General Certificate of Secondary Education
Information and Communication Technology
GCSE Higher Mark Scheme 2008 Page 1
NB As always, these are suggested answers but Candidates may find other
equally valid answers that we have not recorded here – these should be
Question 1 – maximum marks 13
1a(i) One mark for appropriate software. Do not allow brand names. 1
DTP or Desktop Publisher or Word Processing or graphics package or
publishing software (program or package)
1a(ii) One mark for each (reward examples) 6
The font gets bigger/smaller (no marks for the size changes – must
indicate larger or smaller)
The style of the lettering changes e.g. arial (accept ‘the style changes’
without an example)
The writing becomes sloped (at an angle)
The writing becomes thicker so it stands out (allow makes the text
stand out more without thicker and visa versa)
The text becomes half size and placed at the top of the line eg 2
The text becomes half size and is placed on the bottom of the line
1b (i) Accept any sensible explanation – 1 mark for ‘jumps’ (indents or 2
similar description) and one mark for ‘a point on the ruler’
When the tab key is pressed the cursor ‘jumps’ to a preset point on
One mark for understanding that pressing the tab key gives set
spaces on the line or the text will be indented
Second mark would be for understanding of pre-set (or self-set)
Do not allow it gives you columns but allow notion of giving you
aligned text or text is all straight.
1b(ii) One mark for the name of the tab 2
Allow centre, right, left or decimal without the word tab or with the
Do not allow indentation or hanging indents as these are margin
changes and not types of tab
1b(iii) One mark for a table (not a text box or columns) and one for 2
organisation e.g.using headings and cells
They could have used a table with headings and put the
information into the different cells.
GCSE Higher Mark Scheme 2008 Page 2
Question 2 – maximum marks 12
2a(i) 5 letters will be produced 1
2a(ii) 6 different fields of information are inserted 1
2b Award 1 mark for the reason and one mark for the argument (do not 4
reward quicker or easier without qualification)
Can produce thousands of letters easily by only writing one original
It saves a lot of time as they only have to write one letter
Each one is personal to the receiver therefore it is more effective
It saves making mistakes typing in the names and addresses they just
come straight from the database
Reward notion of corporate image or consistency (1mark)
2c(i) One mark for a pre-built layout and one for re-usability or the sense 2
that other documents are created using it:
Template files are documents that are created with the required
layout that need to be filled in to personalise them and that need
to be used over and over again
It allows the user to open the document with the same layout and
style each time (infers re-usablity).
NB if the candidate gives a reason why templates are useful here
rather than what they are you can reward them in the marks for 2c(ii)
up to the maximum of 4 marks.
2c(ii) One mark for a vague response and two marks for a full answer: 4
(do not reward duplicate answers from reasons given in 2c(i)
These save the company time by not having to create new ones
Easier to create new documents as the layout is already done for
They also maintain a corporate image with consistency of layout.
To ensure all the information needed in the document is there so
nothing is missed out (e.g. gaps left that have to be filled in)
So the original document is not overwritten and the original one lost.
GCSE Higher Mark Scheme 2008 Page 3
Question 3 – maximum marks 36
3a Award one mark for the reason and one mark for the argument or 4
You can choose different data types for the storage of data e.g. date,
text, number etc.
You can use validation rules (1 mark) to help ensure the data is
acceptable (or sensible – not accurate) (1 mark)
You can have primary keys that make sure customer numbers are
You can sort the information into different orders, e.g. name, date of
order, interest, etc
You can use search criteria (query) to find specific groups or people
You can search (sort) data easily (1 mark)
Databases have forms which make entering data easier (1 mark)
Database have reports that let you display the results of searches
You can set up relationships that will link tables together to share
3b One mark for the choice of field and two marks for a detailed reason. 9
NB Do not penalise the candidate twice for one mistake - if the
candidate does not chose a field from the table but gives a valid
reason for the choice give marks for the reason e.g. title this gives a
list of all the titles so the user just has to click on one to make the
entry which saves time and mistakes – 0 for the field but 2 for the
Lookup – Interest field (accept town not county) – this allows you to
choose from a list which speeds up data entry and avoids
mistakes in typing.
There are a limited amount of choices (1 Mark) and they can chose
from on to speed up entry (avoid mistakes – quicker than typing it
Date/Time – date of last order – this makes the computer realise it is
a date (will be written in date format) and so knows how to sort it
properly (and it also validates the date and will not allow a non-
existent date to be entered)
It will make sure non-existent dates are not entered (1 mark) for
GCSE Higher Mark Scheme 2008 Page 4
example 30/2/2008(1 mark)
Text – any of the other fields – it allows the entry of both numbers
and text (1 mark) as well as punctuation (1 mark) if necessary. (do
not allow ‘will only allow text’ or is only text – must show
understanding of text and numbers (or any character) can be
3c One mark for each sensible item (this should not include any 6
customer information as they already have this)
Items could include
Item name Item code
Cost of item Number ordered
Total cost of order Date of new order
Order number Item size
Item colour postage and packaging
Payment method product description
Product type (e.g. craft, etc)
One mark for vague response and two marks for a detailed answer 2
A key field is a unique identifier for each record.
