Reflection on the Essence of Service LearningFinal 1 by E6nn41uw


									Service Learning & Reflection

University of Alaska Anchorage
Center for Community Engagement & Learning

   Faculty Workgroup on Service-Learning
                Spring 2011
What is Service-Learning?
“a course-based, credit-bearing educational experience
   in which students (a) participate in an organized
   service activity that meets identified community
   needs and (b) reflect on the service activity in such a
   way as to gain further understanding of course
   content, a broader appreciation of the discipline, and
   an enhanced sense of civic responsibility.”

Source:    Robert G. Bringle and Julie A. Hatcher, “A Service-Learning Curriculum for
    Faculty.” Michigan Journal of Community Service.” (2) (1995): 112
In Other Words….
Service-Learning, provides students, faculty and
  community with opportunities to:
 Learn from experience
 Link personal and interpersonal development with
  academic development
 Learn and be actively involved in the process of
  social problem solving
 Increase citizenship through social responsibility

Eyler & Giles, 1999, pages 7-12
  Sigmon’s Typology (1994)

  service LEARNING                                  SERVICE-learning
  Learning goals primary;                           Service outcomes primary;
     service outcomes secondary                        learning goals secondary

  service learning                                  SERVICE-LEARNING
  Service and learning goals                          Service and learning goals of
     completely separate                              equal weight and each
                                                      enhances the other

Source:   Sigmon, R.L. (1994). Serving to Learn, Learning to Serve: Linking Service with Learning.
Washington, DC: Council of Independent Colleges.
Best Practices in Service-
Learning Pedagogy (Howard)
   Academic credit is for learning not for service
   Do not compromise academic rigor
   Set learning goals for service
   Establish criteria for selection of community service placements
   Provide educationally sound mechanisms to harvest the community
   Provide supports for students to learn how to harvest the community
   Minimize the distinction between the students’ community learning
    role and the classroom learning role.
   Rethink the faculty instructional role
   Be prepared for uncertainty and variation in student learning outcomes
   Maximize the community responsibility of the course

Source:   Howard, Jeffery, Praxis I: A Faculty Casebook on Community Service-Learning,
    Michigan OCSL Press, 1993.
What is Reflection?
“.. structured reflection is used to refer to a thoughtfully
    constructed process that challenges and guides
    students in (1) examining critical issues related to
    their service-learning project, (2) connecting the
    service experience to coursework (3) enhancing the
    development of civic skills and values, and (4)
    assisting students in finding personal relevance in
    their work.”

Source:    Rama V. Dasartha: Using Structured Reflection to Enhance Learning from Service.
    Retrieved from the World Wide Web:
In Other Words……
Reflection is simply another word for learning.
  What distinguishes it from some other forms
  of learning is that “reflection” grows out of
What the Research Shows

Data collected from 22,236 college undergraduates
 30% participated in course-based community service
  (service-learning) during college
 46% participated in some other form of community
 Service-learning assessed on 11 different dependent
  measures; academic outcomes, values, self-efficacy,
  leadership, career plans, and plans to participate in
  further service after college.

Source: Astin, Vogelgesang, Ikeda, Yee: Higher Education Research Institute
   University of Southern California, Los Angeles (2000)
Principal Findings
 Benefits associated with course-based service strongest for the
   academic outcomes, especially writing skills.

 #1 factor in determining a positive s-l experience is whether the
   professor encouraged class discussions.

 Frequency with which professors connect the service experience
   to the course subject matter is important in determining
   whether the service experience facilitates understanding of the
   academic materials.

 Both qualitative and quantitative results underscore the power
   of reflection as a means of connecting the service experience to
   the academic course material.
  The Theory Behind Reflection
  Kolb’s Experiential Learning Cycle

Source: Kolb, DA. (1984) Experiential Learning: Experience as the Source of Learning and Development.
Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
The 4C’s of Reflection
         Continuous in time frame.
         Connected to the intellectual and academic
          needs of those involved.
         Challenging to assumptions and
         Contextualized in terms of design and

Source:   Eyler, Janet, & D.E. Giles. A Practitioner’s Guide to Reflection in Service-Learning.
    Nashville: Vanderbilt University, (1996)
Guidelines for Developing
   Tie critical reflection to course objectives.

   Intentionally GUIDE reflection activities.

   Consider the structure of the class.

   Create and publicize expectations.

