Fixing a Hole in a Wall by 1xv74D

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									                                       Fixing a Hole in a Wall   1




  Instruction for Fixing a Hole in a Wall
              Documentation

             Kathleen M. Rey

                  IT 510

       Design Project Checkpoint #3

Southern Illinois University at Edwardsville

            December 9, 2008
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Goal Analysis:

Topic
This unit is designed to give direction on how to fix a hole in a wall that is built out of
drywall. It will take the learner through all of the procedural steps which include to: 1)
Identify and Collect Tools of the Project; 2) Discuss Safety of Tool Usage; 3) Cut the
Hole in the Wall; 4) Cut the Inlay; 5) Secure Anchor inside the Wall; 6) Insert Inlay into
the Hole; 7) Mud and Tape; 8) Texture the Wall

Problem Identification
Having a home in need of repair can cause problems for the homeowner. Specifically,
having a hole in the wall can lead to energy loss and, depending on the location of the
hole, it can be an invitation for pests to enter the home. Also, having undesirable
aesthetics inside or outside of the home will lower property value.

The current state of our economy is requiring that Americans cut corners and find more
cost-effective ways to live. A side-effect of the faltering economy is a poor housing
market. In this buyer’s market, the seller must pay extra attention to detail. Anything that
will take away from the perfection of the home can lead a potential buyer to look
elsewhere. Another downfall is the rising energy costs. Having a hole in a wall leads to
increase in need for heat and a/c as a direct result of the hole. This in turn, would mean
that more energy is used and a higher utility bill. Still another issue in this economy is
less disposable income. Fixing repairs in the home is one way to avoid spending money
needlessly. Repairpersons of any field will charge labor and inflated cost of parts. “Do-it-
yourselfers” will find that money will not be spent needlessly.

I met with the SME for this project in early September. Numan “Pete” Posey has
personally built four of his own homes, from the ground up. He has been building and
repairing homes most of his life. He has assisted in maintaining churches he has been a
member as well as many family and friends’ home. Pete has a reputation in the Waterloo,
IL and surrounding area as someone to call upon for assistance in home repair.
In our initial meeting, we evaluated a real hole in a wall that needed repair. The SME
brought tools and materials to the site of the hole and we discussed what would need to
be done. It was the first overview and verbal summary of the task analysis. Every week, I
met with the SME to further complete the task analysis. Following each session, the task
analysis was evaluated for accuracy. The project was completed a second time on a mock
wall to take more pictures and test for accuracy.

This instructional unit is designed for an individual, with little or no experience in home
repair, to effectively repair a hole in a wall made of drywall. It was created and designed
with the learner in mind. The learner should be able to complete the step-by-step task
without seeking assistance from another source.


Set Goals
Learner will know how to fix a hole in a wall.
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Refined Goals
Learner will know how to fix a hole in a wall.
Learner will know about tools used for the project.

Rank Goals:
A. Learner will know about tools used for the project.
B. Learner will know how to fix a hole in a wall.

Objectives for Refined Goals

Goal Statement: A: Learner will know about the tools used for the project.
      Objective #1: Given all the tools of this task, the learner will identify each tool
      and list its purpose with 100% accuracy.
      Objective #2: Given all the tools for this task, the learner will select tools which
      require extra attention to safety and why, with 100% accuracy. Fact/Recall

Goal Statement: B: Learner will know how to fix a hole in the wall.
      Objective #1: Given a pencil, square, and measuring tape, the learner will draw a
      rectangular shape around the hole in the wall so that no part of the rectangular
      shape being drawn exceeds the perimeter of the hole in the wall by more than ½
      inch.
      Objective #2: Given a pencil, square, measuring tape, and handsaw, the learner
      will cut a rectangular shaped hole larger than the original hole in the wall, so that
      no part of the drywall being trimmed will be more than ½ inch from the outlying
      perimeter of the original hole in the wall.
      Objective #3: Given a drywall scrap, pencil, square, and measuring tape, the
      learner will draw the inlay so that the inlay has the exact same perimeter
      measurements as the hole in the wall.
      Objective #4: Given the drywall scrap with the inlay outline drawn on it, a hand
      saw, and cutting surface, the learner will cut the inlay so that the inlay will fit in
      the hole with less than a 1/16 inch gap around the perimeter.
      Objective #5: Given a 1x2 piece of wood, measuring tape and pencil, the learner
      will measure, mark and cut the wood so that its length is 4 inches longer than the
      measurement of the height of the rectangular hole in the wall.
      Objective #6: Given the 1x2 piece of wood that is cut 4 inches longer than the
      height of the hole in the wall, drywall screws and a screwdriver, the learner will
      secure the anchor to the inside of the wall vertically so that the anchor does not
      move.
      Objective #7: Given the inlay, drywall screws and screwdriver, the learner will
      secure the inlay into the hole in the wall so that the inlay fits as a puzzle piece and
      will not move when touched.
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       Objective #8: Given drywall mud, 4 pieces of drywall tape (2 measuring the same
       as the vertical sides of the hole and 2 measuring the same as the horizontal sides
       of the hole) and the putty knife, the learner will position and attach the tape to the
       wall along the perimeter of the hole/inlay with the mud so that the tape remains in
       place and the mud is smooth on the wall.
       Objective #9: After the mud has dried and given the sand block and sandpaper the
       learner will sand the dry mud on the wall so that the surface where the mud was
       placed and the surface of the wall are smooth.
       Objective #10: Given a can of wall texture the learner will spray the texture on the
       location of the former hole in the wall so that it matches the entire wall.