It is unique (1 mark)
Must use ‘unique’ for both marks and identify for each record /person/
item for the second.
3d(ii) One mark for a sensible key field (do not accept any suggestions that 1
relate to the products)
3e(i) It is important that the candidate clearly knows the difference between
these two techniques and explains them.
For each award:
1mark for what it is
1mark for an example
1mark for how it works
1mark for why it is important.
Validation – this is a computer generated error check to ensure the
data entry is sensible/allowed.
An example is for the gender field which is = “M” Or “F” - this makes
sure that only the letters M or F are entered. Allow field validation i.e. 4
date check and input mask as examples.
GCSE Higher Mark Scheme 2008 Page 5
It is important to use these to ensure data format is correctly entered
and save time and silly input mistakes.
Verification: this is proof-reading the data to ensure it matches the
original data capture information/is accurate. e.g. checking a print out 4
against the original/proof-reading. (Or by using dual entry method to
compare the two for errors Allow verification of passwords and other
details electronically as this is dual entry which can be machine
Verification is very important as it is the only way to ensure the data is
accurate as it checks it against the original – validation can only check
the data is sensible.
3e(ii) One mark for each of the following: 3
Both letters included
The correct equation used e.g. = and Or
Inverted commas to denote text checking
= “M” Or “F”
Accept without the = sign i.e.
“M” Or “F”
3f(i) HIVE 1
3f(ii) P HALL, F Hall & T Fox 1
3f(iii) P Hall & S Hive 1
Question 4 – maximum marks 26
4a(i) One mark for the correctly named Act. 1
The Data Protection Act
4a(ii) One mark for each rule E.g. 4
They have to keep the data safe from unauthorised access
The data should be accurate
The data should be up-to-date
The data can only be for what is necessary i.e. cannot ask for medical
details for orders
The data has to be deleted when it is no longer needed
The owners of the data can see it if they want to for a fee
Inaccurate data must be corrected.
Data cannot be transferred out of the EU to a country that does not
have data protection legislation
Data must not be passed on to third parties without permission
GCSE Higher Mark Scheme 2008 Page 6
4b(i) One mark for a vague response and 2 marks for a detailed response 2
with a reason. It is important that the candidate understands that the
use of both gives added security and makes unauthorised access
People can only get access to files if they put in both the correct
username and password together. (1 mark) If either one is
wrong they will not be allowed into the system. (1 mark)
The combination of both gives greater security from hackers as both
have to be guessed
Allow levels of access can be set and user actions can be recorded.
4b(ii) One mark for a method and one mark for a reason. Max 4 marks 4
Method 1 – choose complex codes of numbers and letters that are
not easy to guess.
Method 2 – change the codes regularly so if they have been
guessed then the new code will protect the files again.
Method 3 – choose a code that is easily remembered so you don’t
have to write it down.
Method 4 – don’t make it obvious i.e. pets name, 123, password or
something people know you are mad about and could guess
4c 3 marks for each piece of software – maximum 9 marks 9
Virus Checker – this checks all documents and e-mails (or runs
scans on your documents) that the system accesses and
downloads from the internet or the system. If it finds a virus it will
warn the user and not allow the download or will delete the virus
from the system (or quarantine the file so it cannot be executed).
Firewall – this sits between the user and the internet and it examines
the packets arriving at the computer – it allows in those with the
correct identifiers but blocks unauthorised packets from
entering/asks if you want to allow them access. (the candidate
does not have to use the word packets and can be rewarded marks if
the understanding is there)
allow can block hackers getting into your computer (1 mark)
Encryption – these programs turn the data into a code that can only
be read by decrypting the code – anyone who downloads the
encrypted code sees only jumbled information.
4d(i) Two marks for a detailed answer – 1 mark for a problem and one 2
mark for a consequence.
If they lose the data they will not know who owes them money or
what the orders are so they could go out of business or the
customer will not get the goods and not deal with them in future.
GCSE Higher Mark Scheme 2008 Page 7
They will not know who has dealt with them in the past so they
cannot target sales in the future.
If the computer becomes corrupt they will lose all their data (1
mark) which will cause problems until they can get it back which
could take a lot of time (1 mark)
4d(ii) One for the method and one for the description or secure storage 4
place. No marks for a device without explanation e.g. removable hard
Grandfather-father-son (1 mark)
The data is saved onto a separate backup store on days 1, 2 and 3.
on the 4th day the first is overwritten and so on (2 marks)
Every night the system can be set up to automatically carryout a
backup whilst the business is closed and the backups should be kept
safe in a fire-proof safe (or kept off site)
Backup regularly onto a tape streamer (memory stick or web backup
site or external hard drive and store off site for security.
Allow making of hard copies (printing off) (1 mark)
Question 5 – maximum marks 24
5a One mark for each correctly identified cell. Maximum 10 marks - 10
accept only cell references.