   Consider your skills as an instructor when choosing reflecting activities.

   Consider learning styles of students.

   Keep it simple.

   Consider evaluation and assessment. What constitutes an A, B, C?

   Remember the 4Cs: Continuous, Connected, Challenging,Contextualized

Source: Picollo, D.
Reflection Design Decisions
1.   Identify Learning Outcomes that can be
     Achieved Through Service
2.   Identify Methods for Reflection
3.   Decide on Frequency and Timing of
4.   Choose Question Prompt Model(s)
5.   Build in Feedback & Evaluation
Learning Goals of Service-Learning



               Civic                                 Academic
               Engagement                            Enhancement

 Source:       Ash, Clayton & Moses. Learning through critical reflection: A
 tutorial for service-learning students. Sterling, VA: Stylus Publishing. chpt.2,
 p. 1. Under Contract
Identify Learning Goals
 Civic Engagement
       How individuals and groups work together to produce
       systemic          change in their various communities through
  both political and non-political processes.

 Personal Growth
           • Who you are
           • Who you want to become
           • How you might get there

 Academic Enhancement
       Deeper understanding of course content

Source: Ash, Clayton, & Moses. Teaching and Learning Through Critical Reflection: An
    Instructors’ Guide. Sterling, VA: Stylus Publishing. Under development, spring 2007.
Identify Learning Goals
What exactly are we measuring?
Civic Engagement
 Ability to identify and reflect on community issues
 Ability to identify and reflect on community strengths, problems and
Personal Growth
 Ability to articulate changes in preconceived notions/ability to
  articulate beliefs
 Perceived and demonstrated development of; communication skills,
  problem solving skills etc. and/or professional skills related to career
 Ability to articulate how academic concepts intersect with or contradict
  community based experiences.
 Improvement in writing and/or oral communication skills
 Improvement in critical thinking and problem solving skills
Choose Reflection Methods
 Class Discussions (structured)
 Journals (structured)
 Presentations
 Analytic Papers
 Directed Writings
 Electronic Forum
 Ethical Case Studies
 Portfolios
Choose Question Prompt
 What So What?  Now What?
Kolb (1984)

 DEAL: Describe-Evaluate Articulate Learning
Ash, Clayton, & Moses (2007)

 ORID:       Objective ReflectiveInterpretive Decisional
Picollo, D
          Decide on Timing and
          Reflection Map
                                       Before                      During                      After

          With Class

          With Community

Source: Eyler, J. “Creating your reflection map.: In Service-learning Practical Advise and Models. Ed. M. Canada. San Francisco:
Jossey-Bass New Directions for Higher Education Series, 2001. 35-43.
Build in Feedback and
1.   Link all assignments to course objectives: e.g. What are we

2.    Choose Instrument:
        Scoring Rubrics for written and oral work
        Classroom Observations
        Community Observations
        Surveys/interviews with community partners
        Interviews with students
        Peer-to-peer review

3.   Choose Criteria. What constitutes an A, B, C?
           ARCH 51315
           Sample Journal Assignment #1
           Learning Outcome: Civic Engagement & Academic
 Report on one or two key developments or setbacks in your project. REPORT as objectively
    as possible.

 Reflect on why this development was important in terms of the overall goals of your
 What were the key factors that influenced this development. In other words, what
    happened within your organization, within the community that led to these challenges or
    set backs?

 Interpret these developments and/or your project as a whole against this weeks readings
     (Grogan & Proscio) How does their description of the evolution of community
     development organizations resonate with what you have experienced so far?

 What follow up is needed to address any of these developments or setbacks? In other
    words, how will this week’s events effect your future work and/or decisions about the
 How, if at all, have class discussions or course readings this week influenced how you will
    approach your project going forward?
ARCH 51315: Journal #2 (Continued)
 Learning Outcome: Civic Engagement & Personal Growth

 Describe this week’s progress or setbacks on your project in relation to
   Bornstein’s definition of social entrepreneurship.

 Do you agree that architects have the potential to be social entrepreneurs?---as
   defined by Bornstein

 How do you think you were successful or unsuccessful as a social entrepreneur
    this week? Why or why not?
 What skills (leadership, decision making, communication) characteristics
    (empathy) did you bring or fail to bring to your project that made you a
    successful or unsuccessful entrepreneur?

 How might you view your future role/career as an architect differently based
   on your service-learning experience?

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