Learner Analysis
General Characteristics:
      Male or female homeowner
      At least 18 years of age
      High School Diploma or above
      No experience in home repair

Specific Characteristics:
       Sixth grade reading level
       Ability to perform basic math concerning measuring
       Ability use simple, man-powered tools
       General knowledge of home repair tools and their usage
       Able to work independently
       Ability to stand
       Have good manual dexterity; has use of both hands
       Have fine-motor skills; ability to manipulate tiny objects with fingertips

Task Analysis

IDENTIFY TOOLS/MATERIALS AND FOR WHAT EACH IS USED
   Square: Tool used to make a straight line or perfect corners.
   Pencil: Writing instrument with lead; can be erased using eraser.
   Drywall Saw: Saw specifically used for cutting drywall. Has a point on the tip to
   puncture drywall. Can come in different sizes but any sizes will do.
   Measuring Tape: Tool used for measuring length.
   Hand Saw: Saw about 2 ½ feet long designed for cutting with only human power.
   Saw Horse: Tool used in this design for cutting at hip height. Used to secure wood
   and allow room for the hand saw to have freedom to work.
   Piece of Wood: Scrap wood long measuring 4 inches longer than the vertical
   measurement of the rectangular inlay, when cut. Rule of thumb: since these
   instructions are for a hole measuring a foot or smaller, have a scrap that is at least 16
   inches long.
   Sheetrock Screws Measuring 2 inches: Screws specifically used for securing drywall
   (also known as sheetrock) to wood braces inside a wall.
   Screwdriver: Hand tool used to turn in screws.
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   Dry Wall Scrap (Larger than the Hole): Dry wall is the material that most walls are
   made of. It comes in sheets 4 feet by 8 feet and is ½ inch wide. Ask for help at the
   hardware store that you buy it from. You will only need a piece large enough to fit the
   hole.
   Dry Wall Inlay: The piece of drywall that is cut from the drywall scrap. It is cut
   within ¼ of an inch smaller both vertically and horizontally compared to the size of
   the hole in the wall. It is a “puzzle piece” that will fill the hole in the wall.
   Scissors: Tool with two crossed pivoting blades and a handle.
   Dry Wall Tape: Material used to connect seams in drywall.
   Dry Wall Mud: Mud-like compound used to fuse drywall together as well as covering
   the drywall tape to make the surface of the hole blend with the rest of the wall.
   Putty Knife: Handheld tool with a dull edge resembling the edge of a knife. Used to
   spread drywall mud evenly to the surface of the wall.
   400 Grit Sandpaper: Strips of rough-surfaced paper used to take the rough edges off
   of the wall that are left by the drywall mud after it dries.
   Sandblock: Tool that holds sandpaper.
   Texturizer: Spray used to blend the surface of the hole with the surface of the rest of
   the wall.
   ATTENTION: You will need to do your best to match this the first time. Before
   buying this at the hardware store, look at your wall surface. Is it smooth? Does it
   resemble the surface of an orange? Does it look like sand? You will need a mental
   picture when seeking help at the store to find the right texture for your project.

