WATER HARVESTING AND GROUNDWATER RECHARGE by F2uYt6

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									WATER HARVESTING AND
   GROUNDWATER
     RECHARGE




 STUDIES FROM WESTERN INDIA
            The Issues
• How and Why did the Recharge Phenomenon
  Transform Itself in a Mass-Based Movement?
• How Much Does Recharge Actually Contribute to
  the Groundwater Availability in a Region?
• What is the Socio-Economic Impact of the
  Increased Water Availability?
• Does Water Harvesting Help When Looked from
  the River Basin Perspective?
• What are the Second Generation Issues in Water
  Harvesting ?
• Is Water Harvesting an Elixir for the Farmers or
  Are They Engaged in a Process of Creative
  Destruction?
Range of Papers
The Popular Movement- Saurashtra Establishes
its Mark
Results from an Earlier Implementation-
PRADAN’s Intervention

Technical Assessment- Developing
Techniques for Estimating Recharge
Doubting Thomas's: Is Water Harvesting the
Way Forward in Water Scarce Regions?
Decentralized Water Harvesting and Groundwater Recharge:
Can These Save Saurashtra and Kutch from Desiccation?
Draught incidence- Year-wise number of villages affected
Year Jamnagar Rajkot Junagarh Bhavnagar Amreli S'Nagar
81-82                            300
82-83                            62         371
83-84           868              175        237
84-85           868              787        196     611
85-86   676     867     957      673        607     659
86-87   522     867     139      900         56     659
87-88   684     867     960      903        608
88-89           868      61      903
89-90           653              903

Draught of 1999 Was the Turning Point When
Out of a Total Capacity of 2200 MCM of 113
Dams they Held Only 140 MCM.

                   Government organized water
                   movement to villages and towns
                   for drinking purposes by road
                   tankers and rail
               Water
             Harvesting
       Well             Ground-Water
    Recharging           Recharging
   Saurashtra       Saurashtra Jaldhara
   Lok Manch               Trust
Shamjibhai Antala
                           AKRSP
  SwamiNaryan
                    Swaminarayan Gurukul
    Gurukul
                      Sardar Patel
     AKRSP
                      Participatory
                    Water Conservation
                       Project GoG
Saurashtra Lok Manch
• Non Profit Making Trust
  Set Up by Shamjibhai
  Antala.
• Movement Supported by
  Voluntary Donations
  from Surat Based
  Businessmen.
• Support from Swadhyay
  Pariwar.
               Water
             Harvesting
       Well             Ground-Water
    Recharging           Recharging
   Saurashtra       Saurashtra Jaldhara
   Lok Manch               Trust
Shamjibhai Antala
                           AKRSP
  SwamiNaryan
                    Swaminarayan Gurukul
    Gurukul
     AKRSP            Sardar Patel
                      Participatory
                    Water Conservation
                       Project GoG
        Saurashtra Jaldhara Trust
• Promoted by Diamond         Saurashtra
                               Jaldhara
  Merchants from Amreli
                                 Trust
  and Bhavnagar.
                                AKRSP
• Inspiration from TBS and
  Raj Smaidhyala .           Swaminarayan
                                Gurukul
• Experiments in Khopada
  and Dudhada.               Sardar Patel
                             Participatory
• Trust Activity now            Water
  Extends to Nearly 220      Conservation
  Villages.                   Project GoG
            Saurashtra Jaldhara Trust
            Over 20 Years RS has Built 45 Check
                Dams and Percolation Ponds
           Khopada Built 200 Check Dams and 20
•               by Diamond
    Promoted Percolation Ponds in an Year Saurashtra
    Merchants from AmreliKm’s Cart Track
          Dhudhada Converted 42               Jaldhara
    and Bhavnagar. with 104 Check Dams in
         into Canals Lined                      Trust
                         8 Months
•   Inspiration from TBS and                    AKRSP
    Raj Smaidhyala .
                                       Swaminarayan
              Khopada
• Experiments in                          Gurukul

    and Dudhada.                        Sardar Patel
• Trust Activity now                    Participatory
                                           Water
  Extends to Nearly 220                 Conservation
  Villages.                              Project GoG
      Sardar Patel Participatory Water
           Conservation Project
• 60% Subsidy on Check         Saurashtra
                                Jaldhara
  Dams (down from 90%)
                                  Trust
  Combined With Simplified
  Procedures for Release of      AKRSP

