mobile network layer lec82 by 1xv74D


									              IT351: Mobile & Wireless Computing

                         Mobile Network Layer

    – To highlight the requirements of internetworking in wireless networks as opposed to
      wired networks.
    – To detail the operation of common internetworking schemes, including , MobileIP /
      migration to IPv6 and CellularIP.
    – To understand the differences between routing in a fixed network and in a MANET
  • The Internet Protocol (IP) mobility
      – Motivation and overview
  • Mobile IP
      – Components and terminology
      – Protocols: agent discovery, registration, tunneling &
      – Optimization
      – Reverse tunneling
      – Problem
  •   IPv6
  •   Micro mobility protocols
  •   DHCP
  •   MANET routing
Overview of the main chapters
                          Chapter 10:
                          Support for Mobility

                          Chapter 9:
                          Mobile Transport Layer

                          Chapter 8:
                          Mobile Network Layer

      Chapter 4:             Chapter 5:     Chapter 6:   Chapter 7:
      Telecommunication      Satellite      Broadcast    Wireless
      Systems                Systems        Systems      LAN

                          Chapter 3:
                          Medium Access Control

                          Chapter 2:
                          Wireless Transmission
Internet Protocol (IP)

  • IP for normal fixed Internet
     – Network layer
     – Most important protocol
     – Packet-switched, connectionless service
     – Fragmentation and reassembly
     – Error reporting using ICMP (Internet Control Message
     – Delivery of packets across an internetwork (Routing)
Internet (IP) Mobility

  • Internet (IP) provides the host with a permanent
    identity in the form of an IP address
  • This IP address is associated with a location, i.e. the
    IP network domain
  • If the host moves within the domain it will probably
    be ok (depends, e.g. subnetting)
  • If the host moves outside the domain it will not have
    a different IP address
  • If the host moves any ‘connections’ (recall – IP is
    connectionless) will be lost
Problems with fixed IP

  • Two ways of assigning IP addresses:
     – Statically assigned IP
        • Host address stays constant over all connections
             – Common case in PC access to LANs and some ISPs

     – IP addresses may be dynamically assigned by DHCP
         • Host addresses change with each connection
             – Common with Laptop access and some ISPs

  • Problems for mobility
     – With static addresses the host cannot move
     – With dynamic addresses partners can’t communicate
Motivation for Mobile IP
• Routing
   – based on IP destination address, network prefix (e.g. 129.13.42)
     determines physical subnet
   – change of physical subnet implies change of IP address to have a
     topological correct address (standard IP) or needs special entries in
     the routing tables
• Specific routes to end-systems?
   – change of all routing table entries to forward packets to the right
   – does not scale with the number of mobile hosts and frequent
     changes in the location, security problems
• Changing the IP-address?
   – adjust the host IP address depending on the current location
   – almost impossible to find a mobile system, DNS updates take long
   – TCP connections break, security problems
Requirements for Mobile IPv4 (RFC 3344, was: 3220, was: 2002 ,
updated by: 4721)

• Transparency
   – mobile end-systems keep their IP address
   – continuation of communication after interruption of link possible
   – point of connection to the fixed network can be changed
• Compatibility
   – support of the same layer 2 protocols as IP
   – no changes to current end-systems and routers required
   – mobile end-systems can communicate with fixed systems
• Security
   – authentication of all registration messages
• Efficiency and scalability
   – only little additional messages to the mobile system required
   – world-wide support of a large number of mobile systems in the whole
Mobile IP – IP Integration

  • What does Mobile IP do?
     – Extends IP for mobility not wireless networking
     – Mobile IP operates between network and transport layers
       (i.e. on top of IP but below TCP/UDP)

  • Mobile IP provides two addresses:
     – Fixed address for identification (home address)
     – Dynamic address for routing (care-of address/foreign
  • Benefits:
     – Stable address for hosts
     – Enables TCP to keep track of session data
     – Routing based on fixed source/destination
Mobile IP – Components & Terminology
• Mobile Node (MN)
   – system (node) that can change the point of connection
     to the network without changing its IP address
• Correspondent Node (CN)
   – communication partner (cam be fixed or mobile node)
• Home Network
   – The subnet the MN belongs to with respect to its IP address. No mobile
     IP support is needed within the home network.
• Foreign Network
   – The current subnet the MN visits and which is not the home network
   – The current location of the MN from the IP point of view is called Care-
     of-Address (COA)
• Tunneling
   – Packet delivery towards the MN is done using a tunnel
Mobile IP – Components & Terminology
 • Home Agent (HA)
    – system in the home network of the MN, typically a router
    – Provides several services to the MN
    – registers the location of the MN, tunnels IP datagrams to the COA
 • Foreign Agent (FA)
    – system in the current foreign network of the MN, typically a router
    – Provides several services to the MN during its visit to the foreign
    – forwards the tunneled datagrams to the MN, typically also the
      default router for the MN
    – FA can also provide security service,
 • Care-of Address (COA)
    –   actual location of the MN from an IP point of view
    –   address of the current tunnel end-point for the MN (at FA or MN)
    –   all packets sent to the MN are delivered to the COA
    –   Foreign agent COA: located at the FA
    –   Co-located COA: can be chosen, e.g., via DHCP if IP addresses
        are available.
Example network