DISCUSS SAFETY OF TOOL USAGE
   Square: Keep corners and edges away from you and others.
   Do not run while carrying.
   Drywall Saw: Always be sure to hold the saws in a manner that the jagged edges of
   the cutting edges are held away from you or anyone else.
   Measuring Tape: Be careful not to allow the tape to retract into the case on its own,
   it may snap back, causing injury. Always retract it manually.
   Hand Saw: Keep the cutting edge positioned away from you and others.
   Do not run while carrying.
   Saw Horse: Use caution when putting materials onto the saw horse. Balancing
   materials so they don’t fall is important so the saw horses don’t fall, causing materials
   and tools on the cutting surface to fall.
   Two Inch Sheet Rock Screws: Make sure screws are in a container when not using
   so that they don’t fall on the ground so you or others step on them.
   Screwdriver: Always be sure to hold the screwdriver in a manner so that the end
   opposite the handle is held away from you or anyone else.
   Scissors: Keep the tip positioned away from you and others. Hold the scissors closed
   when carrying. Don’t run while carrying.
   Dry Wall Mud: Poisonous. Do not ingest.
   Putty Knife: Keep edge positioned away from you and others. Do not run while
   carrying.
   400 Grit Sandpaper: Handle carefully; keep rough surface away from you and
   others.
   Texturizer: Avoid ingestion and inhaling; use in vented area.
                                                                 Fixing a Hole in a Wall    6


CUTTING THE HOLE
  Drawing an Outline to Cut:
  The best shape of hole to work with is a rectangular-shaped hole. Since it is easier to
  measure a rectangle than a random-shaped hole, you will be first measuring and
  cutting a rectangular-shaped hole around the existing hole. Then you will cut an inlay
  that will fit inside of it.
   You will first use a square, measuring tape and pencil to draw the outline of the
      hole that you will cut.
   Eyeball the perimeter of the hole. Vertically and horizontally, identify the points
      on top, bottom, left, and right which are the furthest from the center of the hole.
   Position the measuring tape ½ inch out at each of these points. Make a pencil
      mark.
   VISUAL CUE: You will need to have a corner of the wall to use as a guide for
      the next step. Choose whichever is closest: the top of the wall or a corner of the
      wall. Do not choose the floor, as this will not be level so you will not have a
      perfect rectangle when finished with this step. For the purposes of this manual, we
      will use the “corner” of the wall as our guide.
   Measure from the corner of the wall to each mark made on each side horizontally
      on the outside of the hole. Make a note of the measurements. Move the tape
      measure up or down from the original marks. Make two more marks on the wall
      at the same measurements from the corner.
   You will now be drawing vertical lines on the wall be connecting the marks that
      you have made.
   With your non-dominant hand, place the square vertically, connecting one pair of
      marks. With your dominant hand, draw a line. Repeat with the other pair of
      marks.
   Align the square with the line on the left and the mark on the top of the hole.
   VISUAL CUE: Make sure that you don’t cover your pencil marks. You should
      have the mark next to the square, but not covered.
   With your non-dominant hand, hold the square securely, so that it doesn’t move.
      With your dominant hand, draw a line above the hole. Repeat this procedure for
      the bottom line, connecting the marks you made above.
   Check your work. You should have a rectangle drawn on your wall which is
      slightly larger than the hole in the wall. This is the outline of the hole that you will
      cut.

   Cutting the Hole:
   The following procedure will be repeated for all four sides of the outline you just
   drew around the hole. You will end up with a new hole in the wall, which will be a
   rectangular shape.
    Place the drywall saw in your dominant hand.
    Place the saw so that the tip of the saw it pointing at a corner of the rectangle.
    Push the tip of the drywall saw through the wall with just enough pressure to go
       through the wall. The saw will be aligned with an edge of the rectangular outline
       on the wall and pointing toward another corner on the outline.
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      Angle the saw slightly (so that a 45º angle is created with the saw blade and the
       wall) Begin to move the saw back and forth, cutting away drywall. It is more
       important to move back and forth and let the saw do the work, than it is to apply a
       lot of pressure.
      Visual Cue: Use the pencil markings as a guide. You want to cut the hole so that
       the pencil markings stay visible on the wall. This will make sure that the cut you
       are making is straight and when you make the inlay (below), your measurements
       will be consistent with the hole.
      Continue to put pressure on the saw and move it back and forth, cutting the
       drywall until the saw reaches the next corner of the outline on the wall. Then,
       stop.
      Remove the saw by gently pulling it out of the wall. You may need to gently rock
       it back and forth while pulling it out.
      Keeping the saw at the corner where you removed it, turn it 90º and face it toward
       the next corner in the pattern.
      Push the tip of the drywall saw into the wall, facing it toward the next corner.
      Repeat the steps until there is a rectangular hole in the wall.