  Funds and Approval of       Swaminarayan
  Projects.                      Gurukul

                              Sardar Patel
                              Participatory
• 9875 Check Dams Built
                                 Water
  Within a Span of 7          Conservation
  Months.                      Project GoG
                                          Estimated    Water      Wells to   Irrigation
Measuring the                             Number       collection get        Potential
extent of ground                          Of           potential recharge
                                                       MCM
                                                                             in       000
                                          structures                         acres @ 8
water recharge                                                               acres per
                                                                             well
It is estimated that the       Direct well 118200      35.46    118200       945.6
work done so far has           recharge*
created potential to           Check       4100        22.55    41000        598.19
recharge, either directly or   Dams by
through water table            private
                               trusts**
recharge, 270190 wells.
                               Check       9875        61.04    110990       887.92
This is approximately          Dams        +1224 (in
40% of all open wells. The     under       progress)
irrigation potential           SPPWCP*
created is for 2.43 million    **
acres.                         Total                   119.04   270190       2431.71
         Saurastra Vs. North Gujarat
• On Recharge, the Response From North Gujarat Has Not
  Been As Strong As that From Saurastra.
• The Continuous Nature of Aquifer in North Gujarat
  Dissuades People From Recharging.
• Saurastra Also Has a Number of Voluntary Agencies,
  Religious and Spiritual Organizations that have Come
  Forward to Lead the People in their Quest for Water. By
  Contrast, in North Gujarat, the Only Organization that has
  Made a Significant Contribution is the MRCF.
• People of Saurastra Have Suffered More often Due to
  Failure of Rains.
• Farmers in North Gujarat have no success stories to
  emulate
    PRADAN’s
  INTERVENTION
In the early 1990s, PRADAN
(Professional Assistance for
Development Action),
a non-governmental organization,
initiated a programme aimed at
revitalizing the paal
system through community
participation in a number of
watersheds in this region.
A combination of bunds, field leveling and paals were built to
revitalize the ground water level in the area.

The project area comprises of four micro-watersheds, amongst 10
that form part of the Khanpur Mewan macro-watershed in the
Mewat region of Alwar district of Rajasthan
                                                 La nd Va lue                Cha nge                              - Irriga te d La nd
in Indian Rupees (yr. 2000)       150,000
                                  125,000
                                  100,000
                                   75,000
                                   50,000
                                   25,000
                                             0
                                                     Sandy                                    Loam                                Clay                   Clay loam
                                                                          Before Intervention                                                  After Intervention

                                                                                                                                               WELLS                    Before Intervention
                    25                                                                                                                                                  After Intervention
                                                               Bef ore Int ervent ion                                                                                   Dry Wells
                                                                                                             90

                    20                                         Af t er Int ervent ion
                                                                                Physical                     80
Number




                    15                                                                                       70




                                                                              Performance
                                                                                                             60

                    10
                                                                                                             50




                                                                                                    NUMBER
                              5                                                                              40



                                                                                                             30
                              0
                                                                                 Parameters
                                             Camel




                                                     Tractor




                                                                                   Thresher
                                   Bullock




                                                                 Trolly


                                                                                                             20
                                              cart
                                    cart




                                                                                                             10



                                                                                                             0

                                                                                                                   Beda ka Bass    Kannu ka Naka       Rustam ka Bass            Badi Paal

                                                                                              Water Levels

                                        Before Intervention
                                        After Intervention

                              0

                                      Beda ka Bass             Kannu ka Naka                                       Rustam ka Bass                              Badi Paal
                        -5




                   -10
    Number




                   -15




                   -20




                   -25




                   -30
                                    RECHARGE PHENOMENON
                                                                                      duration of storage in paals
                              0
                                       additional water available
                                                                                monsoon
                                       for exploitation in paal regions


                                  WT fluctuation under paal recharge
depth of watertable (mBGL)




                             10
                                              and additional pumping




                             20   WT fluctuation under natural recharge
                                  and steady sustainable pumping




                             30
                                  JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN                 JUL    AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
                                  recharge due to natural conditions
                                  natural recharge augmented by paals
     ESTIMATING RECHARGE

• Total volume of water extracted
  using pumping units =  280-
  320 ha-m

• Storage change in aquifer=202-
  252 ha-m
•Natural recharge=    52 ha-m or 6.5% of rainfall

•Additional recharge from paal
  = 26-66 ha-m or 3-8% of rainfall
                                                               Hamirpura Percolation Tank