   home network                                        mobile end-system
(physical home network
for the MN)
                                                  FA   foreign
                                              (current physical network
                                              for the MN)

          end-system            router
Data transfer from the mobile system
                                                          1       MN

 home network                                             sender

                                                 FA    foreign

                              1. Sender sends to the IP address
                                 of the receiver as usual,
                                 FA works as default router

Data transfer to the mobile system

 home network                                  3                receiver

                                                       FA    foreign

                                    1. Sender sends to the IP address of MN,
                                       HA intercepts packet
                 1                  2. HA tunnels packet to COA, here FA,
                                       by encapsulation
                                    3. FA forwards the packet
       sender                          to the MN

     home            router                                         MN
     network         HA

                                    Internet                         network

       CN            router

    home            router                                          MN
                              2.                     FA
    network         HA
                                   Internet                         network

      CN            router
Mobile IP – The Protocols
  • Three major problems:
     – Discovery of new point of attachment
     – Registration of new location with Home domain
     – Delivery of datagrams to registered locations

  • Agent Discovery
     – Mobility agents advertise availability
     – MN solicits agent

  • Registration
     – Updating the care-of-address with home network

  • Tunneling
     – Delivery of data to mobile node’s care-of-address, via
       permanent home address
1. Agent Discovery
• One initial problem of an MN after moving is how to find a
  foreign agent
   – How does the MN discover that it has moved?
• Mobile IP describes two methods:
   – Agent advertisement
   – Agent solicitation

• Agent Advertisement
   – Extends the current ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol –
     Router Advertisement)
   – HA and FA periodically send advertisement messages into their
     physical subnets
   – MN listens to these messages and detects, if it is in the home or
     a foreign network (standard case for home network)
   – MN reads a COA from the FA advertisement messages
Agent Discovery (cont)

 • Agent Solicitation
     – Alternatively, mobile node may solicit agent (Broadcast or
 • Mobile node can now proceed to register

Agent Advertisement         0          7 8       15 16       23 24               31
(ICMP – extension)          type         code       checksum
                            #addresses addr. size   lifetime
                            router address 1
                            preference level 1
                            router address 2
                            preference level 2

                            type = 16       length         sequence number
                            registration lifetime          R B H F M G r T reserved
                            COA 1
                            COA 2
2. Registration
 • Mobile Node requests
   registration from Foreign
   Agent (or directly for co-
   located COA)
 • Request is forwarded to
   Home Agent
    – Includes CAO + home
 • Home Agent replies to
   Foreign Agent
 • Security                        From: Perkins, C.E., “Mobile networking through Mobile IP,” IEEE Internet

    – Authentication between all   Computing, Volume 2, Issue 1, Jan.-Feb. 1998 Page(s):58 – 69.

      three parties
    – Mobile-Home auth. is
      based on shared secret
 3. Tunneling & Encapsulation
• Communication between an IP node and a Mobile Node
• Delivery of data to mobile node’s COA via permanent home address
• Tunneling is achieved by encapsulation

                         IP tunnel

      Home Agent                            Foreign Agent
          1                                    3
        IP Host                             Mobile Node
• Encapsulation of one packet into another as payload
   – e.g. IPv6 in IPv4 , Multicast in Unicast
   – here: e.g. IP-in-IP-encapsulation
• IP-in-IP-encapsulation (mandatory, RFC 2003)
   – tunnel between HA and COA

                            original IP header original data

            new IP header   new data

            outer header    inner header       original data
Mobile IP – Encapsulation

  • IP-within-IP encapsulation

                                 MobileIP Header

              IP Header             IP Header

             IP Payload             IP Payload

        ver. IHL DS (TOS)              length
        IP identification              flags fragment offset
        TTL             IP-in-IP       IP checksum
        IP address of HA
        Care-of address COA
        ver. IHL DS (TOS)              length
        IP identification              flags fragment offset
        TTL             lay. 4 prot.   IP checksum
        IP address of CN
        IP address of MN
        TCP/UDP/ ... payload
Optimization of packet forwarding
  • Problem: Triangular Routing
     – sender sends all packets via HA to MN
     – higher latency and network load

  • “Solution”
     – Avoid routing through Home Agent
     – Corresponding IP host is given care-of-address
     –   sender learns the current location of MN
     –   direct tunneling to this location
     –   HA informs a sender about the location of MN
     –   big security problems!
Optimization of packet forwarding (cont.)

