101 Critical Days of Summer 2011 by xSo9LLp


									          101 Critical Days of Summer 2011

                 Driving Safety

                                   GET INVOLVED!

Nearly 5,500 people died in 2011 in crashes involving a distracted driver. Do you
want to help put an end to this type of behavior? Here's your chance.

The U.S. Department of Transportation is leading the effort to put an end to
distracted driving. We’re encouraging people like you to get involved in spreading
the word. The key message is to stop engaging in other activities, especially using
your cell phone and other electronic devices, while driving. Your primary
responsibility as a driver is to operate your motor vehicle and to do so safely!
Just "Put It Down" and concentrate on the road. Here you'll find information that
can be used to promote this message by key groups of people, including: yourself,
community groups, schools, parents, employers, and law enforcement.

Please take a moment to look through these general statistics and help put an end to
these senseless driving acts before more people are killed or injured.
                                    Speed statistics
Speed is one of the major factors contributing to crashes on roads. Small changes in speed can
result in significant reductions in road trauma. Consider this example: In average conditions, a car
travelling at 60km/h will take about 45 metres to stop in an emergency braking situation. A car
braking from 65km/h will still be moving at close to 32km/h after 45 metres travelled. Research
undertaken by Professor Jack McLean of the NHMRC Road Accident Research Unit of the University
of Adelaide has shown:

      the risk of involvement in a casualty crash doubles with each 5km/h increase in free
       travelling speed above 60km/h, and
      a 5km/h reduction in speed can result in a decrease of at least 15% in the number of crashes.

                                   Fatigue statistics
Around 20% of fatal road accidents involve driver fatigue. According to Accident Facts about 30% of
severe single vehicle crashes in rural areas involve the driver being fatigued. A Federal Government
inquiry Beyond the Midnight Oil, Managing Fatigue in Transport, House of Representatives Standing
Committee on Communications, Transport and the Arts, October 2000 into managing fatigue in
transport reported fatigue related road accidents alone cost around $3 billion every year.

A study conducted by the Adelaide Centre for Sleep Research concluded that a person who has been
awake for 17 hours faces the equivalent risk of having an accident as a person who has a BAC
reading of 0.05 g/100ml, and is therefore twice as likely to have an accident as a person with a zero
blood alcohol content who is not fatigued. Drivers who have been awake for 24 hours have an
equivalent driving performance to a person who has a BAC of 0.1 g/100ml, and is seven times more
likely to have an accident.

                             Motorcycle crash data
On these pages, you'll find statistics for motorcyclist deaths in 2011 and injuries for the year
2011.Of the 290 people killed on roads in 2011, 38 were riders of motorcycles, representing 13% of
the road toll. Motorcycles represent less than 4% of the number of registered vehicles in Victoria,
and account for less than 1% of vehicle kilometres travelled.

In 2011, 1,044 motorcyclists were seriously injured on roads.

Of the 38 motorcyclists killed in 2011:

      97% were male,
      45% occurred in rural areas
      55% were involved in crashes between the hours of 10am and 6pm, and
      37% of deaths occurred on roads sign posted at 100km/h or more.
      26% were involved in single vehicle crashes, 24% were involved in overtaking/maneuvering
       crashes, 21% were in head on crashes and 13% were involved in crashes with another
       vehicle at an intersection.
                                Pedestrian statistics
A total of 50 pedestrians were killed on roads in 2011, which represents 17% of all fatalities. Three
pedestrian groups are particularly vulnerable: the young, the elderly and the intoxicated.

Of the pedestrian deaths in 2011:

      80% were in the metropolitan areas
      66% were on roads signposted at 50km/h or 60km/h.
      26% had a BAC of at least 0.05g/100ml

Common types of crashes resulting in pedestrian deaths in 2011 involved a pedestrian:

      crossing the road and being struck from the near side (30%),
      crossing the road and being struck from the far side (20%), and
      being struck while playing, working, lying or standing on the road (18%).

                             Young driver statistics
In 2011, 23% of drivers killed were aged between 18 and 25 years, however, this age group represents
only around 13% of license holders.

Of the 33 young drivers killed in 2011:

      67%   were males,
      36%   were killed on country roads,
      58%   were killed in single vehicle crashes,
      52%   were involved in crashes that occurred during high alcohol times,
      42%   of crashes occurred between the hours of 8pm and 6am.
      53%   of deaths occurred on 100km/h signposted roads.
      21%   were killed on a Thursday
      21%   were killed between 6am-8am (compared to 3% of other drivers)

Note: High alcohol times are those times of the day and week when casualty crashes are ten times more
likely to involve alcohol than casualty crashes at other times.

                              Older driver statistics
The number of road deaths amongst this age group has fluctuated over the years. While older driver deaths
reduced by 14% from 2010-2011, the number of older driver fatalities is still above average. Drivers aged 75
years or over have a higher risk (per distance travelled) of being killed in a crash than any other age

In 2011, 18 older drivers were killed. Of these deaths:

      56%   were male,
      61%   were involved in single vehicle crashes,
      56%   occurred on metro roads,
      94%   occurred during low alcohol times,
      94%   occurred during daylight hours, and
      44%   occurred on roads signs posted 100km/h or more.
                             General Driving Safety

                                     Distracted Driving
Anything that causes you to take your attention away from driving, take your eyes off of the road or take
your hands off of the wheel is a distraction.