MAKE A DRYWALL INLAY
Draw the Inlay:
   Using the measurements from the hole, you will draw an inlay on the dry wall scrap
   that is the same size as the hole. When it is cut, it will be snug, but fit inside the hole.
   For consistency, the example in this manual will be a rectangle that measures 6 ¾
   inches vertically by 5 ¾ inches horizontally.
    Place the square on the drywall scrap and place the measuring tape over the edge
       of the square. Make two markings next to the edge of the square that measure 6 ¾
       inches apart. Remove the measuring tape and using the edge of the square, draw a
       straight line by “connecting the dots” drawn on the scrap.
    Make sure the line is drawn straight.
    Pick up the square and turn it to create a 90º angle with the first side, made above.
    VISUAL CUE: You need to line up the edge of the square with the end of the line
       you drew.
    Hold it firmly on the drywall. You will be making the second side (horizontal
       side) of the rectangle.
    Using the end of the first side of the rectangle, place the measuring tape against
       the square and measure the distance of the horizontal edge of the hole. For our
       example, we will be using 5 ¾ inches. Make a marking.
    Remove the measuring tape but leave the square on the drywall.
    Visual Cue: Make sure that one side of the square is flush with the first line you
       drew, and the other side of the square is correctly lined up with the marking made
       in the step above.
    Draw the second side (horizontal side) of the rectangular inlay.
    Pick up the square and turn it to create a 90º angle with the second side of the
       rectangle. Hold it firmly on the drywall. You will be making the third side
       (vertical side) of the rectangle.
                                                               Fixing a Hole in a Wall   8


      Using the end of the second side of the rectangle, place the measuring tape against
       the square and make a mark at 6 ¾ inches.
      Remove the measuring tape but leave the square on the drywall.
      Making sure that one side of the square is flush with the second line you drew,
       and the other side of the square is correctly lined up with the marking made in the
      Checkpoint: You are now going to draw the last side of the rectangular inlay. First
       measure to see if the two lines that are not yet connected are the correct distance
       apart. When the distance is measured for our example, it should be 5 ¾ inches.
      Turn the square so that it makes a 90º with the third side of the inlay. Line up the
       edge of the square that is pointing toward the 1st side of the rectangle and is
       touching the edge of that side. Hold the square firmly on the drywall and draw the
       final side of the rectangle inlay.
      Checkpoint: Remeasure the sides of the inlay. Make sure they are the same as the
       hole in the wall.

   Cutting the Inlay:
    Place the drywall scrap (with the inlay outline on it) on the Saw Horses. With
      your non-dominant hand, secure the scrap by holding it down.
    Place the hand saw in your dominant hand and line it up its tip with a corner of
      the outline of the inlay.
    Puncture the drywall at the corner, just as you did when making the rectangular
      hole in the wall. Use the same back and forth motion to allow the saw to cut.
    Cut to the next corner.
    Turn the saw 90º toward the next corner.
    Cut the remaining sides of the inlay by repeating this procedure.

SECURING THE ANCHOR
  Cutting the Anchor:
  Using the measurements from the hole, you will measure and cut an anchor out of a
  piece of wood to secure to the inside of the wall. For our example we will use a 1x3
  piece of scrap wood. It will serve as a way to secure the drywall inlay into the hole.
  For consistency, the example in this manual will be a rectangle that measures 5 ¾ by
  6 ¾ inches.
   You will be using a measuring tape, 1x3 piece of wood, hand saw and pencil.
   You will be measuring the 1x3 to be 4 inches longer than the vertical
      measurement of the hole. For our example, it will measure 10 ¾ inches.
   Place the measuring tape lengthwise on the 1x3. Measure from the end of the
      piece of wood. Make a mark on the wood in the appropriate spot. Again, our
      marking would be at 10 ¾ inches because the vertical measurement is 6 ¾ inches:
      6 ¾ inches plus 4 inches is 10 ¾ inches.
   Draw a line on the 1x3 to use as a guide to cut with the hand saw. This should be
      accurate but not precise.
   Place the wood on the saw horse and secure with your non-dominant hand. Hold
      very firmly.
   Hold the hand saw in your dominant hand and line up the cutting edge of the saw
      with the line drawn on the wood.
                                                            Fixing a Hole in a Wall    9


   Apply pressure to the saw and begin to push down while moving the saw forward
    and back, making a cut in the wood. Continue until the 1x3 is cut completely
    through.