 • Requires authentication (to prevent hijacking)
 • Process is entitled mobility-binding
    – Request
    – Update – Authorization                 CN            HA

    – Acknowledgement                               Request
    – Warning (if needed)                                ACK

       • If a packet is sent to a wrong FA
Optimization: Change of Foreign Agent

  • Change of FA
    – packets on-the-fly during the change can be lost
    – new FA informs old FA to avoid packet loss, old FA
      now forwards remaining packets to new FA
    – this information also enables the old FA to release
      resources for the MN
Reverse Tunneling
• The return path from MN to CN looks quite simple. MN can directly
  send its packets to CN. However, this leads to several problems:
   – Firewalls
       • Most companies have firewalls
       • To provide security the firewall rejects a topologically incorrect packet
   – Multicast
       • An MN in a foreign network can not transmit multi-cast packets in a way
         that emanate from its home network
       • The foreign network might not even provide the technical infrastructure
         for multicast communication
   – TTL (time to live)
       • TTL might be low to reach the destination
       • Adjusting the TTL results in non transparent mobile IP
• To solve these problems, reverse tunneling has been defined as
  an optional extension to mobile IP.
Reverse tunneling (RFC 3024, was: 2344)


 home network                                                      sender

                                                         FA    foreign

                                     1. MN sends to FA
                  3                  2. FA tunnels packets to HA
  CN                                    by encapsulation
                                     3. HA forwards the packet to the
                                        receiver (standard case)
Problems with Mobile IP
  • Inefficient routing
     – Indirect routing via Home Agent may be slow
     – Home Agent may get overloaded with traffic

  • Firewalls
    What happens when Firewalls are operating?
     – typically mobile IP cannot be used together with
       firewalls, special set-ups are needed (such as reverse
     – Internal addresses appear to enter a network
     – Mobile IP cannot handover connections
Problems with mobile IP
  • Security
     – authentication with FA problematic, for the FA typically
       belongs to another organization
     – no protocol for key management and key distribution
       has been standardized in the Internet

  • QoS
     – many new reservations in case of RSVP (resource
     – tunneling makes it hard to give a flow of packets a
       special treatment needed for the QoS

  • Security, firewalls, QoS etc. are topics of research
    and discussions
Mobile IP and IPv6 (RFC 3775)
• Mobile IP was developed for IPv4, but IPv6 simplifies the
   – security is integrated and not an add-on, authentication of
     registration is included -Protocols for registration, discovery etc. are
     available as standard, not layered above IP
   – COA can be assigned via auto-configuration (DHCPv6 is one
     candidate), every node has address auto-configuration
   – no need for a separate FA, all routers perform router advertisement
     which can be used instead of the special agent advertisement;
     addresses are always co-located
   – MN can signal a sender directly the COA, sending via HA not
     needed in this case (automatic path optimization)
   – „soft“ hand-over, i.e. without packet loss, between two subnets is
       • MN sends the new COA to its old router
       • the old router encapsulates all incoming packets for the MN and
         forwards them to the new COA
       • authentication is always granted
IP Micro-mobility support

  • Mobile IP (and MIPv6) problems
     – Designed to Internetwork mobile nodes across wide
     – Concentrates on address migration issues
     – Not suitable for fast migration and handoff within a
       defined geographical area
  • Micro mobility protocols: Keep the frequent updates
    generated by local changes away from the home
IP Micro-mobility support
• Micro-mobility support:
   – Efficient local handover inside a foreign domain
     without involving a home agent
   – Reduces control traffic on backbone
   – Especially needed in case of route optimization

• Example approaches (research, not products):
   – Cellular IP
   – Hierarchical Mobile IP (HMIP)