You will not be able to react as quickly if you are:

      Eating, drinking and smoking. These all create safety problems because they often require you to take
       your hands off of the wheel and take your eyes off of the road. Drivers who eat or drink while driving
       have trouble controlling their vehicle, staying in their lane and have to brake more often.
      Adjusting the radio, cassette or CD player.
      Talking, texting or emailing on a cell phone or Blackberry.
      Interacting with other passengers. This is particularly a problem from novice or teenage drivers. If you are
       a teen driver with other teens as passengers, statistics show you are more likely to have a crash than if
       you are driving alone or are driving with adult passengers.
      Searching for or moving an object in the vehicle.
      Reading or writing.
      Personal grooming (combing hair, applying makeup).
      Rubbernecking when passing a crash scene or a work zone.
      Looking at people, objects or events happening off of the roadway.

"Faces of Distracted Driving" is an online web series exploring the tragic consequences of texting and
cell phone use while driving. You can watch the videos at www.distraction.gov/faces.

More information on distracted driving is available on the National Highway Traffic Safety
Administration´s distracted driving website.

                                          Drowsy Driving
When you are tired, you react slower, your judgment and your vision are impaired and you have
problems understanding and remembering things.

Driving while fatigued has similar effects as driving under the influence of alcohol. Being awake for 18
hours impairs your driving about as much as a blood alcohol level of .05 percent. Being awake for 24
consecutive hours impairs your driving as much as having a blood-alcohol level of .10 percent.

If you are tired enough, you will fall asleep and never even know it. Sleeping behind the wheel for even a
few seconds is enough to kill you. Teens that sleep less than eight hours a night are at increased risk for
vehicle crashes. The best thing to do if you begin to feel tired while driving is to stop driving.

The National Sleep Foundation offers these tips to combat drowsy driving:

      Get adequate sleep-most adults need 7-9 hours to maintain proper alertness during the day.
      Schedule proper breaks-about every 100 miles or 2 hours during long trips.
      Arrange for a travel companion-someone to talk with and share the driving.
      Avoid alcohol and sedating medications-check your labels or ask your doctor.

                                        Rural Road Safety
Rural roads abound in Pennsylvania offering motorists breathtaking scenery and sites steeped in rich
history and tradition. In many areas across the commonwealth, it is not unusual to find yourself sharing
the road with farm equipment and horse-drawn vehicles. While familiar fixtures on many roadways, these
vehicles may also bring with them unfamiliar hazards. Additionally, many rural roads offer less room to
maneuver, loose gravel or grassy berms, and an array of sharp dips and unexpected turns. When
combined with the presence of slow-moving vehicles, these hazards offer motorists their share of driving

        Tips for Sharing the Road with Slow-Moving Vehicles
      Vehicles designed to travel 25 mph or less and horse-drawn vehicles are required by law to display a
       florescent orange triangle surrounded by red bands. When you see this symbol on the rear of any vehicle,
       slow down immediately and maintain a safe following distance.
      Do not pass a slow-moving vehicle if:
            o You cannot see clearly in front of you and the vehicle you intend to pass;
            o There are curves or hills in the road ahead;
            o You are in a designated "No Passing Zone" or;
            o You are within 100 feet of any intersection, railroad crossing, bridge, elevated structure or tunnel.
      Do not assume that a vehicle operator who pulls the vehicle to the right side of the road is turning right
       or letting you pass. The vehicle operator may be swinging wide to execute a left-hand turn.
     Operators of farm vehicles usually are in a better position to see oncoming traffic; they are usually willing
      to signal drivers when it is safe to pass, provided they know there is a vehicle behind them. Use your
      vehicle´s horn to let the farmer know you are there.
     When approaching a horse-drawn vehicle, give them plenty of room when following or passing, use your
      low beams and NEVER use your horn as it may spook the horses.
     Watch closure time (pictured above) while on rural roads. Closure time is the time a driver has to
      recognize and respond to a slow-moving vehicle. Farm vehicles usually travel less than 25 mph, while
      horse-drawn vehicles range in speeds between 5 and 8 mph. be alert and prepared to stop.
     Watch the sides of the road for mail boxes, bridges or road signs, which may cause a farm or horse-drawn
      vehicle operator to maneuver to the center of the road or cross the center line into the approaching lane
      of traffic to avoid these obstacles.
     Be especially watchful of farm vehicles in the spring and fall during planting and harvesting times.
     Farm and horse-drawn vehicles have the same right to use public roads as other motor vehicles.

DID YOU KNOW? Some of the Leading Causes of Summer Injuries & Deaths
in the Marine Corps on and off duty are:

                                    Motorcycles / ATV’s
                                Drowning / Water Activities
                                         Water Sports
                                   Team & Contact Sports
                                     Outdoor Recreation
                                Speeding/bad driving habits

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