Humanoid Robot Development by 1W0mCX

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									                 Humanoid Robot
                  Development
                              (仿人机器人开发)




Students: (学生)                                        Advisors: (指导教师)
  Jennifer Castriotta (WPI)                            Professor Kevin Rong
  He, Xiaomin (HUST)
                                                       Professor Zhikun Hou
  Matthew Heslop (WPI)
  Liu, Yong (HUST)                                     Professor Liang Gao
  Wang, Renche (HUST)
  Zhao, Lu (HUST)
                              Tuesday July 31, 2007
What is a Humanoid Robot?
    背景:什么是人形机器人
   A general definition for a humanoid robot(人形机器
    人的一般定义) is “… a robot with its overall
    appearance based on that of the human body. In
    general humanoid robots have a torso with a head, two
    arms, and two legs (although some forms of humanoid
    robots may model only part of the body)”.
   A humanoid robot is an autonomous robot because it
    can adapt to changes in its environment or itself (有
    自适应环境和本身变化的能力)and continue to
    reach its goal.
Commercial Humanoid Robots
 商用人形机器人


             ASIMO




  Qrio                       Hubo
HUST Walking Robot
 华中大原有的行走机器人
HUST Walking Robot
 华中大原有的行走机器人

Pros (优点)
     Can walk on two legs (能自立行走)
     Has 10 Degrees of Freedom (有10个自由度)
     Corrects hip placement (正确的髋关节布置)
Cons (缺点)
     Doesn’t walk smoothly or straight (走得不稳,不直)
     Has no upper body (没有上身)
     Shakes (走时摇晃)
          Motors vibrate, screws loose
Problem Statement
    课题定义

   The goal of our project is to create a robot that
    will improve upon a previously made robot by
    correcting its walking motion and giving it an
    upper body.
Why do this project?
    做这个项目的原因

   Walking smoothly 行走稳定
       Improving the walking motion will make the robot
        easier to maneuver in future endeavors
   Adding an upper body 加上上身
       Arms: Can be used to help the robot maintain a better
        balance when walking
       Head: Can eventually have a camera that can be used
        to detect obstacles
       Torso: Holds head and arms
Overview of Project Schedule
  项目进程表

                    Week 1   Week 2   Week 3   Week 4   Week 5 Week 6
  Define Project

  Design Robot

Manufacture Robot

 Program Robot

     Testing

  Write Report
Presentation Outline
    报告目录

   Designing and Manufacturing
   Walking
       Hardware and Programming
       Mathematics
   Vision
   Testing
Design Robot
    机器人设计

   Consult Robotics Team’s designs for
    inspiration
   Research materials
   Determine which materials will be best for
    robot (quality and cost effective)
   Purchase materials
   Use SolidWorks to design parts
Original HUST
    Design
   原始设计
Aspects to be
 Modified
 需要改进的方面
Aspects to be Modified
    需要改进的方面

   Hip
       Changed the axis of rotation 90 degrees
   Knee
       Made the leg look more similar to the human leg by
        shifting it down
Degrees of Freedom
    自由度

   15 DOF
       Upper body (5)
            4 for arms to sway
            1 for waist
       Lower body (10)
            6 for walking forward
            2 for turning
            2 for keeping balance
Selection of Motors
    电机选型

   Motors
     3.1kg*cm can drive 0.45 kg
     Our robot weigh 1.62 kg

     (1.62÷0.45) ×3.1=11.16 kg*cm

      The force of our motor should be more
    than 11.16 kg*cm.
     We choose MG955 (13 kg*cm)
Selection of Materials
    材料选型

   Profiled aluminum:
       Inexpensive
       Light
       Common
       Easy to manufacture
New Leg Designs
 新腿的设计方案
Design of the Upper Body
 上身设计
 Our Final
Total Design
我们的最终整体设计
Manufacture Robot
    制作机器人

   Create 2D drawings of the parts needed for the
    robot
   Learn proper manufacturing techniques
   Manufacture the desired parts
   Assemble the robot by combining the metal
    structure with motors and control board
2D Drawings
 二维图纸
Manufacturing Process
  制造工序


                                      Assemble
                              Drill
                       Mill
             Measure
          Saw
Measure
Manufacturing
 加工制造
Manufacturing (continued)
 加工制造
Manufacturing (continued)
 加工制造
Assembled Legs
 装配腿
Program Robot
    编程控制

   Create a new program to help the robot walk
    more smoothly
   Uses Linux system
   Written in C language
Walking Program
    行走程序

   Purpose
       The program allows the robot to walk in a motion
        similar to a human
       The program drives all 15 motors at once
   Difficulties
       Getting the General Port of Input/Output (GPIO)
        Drive program to run on the Linux System
       Creating the “pose matrix” to make the robot walk
        smoothly
Software Design
 软件设计

             Application Software


        Motor Control and Vision Prog.


                Driver Software


                  Linux System


                   Hardware
Motor Control Principle
    电机控制原理

   Motor type: Servo Motor
PWM Wave Simulated in Keil
 用Keil 仿真的脉宽调制波形
Our Control Board
 我们的控制板
Balance and Gait Control
    平衡和步态控制的理论基础

   Why: Theory before experimenting
   How: Knowing the track for one foot allows us
    to determine the displacement and velocity of the
    other joints.
ZMP Method for Balance
    ZMP平衡法则

 Equation:               Ideal Model

 Fx-Fax=0
 Fz-Faz-mAg=0
 Ta-FxL-FzX=0
 Limitations:

-a/2 ≤ X ≤ a/2
We can do this analysis
at some key gesture.
Mathematic Foundation of Gait Control
 步态控制的数学基础

The basic model of our robot:

One coordinate system for
every joint. No. 0 is the
reference coordinate system,
No. 6 represents the upper body,
No. 12 is a virtual coordinate
system.
Mathematic Foundation of Gait Control
    步态控制的数学基础
 Operation of the pose matrix
For an example: Tab is the matrix of the transformation
 form a to b.
  T06=T01T12T23T34T45T56                     x1

        cosθ1 -sinθ1 0        x                      z1
                                           y1
 T01=   sinθ1 cosθ1   0       y
                                      x0
         0       0        1       0
         0       0        0       1             z0
    ……                T06=?           y0
The Vision Function
    视觉功能

   Purpose:
       The program was created in order to find a white line
        and determine whether or not it was a “boundary”
       The program gets the image data from the camera and
        determine what action the robot should take (keep
        walking or turn around).
       The program is used to process the image from the
        camera.
The Vision Function (continued)
    视觉功能(续)

   The Initial Problem:
       The camera outputs compressed data
       Cannot find a way to connect the two steps: getting
        data from camera and processing the data.
   Solution:
       Choose another camera model
       Read relevant materials
       Ask students in this major for help
The Vision Function (continued)
  视觉功能(续)

Finished Product
 Finish the program, check it, and run it
 Can process moving image
Demonstration
 实例演示
Conclusions
    总结

   We were able to use current humanoid robots as
    a base for our design.
   Our robot is less sophisticated than the
    commercial robots, however our robot walks
    more quickly than the robots previously created
    by the HUST Robotics Club.
Recommendations
    后期工作展望

   Play Soccer!
       Coordinate walking and vision
       Program camera into robot program
       Make the walking program turn
       Have the robot kick a ball
Thank You!

  谢谢!
Questions?

欢迎提问!

								
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