# PhysicalScienceUnit1 Forces Motion

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```					Subject: Physical Science                                                     Timeframe Needed for Completion: 15 days
Unit Title: Force and Motion                                                  Grading Period: 1st 9 weeks
Big Idea/Theme: Force and Motion

Understandings:
 Understand motion in terms of speed, velocity, acceleration, and momentum.
 Understand the relationship between forces and motion.

Essential Questions:                                               Essential Standards:
 What causes objects to accelerate?                        PSc.1.1.1:
 How does the motion of a rock thrown in outer space       Explain motion in terms of frame of reference, distance, and
differ from the motion of a rock thrown on Earth? On
other planets?
displacement.
 How do multiple forces on an object affect the object's
motion?                                                 PSc.1.1.2:
 How is the universe affected by forces?                   Compare speed, velocity, acceleration, and momentum
 What can a football player do to increase his             using investigations, graphing, scalar quantities, and vector
momentum?                                               quantities.

PSc.1.2.1:
Explain how gravitational force affects the weight of an
object and the velocity of an object in freefall.

PSc.1.2.2:
Classify frictional forces into one of the four types: static,
sliding, rolling, and fluid.

PSc.1.2.3:
Explain Newton’s three laws of motion.
Essential Skills/Vocabulary: (Essential vocabulary is in        Assessment Tasks:
bold)                                                                       Cornell notetaking
PSc.1.1.1                                                                   Distance vs. Displacement Activity
• Interpret all motion as relative to a selected reference                  Distance vs. Displacement Bull’s Eye Comparison
point. Identify distance and displacement as a scalar-                    Quick Write: Races
   CCHS Speedway Lab
vector pair.
   Velocity practice problems
• Describe motion qualitatively and quantitatively in terms                 Acceleration Practice Problems
of an object’s change of position, distance traveled, and                 Marble Acceleration Lab
displacement.                                                             Dear Aunt Heloise Writing Prompt: Acceleration
   Momentum calculations
PSc.1.1.2                                                                   Momentum Lab
• Compare speed and velocity as a scalar-vector pair.                       Book Drop Activity
Velocity is a relationship between displacement and time:                 KWL: Forces
d                                                   Scales lab
V=                                                         Quick Write: Why are seatbelts important?
t
• Apply concepts of average speed and average velocity to                   Inertia Cart demonstration
   Motion mini-test
solve conceptual and quantitative problems.
• Explain acceleration as a relationship between velocity                   Newton’s Second Law of Motion Practice Problems
and time:                                                                Cartoon: Illustrate Newton’s Third Law of Motion
v                                                   Balloon Rocket Lab
a=
t                                                   Forces concept map
• Using graphical analysis, solve for displacement, time, and               Force mini-test
average velocity. Analyze conceptual trends in the                        Forces and Motion Unit Test
displacement vs. time graphs such as constant velocity and
acceleration.
• Using graphical analysis, solve for velocity, time, and       21st Century Skills               Activities
Communication Skills
average acceleration. Analyze conceptual trends in the
Conveying thought or opinions           Dear Aunt Heloise
velocity vs. time graphs such as constant velocity and        effectively                             Presenting results of
acceleration.                                                                                          investigations
• Infer how momentum is a relationship between mass and         When presenting information,            Distance vs. distance
velocity of an object, p=mv . The focus should be on the      distinguishing between relevant          activity
conceptual understanding that the same momentum could         and irrelevant information              Acceleration lab
be associated with a slow-moving massive object and an                                                2nd law index card
activity
object moving at high velocity with a very small mass                                                 Law’s of Motion activity
(e.g.- 100 kg object moving 1 m/s has the same momentum                                                Newton’s Laws
as a 1-kg object moving 100m/s)                                                                        Reading/Illustrating
Activity
   Rocket Balloon lab
 Explain change in momentum in terms of the                                                       Inertia Cart
magnitude of the applied force and the time interval                                            Momentum lab
that the force is applied to the object. Everyday                                               CCHS Speedway
examples of the impulse/momentum relationship
Explaining a concept to others      Book drop activity
include: the use of airbags in cars; time of contact and
   Dear Aunt Heloise
“follow-through” in throwing, catching, kicking, and                                            Distance vs. distance
hitting objects in sports; bending your knees when                                               activity
you jump from a height to the ground to prevent                                                 Acceleration lab
injury.                                                                                         2nd law index card
activity
PSc.1.2.1                                                                                               Law’s of Motion activity
• Recognize that the weight of an object is a measure of the                                            Newton’s Laws
force of gravity and is the product of its mass and the                                                Reading/Illustrating
acceleration due to gravity: Fg = mg                                                                   Activity
    Balloon Rocket Lab
• With negligible air resistance, explain acceleration due to                                           Inertia Cart
gravity as an example of uniformly changing velocity:                                                 Momentum lab
g = 9.8 m/s2                                                                                         CCHS Speedway
• Relate the presence of air resistance to the concept of
terminal velocity of an object in free fall.                      Interviewing others or being
interviewed
PSc.1.2.2                                                                Computer Knowledge
• Identify friction as a force that opposes motion of an            Using word-processing and           Dear Aunt Heloise
object.                                                           database programs
• Classify the frictional forces present in a situation such as     Developing visual aides for         Distance vs.
presentations                        displacement activity
a book resting on a table (static friction), a box pushed
   KWL activity
across the floor (sliding friction), a ball rolling across the                                       Concept map activity
floor (rolling friction), a boat moving through a river                                              Newton’s Laws cartoons
(fluid friction), or an object in free-fall (fluid friction).
PSc.1.2.3                                                           Using a computer for                Dear Aunt Heloise
communication
• Explain the property of inertia as related to mass - the
Learning new software               Virtual Labs
motion of an object will remain the same (either at rest or      programs
moving at a constant speed in a straight line) in the                 Employability Skills
absence of unbalanced forces; if a change in motion of an
object is observed, there must have been a net force on the    Assuming responsibility for own               All activities
object.                                                        learning
Persisting until job is completed             All activities
• Explain balanced forces and unbalanced forces                  Working independently                     Velocity problems # 1
Mathematically and graphically with respect to                                                           Velocity problems # 2
acceleration to establish the relationship between net                                                   2nd law problems
force, acceleration, and mass:
1                              Developing career interest/goals
a  f and a                                    Responding to criticism or                Presentations of
m
questions                                  experimental results
• Explain qualitatively and quantitatively the relationship      Information-retrieval Skills
between force, mass and acceleration– the greater the force    Searching for information via the         Various online
on an object, the greater its change in motion; however, the   computer                                   extensions as related to
same amount of force applied to an object with less mass                                                 the web sites given in
results in a greater acceleration.                                                                       suggested web sites
• While Newton’s second law describes a single object,           Searching for print information           Newton’s Laws
forces always come in equal and opposite pairs due to                                                     Activity
interaction between objects. Give examples of interaction      Searching for information using
between objects describing Newton’s third law – whenever       community members
one object exerts a force on another, an equal and opposite    Language Skills - Reading
Following written directions        Most of the activities can be
force is exerted by the second on the first. The third law                                         presented as opportunities for
can be written mathematically as:                                                                  students to follow written
F A→B = -F B→A                                                                    directions. The teacher will
Students should explain why these forces do not “cancel                                              have to work with most students
to develop this skill over time.
each other out”.                                                                                     The following activities are well
suited to developing skills in
following directions:
 CCHS Speedway
 Acceleration Lab Activity
 Virtual Labs