                                                                       96
                                                                                                                            9/27/97
                                                                                                                            10/25/97
                                                                                                                                            WATER
                                                                       95
Water Level R.L. (m)




                                                                       94
                                                                       93
                                                                       92
                                                                                                                            11/22/97
                                                                                                                            12/20/97      HARVESTING
                                                                       91
                                                                       90
                                                                       89
                                                                                                                                           ASPECTS
                                                                       88

                                         -1000          -500
                                                                       87
                                                                            0                  500           1000                  1500
                                                                                                                                           Development and Decay
                                                                                Distance (m)
                                                                                                                                              of Water Mound

                                                          Chhalla Rupavati Percolation Tank                                                   Effect of Silting
                                                                        90
                  Water Level R.L. (m)




                                                                                                                          10/27/1997
                                                                        88
                                                                                                                          11/24/1997         Radius of Influence
                                                                        86
                                                                                                                          12/22/1997
                                                                        84
                                                                                                                          1/26/1998
                                                                        82
                                                                                                                                            Total Dissolved Solid
                                                                        80
                                                                        78
                                         -800    -600   -400    -200            0      200       400   600          800     1000
                                                                            Distance (m)                                                          Fluoride
              Average Recharge Recharge       WATER
               Rech.    Rate     Eva-
               Rate Equation poration       HARVESTING
              (mm/da            Ratio
                y)                           ASPECTS
Normal         7.87    I = 13    1.83
Percolation             T-0.111              Development and Decay
Tank                                            of Water Mound
Desilted       20.4    I = 34.67     4.2
Percolation             T-0.089
Tank                                            Effect of Silting
Normal         30.05   I = 57.67     2.48
Check                   T-0.205                Radius of Influence
Dam
Desilted       47.94   I = 67.33     3.08
Check                       -0.086
                                              Total Dissolved Solid
                        T
Dam
                                                    Fluoride
                            Radius of Influence (m)     WATER
                                                      HARVESTING
                              U/S         D/S          ASPECTS
Percolation Miliolite         1100        1300         Development and Decay
                                                          of Water Mound
Tank        limestone
            Gaj limestone     780         1000            Effect of Silting
            Weathered         720         1100
                                                         Radius of Influence
            basalt rock
Check Dam Weathered           430          550          Total Dissolved Solid

            basalt rock                                       Fluoride
                                     Effect on TDS at Sec. 1 - 1
                          Apr.-97

                 1600


                 1400
                          Oct.-97
                          Apr.-98
                          Oct.-98
                                                                                  WATER
                 1200


                 1000
                                                                                HARVESTING
TDS (ppm)




                 800


                 600                                                             ASPECTS
                 400

                 200

                   0
                                                                                 Development and Decay
                   OW-2                             OW-3

                                              Observation Wells
                                                                         OW-6
                                                                                    of Water Mound
                                    Effect on TDS at Sec. 2 - 2
                          Apr.-97


                 1200
                          Oct.-97
                          Apr.-98
                                                                                    Effect of Silting
                          Oct.-98

                 1000



                 800
                                                                                   Radius of Influence
     TDS (ppm)




                 600



                 400
                                                                                  Total Dissolved Solid
                 200



                   0
                                                                                        Fluoride
                   OW-1                OW-2                       OW-4   OW-5

                                              Observation Wells
                                  Effect of Check Dam on Flourides


                      3


                    2.5
                                                                                                 WATER
                                                                                   May 98
                                                                                   Oct. 98
                                                                                               HARVESTING
  Flourides (ppm)




                      2


                    1.5


                      1                                                                         ASPECTS
                    0.5


                      0
                          OW-5   OW-6            OW-4 C.D. OW-1            OW-2        OW-3
                                                                                                Development and Decay
                                                Observation Wells                                  of Water Mound
                                 Left Side                            Right Side




                                                                                   May 98          Effect of Silting
                     3                                                             Oct. 98


                    2.5


                     2                                                                            Radius of Influence
Flourides (ppm)




                    1.5


                     1
                                                                                                 Total Dissolved Solid
                    0.5


                     0
                          OW-2   OW-4            OW-1   C.D.   OW-6        OW-5         OW-3
                                                                                                       Fluoride
                                                Observation Wells

                                     U/S Side                         D/S Side
                                                Drought Year                                                                                                                                             60
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Kharif Water Availability




                                                                                                                                   Water Level i n Local U nits (1 uni t=1. 5
                                                Performance                                                                                                                                              50

