are made from tubular steel formed at both ends into a hexagon.
Because of their thin wall design, they can be used in places where there is little clearance
between the nut or bolt head and the clearance hold in which it is located. A spanner can be
used on one end to apple force or a bar can be used through the hole in the body of the
spanner to apply the force to tighten or loosen the nut.




Workbooks\2011\MEM18001C                                                                        63
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Socket Spanners
Socket spanners are the fastest way of undoing
or doing up a bolt or nut. They are used with a
variety of accessories. They are available as 6
point (single hexagon) or 12 point (double
hexagon). The 12 point socket enables faster
positioning of the socket. Some sockets are
available in extended length bodies specifically
designed to remove spark plugs from motor
engines.




Socket Accessories




Workbooks\2011\MEM18001C                           64
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Torque Wrench




Adjustable Spanner
The adjustable wrench, commonly called a “shifter” should only be used when a correct sized
spanner is not available. Although it is inconvenient because it can be adjusted, the shifter is
more likely to slip and cause damage to both the nut and the operator.




Special Purpose Spanners
There is a variety of special purpose spanners that are readily available. Some of those
spanners are shown below




Workbooks\2011\MEM18001C                                                                      65
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SCREW DRIVERS
Screw drivers are commonly available with a straight head, a Phillips head or a Posi-drive
head. They are also available in a variety of head sizes and blade lengths. Some screwdrivers
have insulated blades and handles for use in electrical work.




Workbooks\2011\MEM18001C                                                                    66
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Special Drivers
Off set screwdrivers are used when space around the screw prevents a standard Phillips or flat
stubby screwdriver from being used.




Impact Drivers
Impact drivers are used to tighten or loosen screws or nuts by using a hammer blow to the end
of the impact drivers. The hammer blow keeps the driver bit firmly on the head of the screw
whilst a helical slide inside the body turns the driver. Most impact drivers can accept sockets
as well as a full range of driver bits.




Workbooks\2011\MEM18001C                                                                    67
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HEXAGON WRENCHES
Hexagon wrenches, also known as “Allen keys” are used to drive screws with a recessed
hexagon. The keys are available as an “L” shape “Tee” wrench or as hexagon screwdrivers
and usually are supplied in a fold up set in sizes from 1.5mm to 10mm. The ranges of sizes
are from 0.71mm to 27mm.




PLIERS
There is a wide variety of pliers available.

The most commonly used type is combination pliers. They are used to hold flat and round
material and to cut small diameter material.




Other types include:
    Long nose – straight and bent




Workbooks\2011\MEM18001C                                                                     68
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       Slip joint or multi-grips




       Circlip – internal and external




       Locking pliers or vice grips




PIPE WRENCHES
Designed to grip pipes to do them up or undo them, pipe wrenches are available as Stillson
pattern, foot print and chain types




Workbooks\2011\MEM18001C                                                                     69
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PIN PUNCHES
Pin and drift punches are types of punches used to move components. Wad and sheet metal
punches are used to punch holes in thin materials.




RIVETTING TOOLS
Used to install pot rivets, there is a variety of light and heavy duty rivetting tools.




CARE OF HAND TOOLS
   Use the right tool for the job
   Use the tools in a safe way
   Store the tools to prevent damage
   Return tools to their correct place
   Repair or mark faulty tools
   Use the tool for the purpose it was designed for ie. never use files or screwdrivers as
      levers
   Lubricate tools as necessary and always store tools lightly oiled or rapped in oiled
      paper to prevent corrosion




Workbooks\2011\MEM18001C                                                                      70
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PRACTICAL EXERCISE

Dismantling and Assembly

Task
Dismantle, measure features and re-assemble a hydraulic cylinder




Instructions

1.      Read the “Record of Activity” sheets so that you know what you have to write down

2.      Select the appropriate tools required to dismantle the cylinder

3.      Dismantle the cylinder

4.      Record the type and size of the spanners to be used

5.      Measure and record the measurements asked for on the “Record of Activity” sheets

6.      Re-assemble the cylinder

7.      Give the re-assembled cylinder and the “Record of Activity” sheets to your teacher for
        assessment




Workbooks\2011\MEM18001C                                                                   71
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Dismantling and Assembly: Record of Activity

1.    What was the orientation of the ports to each other before dismantling?

        ......................................................................................................................................


2.    What was the size and type of spanner used to undo the nuts in item 13?

      Size ………………………..                                 Type ………………………


3.    What are the diameter, thread pitch and length of item 13?

      Diameter ……………… Pitch ………………. Length ……………….


4.    What is the diameter and thread pitch on item 5?

      Diameter ……………… Pitch …………………


5.    What are the sizes of the barrel?

      Length …………….

      Inside diameter ……………….

      Outside diameter ……………..


6.    What did you do with the tools after the assembly was completed?

      .........................................................................................................................................

      .........................................................................................................................................

      .........................................................................................................................................

      .........................................................................................................................................




Workbooks\2011\MEM18001C                                                                                                                          72
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SECTION 3 REVIEW QUESTIONS

These questions will help you revise what you have learnt in Section 3

1.      Name each hand tool shown on the following pages by putting the number of the
        correct name in the brackets next to the hand tool.

        (   )     ball pein hammer                 (   )    combination pliers
        (   )     stillson pipe wrench             (   )    socket extension bar
        (   )     double end ring spanner          (   )    pin punch
        (   )     hook or C spanner                (   )    half moon ring spanner
        (   )     torque wrench                    (   )    multi-grips
        (   )     long nose pliers                 (   )    crows foot spanner
        (   )     double open end spanner          (   )    allen key
        (   )     circlip pliers                   (   )    standard socket
        (   )     single open end spanner          (   )    adjustable/shifting spanner
        (   )     diagonal cutting/side cutting    (   )    combination open end and ring
                  pliers                                    spanner




Workbooks\2011\MEM18001C                                                                73
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                           TASK ASSESSMENT SHEET
MEM18001C Use Hand Tools
Student Name: ……………………………………………… Group: …………………..

Training Task No.           Completed        Comments
   Section 1
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    Section 2
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    Section 3
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Assessor: ………………………………………… Date: …………………



Workbooks\2011\MEM18001C                                    76
Version 1: 01/09/11

								
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