Securing the Anchor:
You will be securing the anchor into the wall. It will make the job of inserting and
securing the inlay more manageable. You will need a screwdriver, the anchor, and 2
inch sheetrock screws.
 Place the screwdriver in your dominant hand. Using your non-dominant hand,
    pick up a drywall screw and place it on the end of the screwdriver so that the
    screw balances on the tip of the screwdriver.
 Visual Cue: The flat side of the screw has an indentation in it which classifies it as
    a Phillips screw. You will match up this indentation (female) to the end of the
    Phillips screwdriver (male). When they are fit together, the screw will balance on
    the screwdriver.
 While balancing the screw on the screwdriver, place the anchor in your non-
    dominant hand.
 Do not put down the screwdriver.
 Place the anchor inside of the wall by inserting one end into the hole. Guide the
    end of the anchor upward into the hole until the anchor is completely inside of the
    wall.
 Position the anchor so that it is vertically upright. Pull it back toward you. It will
    “catch” on the wall because it is longer than the hole is tall.
 Position the anchor vertically so that 3 inches is above the hole and 3 inches is
    below the hole and it is centered directly in the middle, left to right.
 Carefully take the screwdriver/screw and place it just above the opening of the
    hole. The screw should be also aligned with the anchor behind it.
 Point the screw upward and carefully and slowly turn it into the wall. Apply
    pressure to the screw so that it makes an indention in the wall. This will secure the
    screw for turning it into the wall.
 Keep holding the anchor. Apply more pressure to the screw and begin turning the
    screwdriver clockwise into the drywall.
 When the screw becomes more difficult to turn, it has made contact with the
    anchor. Hold the anchor more securely; pulling it toward you will give you more
    leverage. Apply more pressure to the screwdriver and continue to turn in the
    screw.
 Keep turning the screw until you countersink the sink it. This is when the screw is
    slightly below the surface of the drywall.
 Check your work. Make sure that you have aligned the screw so that it is in the
    center, accurately but not precisely, of the anchor.
 Let go of the anchor.
 Using the technique above, secure the anchor with another screw. Be sure to have
    a screw on the top and the bottom of the hole.
 Check the anchor to make sure that it is secure. It should not move. Add
    additional screws to secure, if needed.
                                                             Fixing a Hole in a Wall 10


   Visual Cue: Look at the anchor and notice that it is flush with the inside of the
    wall. In the next step, you will place the drywall inlay into the hole and use the
    anchor for support.

SECURE INLAY INTO THE WALL
 Place the drywall inlay into the hole that you have prepared. Approach this as if
  you are putting a puzzle together. Turn the inlay to fit the hole. It should fit
  snugly.
 Using your non-dominant hand, hold the inlay firmly against the anchor. Use
  enough pressure on the inlay so that the inlay will not fall.
 While holding the inlay in place with your non-dominant hand, you will also need
  to place a drywall screw on the inside of the perimeter of the inlay and also above
  the surface of the anchor. You will be turning the drywall screw through the inlay
  and into the anchor in the wall.
      o It is suggested that you turn in the first drywall screw into the inlay at the
          top of the inlay, use one at the top middle of the inlay and one at the
          bottom middle of the inlay, both screws will attach the inlay to the anchor.
 Using the same technique as you did when turning in the screws to secure the
  anchor, turn in the screw to secure the inlay to the anchor. (See step in “Securing
  the Anchor.”)
 Check to see that the inlay does not move. Put slight pressure on the inlay and try
  to move it back and forth. If it wiggles at all, you should put another screw on the
  top and the bottom of the inlay, into the anchor.

MUD AND TAPE THE INLAY/HOLE
Mud and Tape the Seam:
 Using the putty knife, scoop some drywall mud out of the container. Spread the
  mud into the seams which make up the perimeter of the inlay.
 Visual Cue: The seams of the cut will be filled in with drywall mud and even with
  the surface of the wall.
 Measure and cut or tear four pieces of the drywall tape, one for each side of the
  inlay. For example, the inlay in our example is 5 inches by 7 inches. You would
  cut to pieces measuring 5 inches and two pieces measuring 7 inches.
 Placing one piece at a time over the seams, match the length of the tape to the
  length of the side. (For the side measuring 7 inches, use a piece of tape measuring
  7 inches.) Hold the tape so the middle of the tape is in line with the cut which is
  the perimeter of the inlay and hole.
 Using the putty knife, scoop more drywall mud and smooth over the drywall tape.
  Smooth out.
 Visual Cue: Make sure that you smooth drywall mud thinly, just so you have
  enough to cover the tape. This will make sanding less of a chore.
 Continue placing the tape around the perimeter of the hole in the same manner as
  above until all four sides of the perimeter have been sealed with tape and mud.
 Allow to dry completely. A safe amount of time is 24 hours.
                                                                Fixing a Hole in a Wall 11


   Sanding the Wall:
    Using sandblock with 400-point sandpaper, place the tool on the dried mud on the
      wall.
    Apply slight pressure to the sandblock and begin moving in a back and forth
      motion. Let the sander do the work.
          o Cue: Apply enough to pressure so that when you are “sanding,” the dry
             mud will smooth out.
    Continue sanding until the entire area of the hole is smooth
          o Visual and Tactile Cue: The hole will blend with the wall.
    Checkpoint: Look at the wall. If you can still see the tape or if the surface is not
      flush with the wall, you will need to mud, dry and sand again.