Identifying cause and effect              Book drop demonstration
relationships                             2nd law index card
activity
   3rd law demonstration
Summarizing main points after             Newton’s Laws
Activity
   text

Locating and choosing
appropriate reference materials
Reading for personal learning         Newton’s Laws
Activity
   text

Language Skill - Writing
Using language accurately               All the activities
Organizing and relating ideas           All the activities
when writing
Proofing and Editing                  Dear Aunt Heloise
Synthesizing information from
several sources
Documenting sources
Developing an outline
Writing to persuade or justify a      Dear Aunt Heloise
position                              Quikwrites
   Exit tickets
Creating memos, letters, other        Dear Aunt Heloise
forms of correspondence               Quikwrites
   Exit tickets
Teamwork
Taking initiative                     Distance vs. distance
activity
   Acceleration lab
   2nd law index card
activity
   Law’s of motion activity
   Newton’s Laws
Activity
   Rocket Balloon lab
   Inertia Cart
   Momentum lab
   CCHS Speedway
Working on a team
   Distance vs. distance
activity
   Acceleration lab
   2nd law index card
activity
   Law’s of motion activity
   Newton’s Laws
Activity
   Rocket Balloon Lab
   Inertia Cart
   Momentum Lab
   CCHS Speedway
Thinking/Problem-Solving
Skills
Identifying key problems or      Newton’s laws reading
questions                        Distance vs. distance
activity
   Acceleration lab
   2nd law index card
activity
   Law’s of motion activity
   Newton’s Laws
Activity
   Rocket Balloon Lab
   Inertia Cart
   Momentum Lab
   CCHS Speedway

Evaluating results               Distance vs. distance
activity
   Acceleration lab
   2nd law index card
activity
   Scales lab
   Book drop activity
   Newton’s Laws
Activity
   Balloon Rocket Lab
   Inertia Cart
   Momentum lab
   CCHS Speedway
Developing strategies to          Scales lab
   Balloon Rocket lab
   Inertia Cart
   Momentum Lab
   CCHS Speedway

Developing an action plan or      Scales lab
timeline                          Acceleration lab
   Balloon Rocket lab
   Inertia Cart
   Momentum Lab
   CCHS Speedway

Materials Suggestions:

   Lab supplies
   Internet

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