• Important criteria:
  Security Efficiency, Scalability, Transparency, Manageability
DHCP: Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
• Application
   – simplification of installation and maintenance of networked
   – supplies systems with all necessary information, such as IP
     address, DNS server address, domain name, subnet mask, default
     router etc.
   – enables automatic integration of systems into an Intranet or the
     Internet, can be used to acquire a COA for Mobile IP
Mobile ad hoc networks
• Standard Mobile IP needs an infrastructure
   – Home Agent/Foreign Agent in the fixed network
   – DNS, routing etc. are not designed for mobility
• Sometimes there is no infrastructure!
   – remote areas, ad-hoc meetings, disaster areas
   – cost can also be an argument against an infrastructure!
• Main topic: routing
   – no default router available
   – every node should be able to forward

                        A        B          C
Solution: Wireless ad-hoc networks
  • Network without infrastructure
     – Use components of participants for networking

  • Examples
     – Single-hop: All partners max. one hop apart
        • Bluetooth piconet, PDAs in a room,
          gaming devices…

     – Multi-hop: Cover larger distances,
       circumvent obstacles
        • Bluetooth scatternet, TETRA police network,
          car-to-car networks…

  • Internet: MANET (Mobile Ad-hoc Networking) group
Manet: Mobile Ad-hoc Networking




                                   Mobile IP,


             Router   End system
Problem No. 1: Routing
  • Highly dynamic network topology
      –    Device mobility plus varying channel quality
      –    Separation and merging of networks possible
      –    Asymmetric connections possible
      –    Redundant links, interference
                                                                     N7   N6
 N1                                           N1
                   N2                                                N3
                             N3                            N2

      N4                                      N4
                        N5                                      N5

            time = t1                          time = t2

                                  good link
                                  weak link
Traditional routing algorithms
• Distance Vector
   – periodic exchange of messages with all physical neighbors
     that contain information about who can be reached at what
   – selection of the shortest path if several paths available
• Link State
   – periodic notification of all routers about the current state of all
     physical links
   – router get a complete picture of the network
Routing in ad-hoc networks

• THE big topic in many research projects
   – Far more than 50 different proposals exist
   – The most simplest one: Flooding!

• Reasons
   – Classical approaches from fixed networks fail
      • Very slow convergence, large overhead
   – High dynamicity, low bandwidth, low computing power

• Metrics for routing
   – Minimal
      • Number of nodes, loss rate, delay, congestion, interference …
   – Maximal
      • Stability of the logical network, battery run-time, time of
        connectivity …
Problems of traditional routing algorithms

  • Dynamic of the topology
     – frequent changes of connections, connection quality,

  • Limited performance of mobile systems
     – periodic updates of routing tables need energy without
       contributing to the transmission of user data, sleep
       modes difficult to realize
     – limited bandwidth of the system is reduced even more
       due to the exchange of routing information
     – links can be asymmetric, i.e., they can have a direction
       dependent transmission quality (TCP RTT)
Dynamic source routing
  • Split routing into discovering a path and maintaining a

  • Discover a path
     – only if a path for sending packets to a certain destination
       is needed and no path is currently available

  • Maintaining a path
     – only while the path is in use one has to make sure that it
       can be used continuously

  • No periodic updates needed!
Dynamic source routing

  • Path discovery
     – broadcast a packet with destination address and unique ID
     – if a station receives a broadcast packet
         • if the station is the receiver (i.e., has the correct destination address)
           then return the packet to the sender (path was collected in the packet)
         • if the packet has already been received earlier (identified via ID) then
           discard the packet
         • otherwise, append own address and broadcast packet
     – sender receives packet with the current path (address list)

  • Optimizations
     – limit broadcasting if maximum diameter of the network is known
     – caching of address lists (i.e. paths) with help of passing packets
         • stations can use the cached information for path discovery (own paths
           or paths for other hosts)
DSR: Route Discovery
Sending from C to O                               P               R

                              G                           Q

          B                           I
                                              K               M       O

              D                                       L
                          F               J                           N
 DSR: Route Discovery
Broadcast                                            P               R
   [O,C,4711]                   G                            Q

            B                            I
                                                 K               M       O

                D                                        L
                            F                J                           N
DSR: Route Discovery
                                                        P               R
                                  G     [O,C/G,4711]            Q

         B                                  I
                                                    K               M       O
                       [O,C/E,4711] H

               D                                            L
                              F                 J                           N
  DSR: Route Discovery
                                                              P               R

                                      G                               Q

             B                                 I
                                                          K               M       O
[O,C/B/A,4711]    D                                               L
                                F                  J                              N
            (alternatively: [O,C/E/D,4711])
DSR: Route Discovery
                                                P               R