   TEXTURE THE WALL
   When using wall texture from a can, use the directions on the can for the best results.
    Using the scrap that you saved from cutting the inlay, test the texture to see that it
     is a match.
    Check the directions on the can of the texture to see if you should first shake the
     can.
    Check the directions on the can for the distance from the wall that you should
     hold the can to spray the texture.
    Spray on the scrap piece first.
    Visual Cue: Compare the texture on the scrap to the texture on your wall. If they
     match, continue; if the textures don’t match, you will have to return to the store
     for a different texture.
    Once a match is made, spray texture on the smoothed surface where the hole was.
     Spray over the hole completely and make sure to overlap onto the wall so that it
     blends.
    Allow 24 hours to dry.

Objectives/Presentations/Generative Strategies:
Goal A: Learner will know about the tools used for the project.

       Objective A-1: Given all the tools of this task, the learner will identify each tool
       and list its purpose with 100% accuracy. Fact/Recall

       Initial Presentation A-1:
            Identify each tool with its picture and definition. The picture will be
               labeled accordingly.
            Instruct learner to gather tools listed in the material list.

       Generative Strategy A-1:
           Learner will be directed to label each tool to its corresponding picture and
             define its purpose.
           Learner will be directed to cut name cards and identify them to each tool.
                                                                Fixing a Hole in a Wall 12


       Test Item A-1:
           Given a picture of each tool, the learner will be required to identify the
              name of each tool.
           Given a picture of each tool, the learner will be required to identify the
              purpose of each tool.

       Objective A-2: Given all the tools for this task, the learner will select tools which
       require extra attention to safety and why, with 100% accuracy. Fact/Recall

       Initial Presentation A-2:
            Instruct learner to gather tools listed in the material list.
            Present safety precautions for tools with points or cutting edges.

       Generative Strategy A-2:
           Learner will examine the tools and identify what may be a safety hazard
             with each.
           Learner will list reasons for taking extra care with each tool identified.

       Test Item A-2:
           Learner will be required to circle any tool in a list that requires extra safety
              precautions then list why.

Goal B: Learner will know how to fix a hole in the wall.

       Objective B-1 (Drawing the rectangular shape around the hole): Given a
       pencil, square, and measuring tape, the learner will draw a rectangular shape
       around the hole in the wall so that no part of the rectangular shape being drawn
       exceeds the perimeter of the hole in the wall by more than ½ inch.
       Procedure/Application

       Initial Presentation B-1:
            Manual will include pictures of each material needed for the step
            Manual will include necessary pictures of step-by-step procedure for
               drawing a rectangular shape around the hole in the wall.
       Generative Strategy B-1:
            Learner will complete multiple choice questions pertaining to the steps.
            Learner will carry out the procedure as specified for drawing the
               rectangular shaped hole.
       Test Item B-1:
            Checklist is created for this step for “performed Yes/No.”

       Objective B-2 (Cutting the rectangular shape around the hole): Given a
       pencil, square, measuring tape, and handsaw, the learner will cut a rectangular
       shaped hole larger than the original hole in the wall, so that no part of the drywall
       being trimmed will be more than ½ inch from the outlying perimeter of the
       original hole in the wall. Procedure/Application
                                                          Fixing a Hole in a Wall 13



Initial Presentation B-2:
     Manual will include pictures of each material needed for the step.
     Manual will include pictures of step-by-step procedure for cutting the
        rectangular shaped hole around the hole in the wall.
Generative Strategy B-2:
     Learner will describe and elaborate the steps in written form.
     Learner will carry out the procedure as specified for cutting the
        rectangular shaped hole around the hole in the wall.
Test Item B-2:
     Checklist is created for this step for “performed Yes/No.”