                                                                                                                                                                                                         40



                                                  Of Water                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Wells Not Affected




                                                                                                                                                    feet)
                                                                                                                                                                                                         30
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Wells Affected

                                                                                                                                                                                                         20


                                                 Harvesting                                                                                                                                              10


                                                                                                                                                                                                             0




                                                                                                                                                                                                                 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                     4

                                                                                                                                                                                                                         7

                                                                                                                                                                                                                             10

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   13

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             16

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    19

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          22

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               25

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    28

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         31

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               34

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         37
                                                  Systems                                                                                                                                                                                Number of Wells



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Rabi Water Availability
                                                                 Summer Water Availability
                                                                                                                                                                                                    40
Water Level in Local Units (1 Unit = 1.5




                                           25




                                                                                                                                                        Water Level in Local Units (1 unit= 1.5 feet )
                                                                                                                                                                                                    35

                                           20                                                                                                                                                       30

                                                                                                                                                                                                    25
                                           15                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Wells Not Affected
                                                                                                               Wells Not ffected
                f eet )




                                                                                                                                                                                                    20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Wells Affected
                                                                                                               Wells Affected
                                           10                                                                                                                                                       15

                                                                                                                                                                                                    10
                                           5
                                                                                                                                                                                                         5
                                           0                                                                                                                                                             0
                                                1

                                                    4

                                                        7

                                                            10

                                                                 13

                                                                       16

                                                                            19

                                                                                 22

                                                                                      25

                                                                                           28

                                                                                                31

                                                                                                     34

                                                                                                          37




                                                                                                                                                                                                                              10

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        13

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   16

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         19

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               22

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    25

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          28

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    31

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              34

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     37
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                     4

                                                                                                                                                                                                                         7




                                                                      Number of Wells                                                                                                                                                             Number of Wells
                                    rainfall



                 1400

                 1200

                 1000
Rainfall in mm

                  800

                  600

                  400

                  200

                    0
                        1

                            3

                                5

                                    7

                                               9

                                                       11

                                                            13

                                                                 15

                                                                      17
                                               Years
When WHS are Built at a River Basin Level they Will
    SCENARIOS FOR A Income Impact.
Not be Able to Cause any Significant
                                               WATER
The Income Impact Attributable to Isolated Examples
                   SCARCE BASIN
                           Over Appropriation Through a
are Probably Due toOptimistic Scenario Pessimistic Scenario
Large Number of Recharge Structures. When Such
   Runoff Tapped and Put

      Amount Will be
Structures of Wheat Built Over the Entire River Basin We
       into the Aquifer        18 MCM               9 MCM


      Have Clear Signs of Downstream Impact where
Will (Considering 1.2 m
          Equivalent
                       3


     WHSis1 the to
the produce ofKilogram)
      water    needed
                        Downstreamtons
                             15,000
                                       Villagers Will Not Receive
                                                  7,500 tons
      Yield per to Heavy Appropriation At the 4 tons
Water Due Hectare
       Net Returns per
                                4 tons               Upstream.
          Hectare               Rs. 3172               Rs. 3172
   Net value of the extra
         recharge            Rs. 1,18,95,000        Rs. 59,47,500
   Population Density of
    Thanagazi, 2001.
     (Estimated from
                                            2                       2
     census records)         175 persons/km        175 persons/km
                                        2                     2
    Area of River Basin          503 km                503 km
   Per Capita Additional    Rs. 135 per capita   Rs. 67 per capita per
         Return                per annum                annum
      Massive WHS Substantially Reduced
DOWNSTREAM IMPACT
     the Runoff in Bad Rainfall Years to
     Nearby Dam in Bhuriyawas so that it
     Remained Totally Dry. Bhuriyawas Put
     Up Massive Resistance to the Building of
     the WHS.
       WATER HARVESTING IN
         WATER SCARCITY

• Drought Proofing Ability of these Structures is Also
  Negligible. For Example Delta for Wheat in the
  Study Area was a low 0.27 m Implying Scarcity
  Irrigation.
• With Increase in Water Availability there is Likely
  to be Increased Pumping thus Finishing All the
  Water Recharged in a Good Year in the Same Year
  and Not Leaving Any Surplus for the Good Rainfall
  Years.
     Raj
  Samidhyala                             Khadvantli