                         G                              Q

     B                            I
                                            K               M       O

         D                                          L
                     F                J                             N
DSR: Route Discovery
                                                P               R

                         G                              Q

     B                           I
                                            K               M       O

         D                                          L
                     F               J                              N

                                     (alternatively: [O,C/G/I/K/L,4711])
DSR: Route Discovery
                                             P               R

                         G                           Q

     B                           I
                                         K               M       O

         D                                       L
                     F               J                           N

DSR: Route Discovery
                                             P               R

                         G                           Q

                                                 Path: M, K, I, G
     B                           I
                                         K               M       O

         D                                       L
                     F               J                           N
Dynamic Source Routing III

  • Maintaining paths
     – after sending a packet
        • wait for a layer 2 acknowledgement (if applicable)
        • listen into the medium to detect if other stations forward
          the packet (if possible)
        • request an explicit acknowledgement
     – if a station encounters problems it can inform the
       sender of a packet or look-up a new path locally
A plethora of ad hoc routing protocols
  •   Flat
       – Proactive : set up routing tables regardless of any traffic
          • FSLS – Fuzzy Sighted Link State
          • FSR – Fisheye State Routing
          • OLSR – Optimized Link State Routing Protocol (RFC 3626)
          • TBRPF – Topology Broadcast Based on Reverse Path Forwarding
       – Reactive: Set up a path between sender and receiver if a
         communication is needed
              • AODV – Ad hoc On demand Distance Vector (RFC 3561)
              • DSR – Dynamic Source Routing (RFC 4728)
              • DYMO – Dynamic MANET On-demand
  •   Hierarchical
       –     CGSR – Clusterhead-Gateway Switch Routing
       –     HSR – Hierarchical State Routing
       –     LANMAR – Landmark Ad Hoc Routing
       –     ZRP – Zone Routing Protocol
  •   Geographic position assisted
       –     DREAM – Distance Routing Effect Algorithm for Mobility
       –     GeoCast – Geographic Addressing and Routing
       –     GPSR – Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing
       –     LAR – Location-Aided Routing
Clustering of ad-hoc networks

                                                    Cluster head
                Base station


     Super cluster
Further difficulties and research areas
  • Auto-Configuration
      – Assignment of addresses, function, profile, program, …
  • Service discovery
      – Discovery of services and service providers
  • Multicast
      – Transmission to a selected group of receivers
  • Quality-of-Service
      – Maintenance of a certain transmission quality
  • Power control
      – Minimizing interference, energy conservation mechanisms
  • Security
      – Data integrity, protection from attacks (e.g. Denial of Service)
  • Scalability
      – 10 nodes? 100 nodes? 1000 nodes? 10000 nodes?
  • Integration with fixed networks
The next step: Wireless Sensor Networks
  • Commonalities with MANETs
     – Self-organization, multi-hop
     – Typically wireless, should be energy efficient

  • Differences to MANETs                               Example:
     – Applications: MANET more powerful, more
       general  WSN more specific
     – Devices: MANET more powerful, higher data rates, more
        WSN rather limited, embedded, interacting with environment
     – Scale: MANET rather small (some dozen devices)
        WSN can be large (thousands)
     – Basic paradigms: MANET individual node important, ID centric
        WSN network important, individual node may be dispensable,
       data centric
     – Mobility patterns, Quality-of Service, Energy, Cost per node …
Properties of wireless sensor networks
  •   Sensor nodes (SN) monitor and control the environment
  •   Nodes process data and forward data via radio
  •   Integration into the environment, typically attached to other networks
      over a gateway (GW)
  •   Network is self-organizing and energy efficient
  •   Potentially high number of nodes at very low cost per node

                                                       GW      Bluetooth, TETRA, …

                                               SN                 SN
      SN                                                                            SN
             GW                                              SN
Promising applications for WSNs
  •   Machine and vehicle monitoring
       – Sensor nodes in moveable parts
       – Monitoring of hub temperatures, fluid levels …

  •   Health & medicine
       – Long-term monitoring of patients with minimal restrictions
       – Intensive care with relative great freedom of movement

  •   Intelligent buildings, building monitoring
       – Intrusion detection, mechanical stress detection
       – Precision HVAC with individual climate

  •   Environmental monitoring, person tracking
       – Monitoring of wildlife and national parks
       – Cheap and (almost) invisible person monitoring
       – Monitoring waste dumps, demilitarized zones

  •   … and many more: military, RFID, telematics …
       –   WSNs are quite often complimentary to fixed networks!

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