Service Learning & Reflection University of Alaska Anchorage Center for Community Engagement & Learning Faculty Workgroup on Service-Learning Spring 2011 What is Service-Learning? “a course-based, credit-bearing educational experience in which students (a) participate in an organized service activity that meets identified community needs and (b) reflect on the service activity in such a way as to gain further understanding of course content, a broader appreciation of the discipline, and an enhanced sense of civic responsibility.” Source: Robert G. Bringle and Julie A. Hatcher, “A Service-Learning Curriculum for Faculty.” Michigan Journal of Community Service.” (2) (1995): 112 In Other Words…. Service-Learning, provides students, faculty and community with opportunities to: Learn from experience Link personal and interpersonal development with academic development Learn and be actively involved in the process of social problem solving Increase citizenship through social responsibility Eyler & Giles, 1999, pages 7-12 Sigmon’s Typology (1994) service LEARNING SERVICE-learning Learning goals primary; Service outcomes primary; service outcomes secondary learning goals secondary service learning SERVICE-LEARNING Service and learning goals Service and learning goals of completely separate equal weight and each enhances the other Source: Sigmon, R.L. (1994). Serving to Learn, Learning to Serve: Linking Service with Learning. Washington, DC: Council of Independent Colleges. Best Practices in Service- Learning Pedagogy (Howard) Academic credit is for learning not for service Do not compromise academic rigor Set learning goals for service Establish criteria for selection of community service placements Provide educationally sound mechanisms to harvest the community learning Provide supports for students to learn how to harvest the community learning Minimize the distinction between the students’ community learning role and the classroom learning role. Rethink the faculty instructional role Be prepared for uncertainty and variation in student learning outcomes Maximize the community responsibility of the course Source: Howard, Jeffery, Praxis I: A Faculty Casebook on Community Service-Learning, Michigan OCSL Press, 1993. What is Reflection? “.. structured reflection is used to refer to a thoughtfully constructed process that challenges and guides students in (1) examining critical issues related to their service-learning project, (2) connecting the service experience to coursework (3) enhancing the development of civic skills and values, and (4) assisting students in finding personal relevance in their work.” Source: Rama V. Dasartha: Using Structured Reflection to Enhance Learning from Service. Retrieved from the World Wide Web: http://www.compact.org/disciplines/reflection/ In Other Words…… Reflection is simply another word for learning. What distinguishes it from some other forms of learning is that “reflection” grows out of experience. What the Research Shows Data collected from 22,236 college undergraduates 30% participated in course-based community service (service-learning) during college 46% participated in some other form of community service. Service-learning assessed on 11 different dependent measures; academic outcomes, values, self-efficacy, leadership, career plans, and plans to participate in further service after college. Source: Astin, Vogelgesang, Ikeda, Yee: Higher Education Research Institute University of Southern California, Los Angeles (2000) Principal Findings Benefits associated with course-based service strongest for the academic outcomes, especially writing skills. #1 factor in determining a positive s-l experience is whether the professor encouraged class discussions. Frequency with which professors connect the service experience to the course subject matter is important in determining whether the service experience facilitates understanding of the academic materials. Both qualitative and quantitative results underscore the power of reflection as a means of connecting the service experience to the academic course material. The Theory Behind Reflection Kolb’s Experiential Learning Cycle Source: Kolb, DA. (1984) Experiential Learning: Experience as the Source of Learning and Development. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. The 4C’s of Reflection Continuous in time frame. Connected to the intellectual and academic needs of those involved. Challenging to assumptions and complacency. Contextualized in terms of design and setting. Source: Eyler, Janet, & D.E. Giles. A Practitioner’s Guide to Reflection in Service-Learning. Nashville: Vanderbilt University, (1996) Guidelines for Developing Reflection Tie critical reflection to course objectives. Intentionally GUIDE reflection activities. Consider the structure of the class. Create and publicize expectations. Consider your skills as an instructor when choosing reflecting activities. Consider learning styles of students. Keep it simple. Consider evaluation and assessment. What constitutes an A, B, C? Remember the 4Cs: Continuous, Connected, Challenging,Contextualized Source: Picollo, D. http://www.smc.edu/servicelearning/reflection%20handout.doc Reflection Design Decisions 1. Identify Learning Outcomes that can be Achieved Through Service 2. Identify Methods for Reflection 3. Decide on Frequency and Timing of Reflection 4. Choose Question Prompt Model(s) 5. Build in Feedback & Evaluation Learning Goals of Service-Learning Personal Growth Service Learning Civic Academic Engagement Enhancement Source: Ash, Clayton & Moses. Learning through critical reflection: A tutorial for service-learning students. Sterling, VA: Stylus Publishing. chpt.2, p. 1. Under Contract Identify Learning Goals (continued) Civic Engagement How individuals and groups work together to produce systemic change in their various communities through both political and non-political processes. Personal Growth • Who you are • Who you want to become • How you might get there Academic Enhancement Deeper understanding of course content Source: Ash, Clayton, & Moses. Teaching and Learning Through Critical Reflection: An Instructors’ Guide. Sterling, VA: Stylus Publishing. Under development, spring 2007. Identify Learning Goals (continued) What exactly are we measuring? Civic Engagement Ability to identify and reflect on community issues Ability to identify and reflect on community strengths, problems and resources Personal Growth Ability to articulate changes in preconceived notions/ability to articulate beliefs Perceived and demonstrated development of; communication skills, problem solving skills etc. and/or professional skills related to career Academic Ability to articulate how academic concepts intersect with or contradict community based experiences. Improvement in writing and/or oral communication skills Improvement in critical thinking and problem solving skills Choose Reflection Methods Class Discussions (structured) Journals (structured) Presentations Analytic Papers Directed Writings Electronic Forum Ethical Case Studies Portfolios Choose Question Prompt Model What So What? Now What? Kolb (1984) DEAL: Describe-Evaluate Articulate Learning Ash, Clayton, & Moses (2007) ORID: Objective ReflectiveInterpretive Decisional Picollo, D Decide on Timing and Frequency Reflection Map Before During After Alone With Class With Community Partners Source: Eyler, J. “Creating your reflection map.: In Service-learning Practical Advise and Models. Ed. M. Canada. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass New Directions for Higher Education Series, 2001. 35-43. Build in Feedback and Evaluation 1. Link all assignments to course objectives: e.g. What are we measuring? 2. Choose Instrument: Scoring Rubrics for written and oral work Classroom Observations Community Observations Surveys/interviews with community partners Interviews with students Peer-to-peer review 3. Choose Criteria. What constitutes an A, B, C? ARCH 51315 Sample Journal Assignment #1 Learning Outcome: Civic Engagement & Academic Enhancement Objective Report on one or two key developments or setbacks in your project. REPORT as objectively as possible. Reflection: Reflect on why this development was important in terms of the overall goals of your project. What were the key factors that influenced this development. In other words, what happened within your organization, within the community that led to these challenges or set backs? Interpret: Interpret these developments and/or your project as a whole against this weeks readings (Grogan & Proscio) How does their description of the evolution of community development organizations resonate with what you have experienced so far? Decisional: What follow up is needed to address any of these developments or setbacks? In other words, how will this week’s events effect your future work and/or decisions about the project? How, if at all, have class discussions or course readings this week influenced how you will approach your project going forward? ARCH 51315: Journal #2 (Continued) Learning Outcome: Civic Engagement & Personal Growth Objective: Describe this week’s progress or setbacks on your project in relation to Bornstein’s definition of social entrepreneurship. Reflect: Do you agree that architects have the potential to be social entrepreneurs?---as defined by Bornstein Interpret: How do you think you were successful or unsuccessful as a social entrepreneur this week? Why or why not? What skills (leadership, decision making, communication) characteristics (empathy) did you bring or fail to bring to your project that made you a successful or unsuccessful entrepreneur? Decisional: How might you view your future role/career as an architect differently based on your service-learning experience?
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