Efficiency Of                                  Efficiency
CD, PT                                         Of Well
And                                            Recharge
 Downstream
Impact               DEVELOPMENT OF A
                   FRAMEWORK FOR POLICY
                GOVERNANCE AND SUSTAINABLE
                   MANAGEMENT THROUGH
                 STAKEHOLDER PARTICIPATION
   Design                                      Managing of
 Management                                    Saline
     and                                       Ingression
 Institutions



   Dudhala                                   Kankasa
                                                                                                Differing Views
                                                                                                      Increased use of hired labour due to water
                                                                                                        harvesting movement by a sample of 160
                         Impact of water conservation on improved water levels in wells in Rajkot district(
                                                      Joshi, Mahesh 2002)                                   farmers in Rajkot district (Joshi 2002)




                                                                                                                                      sample farmers
                    70




                                                                                                                                        number of
                                                                                                                                                       100
                    60
                                                                                                                                                        80                                           Before water
                    50                                                                                                                                  60
                                                                                                                                                                                                     harvesting
Number of farmers




                                                                                                                                                        40
                    40                                                                                                                                  20
                                                                                                                                                                  Series1
                                                                                                                                                         0
                    30
                                                                                        % Increase in crop output after the water harvesting movement:
                                                                                                                                                                                                     After water
                                                                                                                Farmer Opinions                                                                      harvesting




                                                                                                                                                                   0

                                                                                                                                                           61 0
                                                                                                                                                           4 6




                                                                                                                                                                 30
                                                                                                                                                          13 12
                                                                                                                                                                 36
                                                                                                                                                                  3
                    20




                                                                                                                                                                0-




                                                                                                                                                                -5

                                                                                                                                                                -6
                                                                                                                                                               to
                                                                                                             ( Joshi, Mahesh 2002)




                                                                                                                                                              -1
                                                                                                                                                            to

                                                                                                                                                            to
                                                                                                                                                            37

                                                                                                                                                            51
                                                                                                                                                            3
                    10
                                                                         40
                    0
                          5 to 10 feet     11 35 15 feet
                                              to                                         16 to 20 feet            21 to 25 feet          26 feet or more         hired labour use in person months
                                           Number of farmers reporting




                                   Rise in water level in wells due to water harvesting structures                                                                              Cotton
                                                                         30

                                                                                                                                                                                wheat
                                                                         25

                                                                         20                                                                                                     ground
                                                                                                                                                                                nut
                                                                         15

                                                                         10

                                                                         5

                                                                         0
                                                                              0-25   25-50     50-     100-    150-    200-    250-     300-       350-   400-    450- 501 or
                                                                                               100     150     200     250     300      350        400    450     500 more
                                                                                             % increase in output in a normal rain year due to water harvesting
                                                                                                      Differing Views
                                                                                 of hired labour use of hiredwater
                                                                                                           due to labour
                                                        Increased use crop output afterIncreasedharvesting movement: due to water
                                                                   % Increase in                 the water
                                                                                          Farmer harvesting movement by a sample of 160
                                                                                                by a sample of 160
                                                         harvesting movementMahesh 2002)in Rajkot district (Joshi 2002)
                                                                                                 Opinions
                                                         Impact of water conservation on improved water levels in wells in Rajkot district(
                                                                                                   farmers
                                Impact of water conservation on improved water levels in wells in Rajkot district(
                                                             Joshi, Mahesh 2002)       ( Joshi,
                                                                                      Joshi, Mahesh 2002)
                                                           farmers in Rajkot district (Joshi 2002)




                                                                                                                                      sample farmers
                    70




                                                                                                                                        number of
                                                                                                                                                       100
                        Number of farmersfarmers




                    60                         40
                                              70                                                                                                        80
                                                                                                                                                        60
                                                                                                                                                                                                 Before water
                    50
                                                                                                                                                                                                 harvesting
                                number of




                                               100
Number of farmers




                                               35                                                                                                       40
                    40                        60                                                                                                        20
                    Number of farmers reporting




                                                 80                                                                                                      0    Series1
                                                                                                                                                                                               Cotton
                                                                                                                                                                                   Before waterwater
                                                                                                                                                                                            After
                    30
                                               30
                                              50 60
                                                                                                  % Increase in crop output after the water harvesting movement:
                                                                                                                          Farmer Opinions                                                   harvesting




                                                                                                                                                                  0

                                                                                                                                                          61 0
                                                                                                                                                          4 6




                                                                                                                                                                30
                                                                                                                                                         13 12
                                                                                                                                                                36
                                                                                                                                                                 3
                    20
                                                                                                                                                                                   harvesting wheat