Objective B-3: Given a drywall scrap, pencil, square, and measuring tape, the
learner will draw the inlay so that the inlay has the exact same perimeter
measurements as the hole in the wall. Procedure/Application

Initial Presentation B-3 (Drawing the Inlay):
     Manual will include pictures of each material needed for the step.
     Manual will include pictures of step-by-step procedure for drawing the
        inlay for the rectangular shaped hole in the wall.
Generative Strategy B-3:
     Learner will complete a sequencing activity which requires them to cut out
        sequencing cards with the steps listed. Then the learner will put the cards
        back in order.
     Learner will carry out the procedure as specified for drawing the inlay for
        the rectangular shaped hole in the wall.
Test Item B-3:
     Checklist is created for this step for “performed Yes/No.”

Objective B-4: Given the drywall scrap with the inlay outline drawn on it, a hand
saw, and cutting surface, the learner will cut the inlay so that the inlay will fit in
the hole with less than a 1/16 inch gap around the perimeter.
Procedure/Application

Initial Presentation B-4 (Cutting the Inlay):
     Manual will include pictures of each material needed for the step.
     Manual will include pictures of step-by-step procedure for cutting the
        inlay.
Generative Strategy B-4:
     Learner will be required to fill in blanks to complete a short paragraph that
        paraphrases the procedure for cutting the inlay.
     Learner will carry out the procedure as specified for cutting the inlay.
Test Item B-4:
     Checklist is created for this step for “performed Yes/No.”
                                                          Fixing a Hole in a Wall 14


Objective B-5: Given a 1x2 piece of wood, measuring tape and pencil, the learner
will measure, mark and cut the wood so that its length is 4 inches longer than the
measurement of the height of the rectangular hole in the wall.
Procedure/Application

Initial Presentation B-5 (Cutting the Anchor):
     Manual will include pictures of each material needed for the step.
     Manual will include pictures of step-by-step procedure for cutting the
        anchor.
Generative Strategy B-5:
     Learner will complete a sequencing activity. Some but not all of the steps
        for this procedure will be listed. The learner will then identify any steps
        that are missing and list them and place them in the sequence.
     Learner will carry out the procedure as specified for cutting the anchor.
Test Item B-5:
     Checklist is created for this step for “performed Yes/No.”

Objective B-6: Given the 1x2 piece of wood that is cut 4 inches longer than the
height of the hole in the wall, drywall screws and a screwdriver, the learner will
secure the anchor to the inside of the wall vertically so that the anchor does not
move. Procedure/Application

Initial Presentation B-6 (Securing the Anchor):
     Manual will include pictures of each material needed for the step.
     Manual will include pictures of step-by-step procedure for securing the
        anchor in the wall.
Generative Strategy B-6:
     Learner will complete multiple choice questions pertaining to the steps.
     Learner will carry out the procedure as specified.
Test Item B-6:
     Checklist is created for this step for “performed Yes/No.”

Objective B-7: Given the inlay, drywall screws and screwdriver, the learner will
secure the inlay into the hole in the wall so that the inlay fits as a puzzle piece and
will not move when touched. Procedure/Application

Initial Presentation B-7 (Securing the Inlay to the Anchor):
     Manual will include pictures of each material needed for the step.
     Manual will include pictures of step-by-step procedure for securing the
        inlay in the wall.
Generative Strategy B-7:
     Learner will describe and elaborate the steps in written form.
     Learner will carry out the procedure as specified for securing the inlay in
        the wall.
Test Item B-7:
     Checklist is created for this step for “performed Yes/No.”
                                                          Fixing a Hole in a Wall 15



Objective B-8: Given drywall mud, 4 pieces of drywall tape (2 measuring the
same as the vertical sides of the hole and 2 measuring the same as the horizontal
sides of the hole) and the putty knife, the learner will position and attach the tape
to the wall along the perimeter of the hole/inlay with the mud so that the tape
remains in place and the mud is smooth on the wall. Procedure/Application

Initial Presentation B-8 (Mudding and Taping the Inlay to the Wall):
     Manual will include pictures of each material needed for the step.
     Manual will include pictures of step-by-step procedure attach drywall tape
        to the wall.
Generative Strategy B-8:
     Learner will complete a sequencing activity which requires them to cut out
        sequencing cards with the steps listed. Then the learner will put the cards
        back in order.
     Learner will carry out the procedure as specified to attach drywall tape toe
        the wall.
Test Item B-8:
     Checklist is created for this step for “performed Yes/No.”