Entered Data Formulae Results
5b One mark for the description and one for the formula 6
(i) Total cost of materials = cost of materials * maximum number of
=B6*B7 allow SUM(B6*B7)
(ii) Total cost of the course = venue + Instructor + total cost of materials
SUM(C3:C9) or SUM(C3:C10)
= C3+C4+C9 allow SUM(C3+C4+C9) as it will work
GCSE Higher Mark Scheme 2008 Page 8
(iii) Total cost to the customer = cost plus profit / maximum number of
= C15 / B7 allow SUM(C15/B7)
5c One mark for each correctly identified part of the expression. 4
Maximum 4 marks.
The formula takes the value in B20 and compares it to the value in
If this value is greater than or equal to the value in B7 then the
course can go ahead or yes is placed in the cell.
If it is not then it cannot run or 4-
No is placed in the cell
Reward correct methods e.g. if B7 is less than B20 then the
course will not run, if is it not then the course will run (4 marks)
5d 3 marks for a full answer – one per item in bold: 3
Modelling is when you take all the variables in a problem and ask
What if ……? Questions to make changes and work out possible
You work out (predict) if something will be able to work /go
ahead/make a profit, etc(1 mark)
Modelling can help to predict what would happen if prices went up
or down (or with more or less customers) (2 marks)
Question 6 – maximum marks 17
6a One mark per item: 3
Include 5 sensible and different pages (or more)
Include sub-pages (allow mark if only one sub-page)
Include how they link (do not need two way arrows – accept ‘family
6b One mark each for the effect 2
People will leave the site without looking at what they have to sell.
People will not buy their goods/loose customers
They will lose money/profit go down
They will get a poor reputation.
They will get less traffic on the website and so make less sales.
(could be two marks if the other point is not worthy of a mark)
Might be too hard to use and so they leave.
GCSE Higher Mark Scheme 2008 Page 9
6c(i) One mark for the benefit and one mark for the reasoning. 4
The shop will be able to reach a wider customer base anywhere in
the country not just in the local town.
Anybody in the world can see their site and give them possible
international sales as well.
They can advertise their classes as well as the goods they sell to
a very wide audience.
It is cheaper to e-mail adverts to target audiences than posting
them in the mail.
Don’t have to have lots of shops which cost a lot of money to reach
more customers so it is cheaper.
Can make sales even if the shop is shut as the Internet is 24/7
They can get more orders which mean they will make more money.
Can see what competitors are doing so they can change their
prices to be more competative
6c(ii) One mark for the benefit and one mark for the reasoning. 4
They will now be able to shop from anywhere in the world and not
just in their local area (or without having to spend a lot of money
to travel to the place).
They can look up classes and events in their locality without
having to wait for mailshots.
They can get the goods they want and have them delivered without
leaving their house (good for disabled people).
They can compare prices with other companies to get the best
6d(i) Reward any sensible response. One mark for the method and one 2
mark for the description. No marks for one word answers e.g. e-mail
They could use a feedback form (on-line survey/questionnaire) on the
website and ask customers to fill it in with suggestions to improve.
They could use a feedback area like E-bay where customers can rate
the quality of the service they have received
Can have a customer forum where they can give feedback about
Can use the telephone to ask customers about the service they
GCSE Higher Mark Scheme 2008 Page 10
6d(ii) They could include a questionnaire in the parcel (or sent in the post 2
to them) with the goods for people to fill in and return.
Accept handing out questionnaires to customers in the shop too
Question 7 – maximum marks 16
7a 3 marks for each example 9
1 mark for the type of documentation
1 mark for the content
1 mark for the user.
User Documentation – this are simple prompt sheets that enable
the end user (staff) to carry out task in the system, e.g. to edit a
Technical / Program documentation – this is a printout of all
document setups and programs that have been written to carry
out tasks, these are used by technical staff in the event of critical
problems or system failure.
System Documentation – a full record of the rationalisation and
design process behind the development, this is used by the system
manager to see the whole project and is used to evaluate and develop
the system at a later date.
7b Issues the staff can face are many but the most likely issue is: 2
Training in the new system – they will have to learn how to use the
They will be afraid that they will not be able to use the new
system (or it may be too complicated to use and understand) and
that they may lose their job if they cannot cope with it. (or may
make mistakes in their work and get in trouble or not be able to
do their jobs properly)
7c(i) One mark for a vague response (deleted text here) 1
To make sure the formulae work
To make sure there are no faults in the spreadsheet
To make sure that everything works correctly
7c(ii) 2 marks for a full answer – one per item in bold: 2
If they do not work properly the business will not have a clear
GCSE Higher Mark Scheme 2008 Page 11
picture of their financial status and may think they have more
money than they have (or could go bankrupt.)
They could undercharge customers and make a loss.
They will not know if they have made a profit or loss (1 mark)
7c(iii) 2 marks for a full answer – one per item in bold: 2
If the invoices are wrong then they may undercharge the customer
and lose money which could lead to the business closing.
They could overcharge the customer (1 Mark) which would make
the customer angry and they could get a bad reputation (lose the
Total Mark Paper – 143
QWC – 7
Total Mark - 150
GCSE Higher Mark Scheme 2008 Page 12