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Physical Geology by 4sPcVF0


									 Dr. James Martin-Hayden
 University of Toledo
 Department of Earth, Ecological and
         Environmental Sciences

Using knowledge of Earth and Changes to:
  – Quantify material properties used for
    engineering purposes
  – Investigate processes that transform Earth
    materials and our environment posing risks
  – Locate and characterize geologic resources
   I. Introduction to Geology
• Dr. James Martin-Hayden, EEES
  – Hydrogeologist: environmental geology, water
    resources, environmental contamination
  – Special Interest: The role of groundwater in
    slope failure and land subsidence
• Course Essentials
  – Text: Engineering Geology, an Environmental
  – Lab Manual: Exercises in Physical Geology
Why Study Geology?
  The field of geology is at the interface
  between Earth and engineering
    1. Geological Resources
    2. Studying “The Environment” Environmental
    3. Understanding Geological      Geology
      Hazards (Changes posing risks)
    4. Engineering materials and foundations
    5. Landforms and Surface Processes
    6. Historical Geology

Geology forms the basis of our great civilizations
The Cradle of Civilization
         Sprung from geology of the region

                              Tigris River, Iraq
     Why Study Geology?
Geological Resources
 – The Cradle of
   Civilization (Fertile
 – Development limited
   by availability, e.g.,
   soil, water, energy
 – Conflicts based on
   resources, e.g.,
   water, minerals, oil…
     Misuse of Resources
2. The Environment
 These Maps illustrate the
 Fertile Crescent in 1973 (top)
 and 2000 (bottom).
 Permanent marshlands,
 pictured in green, have shrunk
 90 percent in that period.

  Illustration courtesy United Nations
                 Environment Program
Misuse of Geologic Resources
    Desiccation of the Aral Sea, Kazakhstan
2. The Environment
Overuse of Geologic Resources
 2. The Environment (Geology in the News)
  • 1.7 billion are joining the consumer class
    and the environment won’t sustain this
    standard of living (Worldwatch Institute 2004)

  • Emissions of Greenhouse gasses is
    accelerating global warming

  • Climate change is accelerating melting of
    glaciers and driving mass extinctions
    (The Centre of Biodiversity and Conservation,
    Leeds University, UK)
Geology in the News                   San Andreas Fault

3. Geologic Hazards
 • Two die in 6.5
   Earthquake near
   San Lois Obispo
 • Earthquake triggers
Assessing Risk
      “Major Quake Likely to
       Strike San Francisco
       Bay Region Between
       2003 and 2032”

 3. Geologic Hazards
    • Assessing Risks
    • Avoiding Risks
    • Preventing
    • Predicting Impact
Earthquake              Photos
                        from AP
    Bam, Iran
• A Magnitude 6.5
  Earthquake hits a
  stone- and mud-
  house city of
  100,000 in Iran 12-
  – 30,000 Dead
  – 30,000 Refugees
• US sends aid and
  releases sanctions
• Relations improved
              3. Geological Hazards


  4. Geology in Engineering
Slope Failure Risk Assessment and Control

To prevent slope failure engineers must understand the
geology that forms and controls the slope
Geology in Engineering
     Geology in Engineering

  The Leaning Tower Straightens Up
    In Pisa the tilted one is back in
    business after an 11-year effort
    to keep it from collapsing
        Committee member John
        Burland, an engineer,
        promoted soil extraction as the
        best way to save the tower.

Engineers use knowledge of
geology to design, protect
and correct structures          
5. Landforms and Surface Processes
H.C. Berann (1915-1999)
Yosemite National Park, 1987
                               Mass Wasting


            Sub Disciplines
 Areas of Study Which Rely on Geology

• Environmental Geology
  – Environmental Sciences: how we influence the
  – Geologic Hazards: how geology influences us
• Engineering Geology
  – Use of geologic materials (rock, soil, minerals…)
  – Geotechnical engineering (foundations and footings)
        Sub Disciplines (cont.)
• Geological Resources
  – Locating and characterizing amounts and quality
  – Extracting and
  – Understanding environmental effects of extraction and
    use (misuse, overuse) of resources
• Historical Geology
  – Deciphering Earth History and in order to understand
    changes and the risks those changes pose
  – Evolution of life
       Objectives of Week 1
• Introduce the field of Geology and how it relates
  to Engineering
  – Resource location and characterization (e.g., metals,
    minerals, rock, soils, energy, water…)
  – Engineering Material Properties (rock strength, soil
    strength, water permeability and porosity
• Introduce Earth materials and processes using
  the Theory of Plate Tectonics
  – Explain earth dynamics using the theory of plate
    tectonics (earthquakes, volcanoes…)
  – Rock Types in relation to plate boundaries
  – Structures in relation to plate boundaries

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