Objective B-9: After the mud has dried and given the sandblock and sandpaper
the learner will sand the dry mud on the wall so that the surface where the mud
was placed and the surface of the wall are smooth. Procedure/Application

Initial Presentation B-9 (Sanding the Perimeter of the Inlay):
     Manual will include pictures of each material needed for the step.
     Manual will include pictures of step-by-step procedure for sanding the dry
        mud.

Generative Strategy B-9:
    Learner will be required to fill in blanks to complete a short paragraph that
       paraphrases the procedure for cutting the inlay.
    Learner will carry out the procedure as specified for sanding the dry mud.
Test Item B-9:
    Checklist is created for this step for “performed Yes/No.”

Objective B-10: Given a can of wall texture the learner will spray the texture on
the location of the former hole in the wall so that it matches the entire wall.
Procedure/Application

Initial Presentation B-10 (Texturizing the Wall):
     Manual will include pictures of each material needed for the step.
     Manual will include pictures of step-by-step procedure for texturing the
        wall.
                                                       Fixing a Hole in a Wall 16


Generative Strategy B-10:
    Learner will complete a mnemonic learning activity that requires them to
       write a silly story using keywords for texturing the wall. The words will be
       given to the learner.
    Learner will carry out procedure as specified.
Test Item B-10:
    Checklist is created for this step for “performed Yes/No.”
                                                                Fixing a Hole in a Wall 17


Pre-instructional Strategy:
The pre-instructional strategy for the instructional unit will be in the form of an overview.
A summary of what will be learned will be stated. Objectives will not be listed. Morrison
suggests not burdening the learner with too much information in the pre-instructional
strategy. There are 12 objectives in the unit, which could be overwhelming to the learner.
The overview will motivate the learner by emphasizing that fixing things yourself is a
money-saver, inform the learner that they will learn tool safety, and that they will learn
the step-by-step sequence to fixing a hole in a wall, as documented in the problem
analysis.

Sequencing of Events:
The sequencing of the instructional unit is temporal. Morrison lists temporal as the
chosen sequencing when the learning is to take place in historical order: first, second,
third, etc. The learner will be required to complete a process that requires each step to be
progressive. The process of fixing a hole in a wall is a step-by-step process, and it is
necessary to carry out each step sequentially. Morrison lists temporal to be chosen if the
procedure if the objectives will be presented and carried out in order: A-1, A-2, B-1, B-2,
B-3, B-4, B-5, B-6, B-7, B-8, B-9, B-10.


Formative Evaluation:

Expert Review:
Throughout the documentation process, the SME was involved. Following the
completion of the instructional unit, the SME will read through both the documentation
and the instruction to check for accuracy and effectiveness. The SME will make
recommendations. Any revisions will be discussed between the SME and the designer.
Changes agreed upon will be made to the master documents by the designer. After the
SME has given approval to the design, the documentation and instruction will be given to
another expert in fixing walls. This expert will read through both the documentation and
instruction to provide recommendations for revision. Any revisions suggested will be
discussed with the SME and it will be decided by the SME and the designer if these
changes should be made. Any changes agreed upon will be made to the master
documents by the designer.

Target Audience Review:
Following the final approval of the SME in the Expert Review, the Instructional Unit will
be given to 8-10 individuals that fit the general characteristics profile of the Learner
Analysis. Each will be given all of the tools and materials necessary to complete the
Instructional Unit. A survey (see below) will also be given to each member of the Target
Audience to complete. Based on the comments/results of the survey, any suggestions will
be taken to the SME. The SME and designer will decide on any changes that need to be
made. Changes will be made in the Documentation and Instructional Units by the
designer for the final draft before publication.
                                                         Fixing a Hole in a Wall 18


Target Audience Review Survey

Name: _________________________________

Date: __________________________________
Course: Fixing a Hole in a Wall

Gender:      Female  Male
Age:  18-23      24-27     28-33

What is your current level of education?       What is your experience in home
 High School Diploma                          repair?
 College Graduate and above                    No experience
                                                Some experience

Was the instructional unit easy                What is your observation
for you to follow?                             of the steps in the
 Very easy                                    instructional unit?
 Somewhat easy                                 Too detailed
 Easy                                          Somewhat detailed
 Somewhat difficult                            Detailed
 Very difficult                                Not detailed enough

Do you feel confident that you could           Did you find the
fix a hole in the wall without the             instructional task challenging?
manual in front of you?                         Extremely challenging
 Yes                                           Somewhat challenging
 No                                            Not very challenging
                                                Not challenging at all

Would you refer another to this instruction?
 Yes
 No

What improvements can you offer?
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________

What was your favorite part of the instruction?
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________

What was your least favorite part of the instruction?
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________

								
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