                                                                                                                                                               0-




                                                                                                                                                               -5

                                                                                                                                                               -6
                                                                                                                                                              to
                                                                                                                       ( Joshi, Mahesh 2002)
                                                 40




                                                                                                                                                             -1
                         sample




                                                                                                                                                           to

                                                                                                                                                           to
                                                                                                                                                           37

                                                                                                                                                           51
                                               25




                                                                                                                                                           3
                    10
                                              40 20                                      40
                       0
                                               20                                                                                                            hired labour use in person months     ground
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Series1
                                   5 to 10 feet
                                                  0        11 35 15 feet
                                                              to                                   16 to 20 feet      21 to 25 feet      26 feet or more
                                                                                                                                                                                                   nut
                                                           Number of farmers reporting




                                              30
                                                   Rise in water level in wells due to water harvesting structures


                                                   15
                                                                                         30
                                                                                                                                                                        Cotton
                                                                                                                                                                                   After water
                                                                                                                                                                        wheat
                                                                                         25
                                                                                                                                                                                   harvesting
                                                                  0

                                                          61 0
                                                          4 6




                                                                30
                                                         13 12
                                                                36
                                                                 3




                                                               -5

                                                               -6
                                                               0-




                                              20
                                                              to




                                                                                         20                                                                             ground
                                                   10
                                                             -1
                                                                                                                                                                        nut
                                                           to

                                                           to
                                                           37

                                                           51
                                                           3




                                                                                         15

                                              10 5                                       10

                                                                                         5
                                                   00                                    0    hired labour use in person months
                                                                 25-50
                                                          0-25 10 feet
                                                          5 to 0-25 25-50                                   100- 100- feet250-
                                                                                                      50-11 to 15 200- 150- 300- 350- 20 feet 300- to 25 feet
                                                                                                      50-           150-                   16 to 400- 450- 501 or 21 350-
                                                                                                                                           200- 250-                      400- 26 feet or more
                                                                                                                                                                                450- 501 or
                                                                                                      100   150     200      250    300  350   400 450   500 more
                                                                                                      100           150                             300
                                                                                                Riseincrease in output in a normal200 due 250 harvesting
                                                                                                   % in water level in year       rain wells water
                                                                                                                                                             350     400  450   500 more
                                                                                                                                            to due to water harvesting structures

                                                                                                   % increase in output in a normal rain year due to water harvesting
              Equity Impact
Livelihood Impact of Watershed Program: Three Villages in Shihor
                Taluka, Bhavnagar (Trivedi 2002)

      60
                                           # of households before the
 # of households
                                           intervention: 1995-96
     50

                                           # of farmers after the
     40                                    intervention: 2001 November


     30


     20


     10


      0
          1000-    10,000-   20000-   30,000-   40,000-   50,000-   60,000
          10,000   20,000    30,000   40,000    50,000    60,000     and
                                                                     more
                       Household Farm Income( Rs/)year
Salinity Impact
   Impact on a sample
   of 100 farmers
   interviewed from
                          1991    1995    2001
   Vadli and Khared
   villages

