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Humanoid Robot Development (仿人机器人开发) Students： (学生) Advisors: (指导教师) Jennifer Castriotta (WPI) Professor Kevin Rong He, Xiaomin (HUST) Professor Zhikun Hou Matthew Heslop (WPI) Liu, Yong (HUST) Professor Liang Gao Wang, Renche (HUST) Zhao, Lu (HUST) Tuesday July 31, 2007 What is a Humanoid Robot? 背景:什么是人形机器人 A general definition for a humanoid robot（人形机器 人的一般定义） is “… a robot with its overall appearance based on that of the human body. In general humanoid robots have a torso with a head, two arms, and two legs (although some forms of humanoid robots may model only part of the body)”. A humanoid robot is an autonomous robot because it can adapt to changes in its environment or itself （有 自适应环境和本身变化的能力）and continue to reach its goal. Commercial Humanoid Robots 商用人形机器人 ASIMO Qrio Hubo HUST Walking Robot 华中大原有的行走机器人 HUST Walking Robot 华中大原有的行走机器人 Pros (优点) Can walk on two legs (能自立行走) Has 10 Degrees of Freedom (有10个自由度) Corrects hip placement (正确的髋关节布置) Cons (缺点) Doesn’t walk smoothly or straight (走得不稳,不直) Has no upper body (没有上身) Shakes (走时摇晃) Motors vibrate, screws loose Problem Statement 课题定义 The goal of our project is to create a robot that will improve upon a previously made robot by correcting its walking motion and giving it an upper body. Why do this project? 做这个项目的原因 Walking smoothly 行走稳定 Improving the walking motion will make the robot easier to maneuver in future endeavors Adding an upper body 加上上身 Arms: Can be used to help the robot maintain a better balance when walking Head: Can eventually have a camera that can be used to detect obstacles Torso: Holds head and arms Overview of Project Schedule 项目进程表 Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 Week 6 Define Project Design Robot Manufacture Robot Program Robot Testing Write Report Presentation Outline 报告目录 Designing and Manufacturing Walking Hardware and Programming Mathematics Vision Testing Design Robot 机器人设计 Consult Robotics Team’s designs for inspiration Research materials Determine which materials will be best for robot (quality and cost effective) Purchase materials Use SolidWorks to design parts Original HUST Design 原始设计 Aspects to be Modified 需要改进的方面 Aspects to be Modified 需要改进的方面 Hip Changed the axis of rotation 90 degrees Knee Made the leg look more similar to the human leg by shifting it down Degrees of Freedom 自由度 15 DOF Upper body (5) 4 for arms to sway 1 for waist Lower body (10) 6 for walking forward 2 for turning 2 for keeping balance Selection of Motors 电机选型 Motors 3.1kg*cm can drive 0.45 kg Our robot weigh 1.62 kg (1.62÷0.45) ×3.1=11.16 kg*cm The force of our motor should be more than 11.16 kg*cm. We choose MG955 (13 kg*cm) Selection of Materials 材料选型 Profiled aluminum: Inexpensive Light Common Easy to manufacture New Leg Designs 新腿的设计方案 Design of the Upper Body 上身设计 Our Final Total Design 我们的最终整体设计 Manufacture Robot 制作机器人 Create 2D drawings of the parts needed for the robot Learn proper manufacturing techniques Manufacture the desired parts Assemble the robot by combining the metal structure with motors and control board 2D Drawings 二维图纸 Manufacturing Process 制造工序 Assemble Drill Mill Measure Saw Measure Manufacturing 加工制造 Manufacturing (continued) 加工制造 Manufacturing (continued) 加工制造 Assembled Legs 装配腿 Program Robot 编程控制 Create a new program to help the robot walk more smoothly Uses Linux system Written in C language Walking Program 行走程序 Purpose The program allows the robot to walk in a motion similar to a human The program drives all 15 motors at once Difficulties Getting the General Port of Input/Output (GPIO) Drive program to run on the Linux System Creating the “pose matrix” to make the robot walk smoothly Software Design 软件设计 Application Software Motor Control and Vision Prog. Driver Software Linux System Hardware Motor Control Principle 电机控制原理 Motor type: Servo Motor PWM Wave Simulated in Keil 用Keil 仿真的脉宽调制波形 Our Control Board 我们的控制板 Balance and Gait Control 平衡和步态控制的理论基础 Why: Theory before experimenting How: Knowing the track for one foot allows us to determine the displacement and velocity of the other joints. ZMP Method for Balance ZMP平衡法则 Equation： Ideal Model Fx-Fax=0 Fz-Faz-mAg=0 Ta-FxL-FzX=0 Limitations: -a/2 ≤ X ≤ a/2 We can do this analysis at some key gesture. Mathematic Foundation of Gait Control 步态控制的数学基础 The basic model of our robot: One coordinate system for every joint. No. 0 is the reference coordinate system, No. 6 represents the upper body, No. 12 is a virtual coordinate system. Mathematic Foundation of Gait Control 步态控制的数学基础 Operation of the pose matrix For an example: Tab is the matrix of the transformation form a to b. T06=T01T12T23T34T45T56 x1 cosθ1 -sinθ1 0 x z1 y1 T01= sinθ1 cosθ1 0 y x0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 z0 …… T06=? y0 The Vision Function 视觉功能 Purpose: The program was created in order to find a white line and determine whether or not it was a “boundary” The program gets the image data from the camera and determine what action the robot should take (keep walking or turn around). The program is used to process the image from the camera. The Vision Function (continued) 视觉功能（续） The Initial Problem: The camera outputs compressed data Cannot find a way to connect the two steps: getting data from camera and processing the data. Solution: Choose another camera model Read relevant materials Ask students in this major for help The Vision Function (continued) 视觉功能（续） Finished Product Finish the program, check it, and run it Can process moving image Demonstration 实例演示 Conclusions 总结 We were able to use current humanoid robots as a base for our design. Our robot is less sophisticated than the commercial robots, however our robot walks more quickly than the robots previously created by the HUST Robotics Club. Recommendations 后期工作展望 Play Soccer! Coordinate walking and vision Program camera into robot program Make the walking program turn Have the robot kick a ball Thank You! 谢谢! Questions? 欢迎提问!
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