1.1 Production            72.5      35      20
    of wheat
    (qtl)
2.1 Number of             3550    1900     200
    coconut
    trees
2.3 Number of              600     425       0
    Sapota
    trees
2.4 Income              125000   56000       0
    from
    Sapota
    sale
3.1 % of                    13    43.3    63.3
    household
    s with
    nominal
    income
    less than
    Rs
    30,000/ye
    ar
4.1 No of                   66      30      42
    buffaloes
4.4 Milk                 45000   24600   23350
    production
    (kg/year)
Impact Variable                                      1996-97:             2001
                                                    “Before”             “After”
Yield of groundnut (qtl/ha)                                     68 77
Yield of wheat (qtl/ha)                                         55 101
# of farmers who grew kharif as well as rabi
                                                                0 100
crops
# of sample farmers who earned up to Rs
                                                                79 53
20,000/year from farming
# of farmers who earned more than Rs
                                                                0 7
50,000/year from farming
# of farmers who think salinity in their soil is
                                                                0 56
30% or less
# of farmers who think salinity in their soil is
                                                                25 0
more than 70%
# of farmers whose wells had less than 15 feet of
                                                                78 21
water post-monsoon
# of farmers whose wells had more than 15 feet
                                                                0 57
of water post-monsoon
  Because of water harvesting
 and recharge structures, post-
 monsoon static water tables in
the 30 talukas tend to be higher
by an average of 1 to 2 meters.
     If we apply this to all of
 Saurashtra, and take a specific
 yield of 15%, then we can say
  that the recharge movement
makes 1.3-1.4 km3 of additional
    groundwater (60000 km2*
  1.5*0.15) to Saurashtra after
          the monsoon.
DECEMBER 1988   DECEMBER 1999
 T raditional        Emerging New Practices             Likely impacts
  Practices
Planting of      Planting across the slope;           Rain water
crops along slope converted into terraces             conservation; arresting
the slope        Wherever Recharge Movement has Produced
                                                      soil erosion
Flood            ‘Ring’ irrigation of mangoes
irrigation of
                                               Save Reducing
               Results and Helped Farmers to drip their Kharif water use per
                 and other orchard crops;             tree
orchards      Crops from Early Withdrawal of Monsoon, there is
                 irrigation
Furrow           Use Shift in pipe and of the Farmers. Water seepage
              a Subtleof hosethe Mindsetcement        Minimizing
irrigation       pipe to transport Longer the         losses
                as a Gift of God is nowater from Ruling Idiom;
                 well-head to furrows.
               Farmers are Increasingly Realizing that Water—
Little effort    Mulching gaining popularity;         Root-zone moisture
to reduce      like Other Resources—Needs to be ‘Produced’,
                 smoothening and hardening            management
non-                       Planned and Husbanded.
                 the surface of furrows and
beneficial       filling up cracks to minimize
                The water harvesting movement
evaporation loss of irrigation water.
                has guided Gujarat into the first
from furrows Gradual switch to orchards of
Excessive
dependence mango, amla, aritha, sapota,
                                                      Improving cash per
                                                      drop; stabilizing farm
of wheat,       tentative steps of groundwater
                 ber, guava, promegenate,             incomes during
cotton and       custard apple, lemon and to          drought
oilseed              demand management.
                 vegetable gardens and jojoba
crops
Irrigating       Irrigating from an over-head or To stop having to over-
directly from ground-level tank filled up with irrigate due to power
the well         water from wells                     supply uncertainty

Traditional      Genetically   engineered    new Resistance to drought;
HYVs             varieties such as BT cotton     high crop per drop.
               SUMMING UP
• There Seems to be Some Evidence that WHS
  Ensures the Security of Kharif Crops.
• This Seems to Induce Farmers to Take Farming
  Seriously Again, to Invest in Land care, as also in
  Inputs.
• Seeking Overall Welfare Might Give a New
  Dimension to the U/S- D/S Debate. For Example in
  Saurashtra 22 lakh ha of Totally Rainfed, Single
  Kharif Crop Area Might Be Saved by these
  Structures.
            SUMMING UP…….
• There are Signs of Some Demand Management
  Practices Emerging but all Efforts are Aimed at
  Improving or Protecting Crops in the Face of
  Uncertain Water Supplies. There is no Move
  Anywhere for the Community to Bring a Modicum
  of Discipline or Order in the way members
  appropriate groundwater.
• While Evidence Does Seem to Suggest that WHS are
  Aiding in Protecting the Livelihood of Farmers in
  Saurashtra, there is No Certainty that it Can do so in
  All Water Scarce Basins in the Country.
                                        Land Value Change - Irrigated Land

                              150,000
in Indian Rupees (yr. 2000)

                              125,000
                              100,000
                               75,000
                               50,000
                               25,000
                                   0
                                           Sandy        Loam         Clay        Clay loam
                                                   Before Intervention      After Intervention
                                WELLS              After Intervention
                                                   Before Intervention
                                                   Dry Wells
     90
     80
     70
     60
NUMBER




     50
     40
     30
     20
     10
      0
          Beda ka Bass   Kannu ka Naka Rustam ka Bass    Badi Paal
                                        Water Levels
                Before Intervention
                After Intervention

          0


               Beda ka Bass      Kannu ka Naka    Rustam ka Bass   Badi Paal
          -5



         -10
Number




         -15



         -20



         -25



         -30
         25
                                          B ef ore Int ervent ion
         20                               A f t er Int ervent ion
Number




         15

         10

         5

         0
                        Camel




                                Tractor




                                                               Thresher
              Bullock




                                            Trolly
                         cart
               cart
         Reservoir
         Capacity



Runoff




         Years

								
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