Chapter 1 Biology and You by 1s84ji5

VIEWS: 3 PAGES: 19

									    Chapter 1: Biology and You
 Relate the seven properties of life to a living
  organism
 Describe seven themes that can help you
  organize what you learn about biology
Bell Ringer: Why is this rabbit
  alive, but a brick is not?
       Section 1.1: Themes of
               Biology
   Biology is the study of living things. All
    living things share certain characteristics
    that non-living things lack.
        Characteristics of Living
             Organisms
   7 Properties of Life
    –   Cellular Organization
    –   Reproduction
    –   Metabolism
    –   Homeostasis
    –   Heredity
    –   Responsiveness
    –   Growth and Development
   Do nonliving things have any of these
    characteristics in common?
    – Answer:
        No




    – Why?
        They are NOT ALIVE!
Section 1.2: Unifying Themes
          of Biology
   Theme 1: Cellular Structure and Function
     – Cells are highly organized, tiny structures with
       thin coverings called membranes.

    – All living things are made up of cells, which:
         Are the smallest units capable of all life
          functions
         Can be single or multi-celled

         The human body contains more than 100
          trillion cells!
Section 1.2: Unifying Themes
          of Biology
   Theme 2: Reproduction
    – What is reproduction?
          The process by which organisms make more
           of their own kind from one generation to the
           next.

    – ALL living things can reproduce

    – Reproduction is an essential part of living
        Example: Bacteria reproduce every 15 minutes
Section 1.2: Unifying Themes
          of Biology
   Theme 3: Metabolism
    – The sum of all the chemical reactions carried
      out in an organism.

    – Almost all energy used by organisms is
      originally captured from sunlight
          How?
Section 1.2: Unifying Themes
          of Biology
   Theme 3: Metabolism continued
    – The Energy Flows from:
        The sun to plants

        From the plants to plant-eating organisms,

        From plant-eating organisms to meat eating

         organisms
    – How do humans obtain energy?
        From eating a varied diet.
Section 1.2: Unifying Themes
          of Biology
   Theme 4: Homeostasis
    – The maintenance of internal conditions in spite
      of changes in the external environment.

    – What do we do to maintain homeostasis of body
      temperature?
    • We shiver, sweat, or change our behavior.
Section 1.2: Unifying Themes
          of Biology
   Theme 5: Heredity
    – The passing of traits from parent to offspring

    – All living things are able to pass on traits to
      their offspring through genes that transfer from
      parent to offspring each generation.
Section 1.2: Unifying Themes
          of Biology
   Theme 5 Heredity continued
     – What is a gene?
         The basic unit of heredity
         Are coded in molecules called DNA
          (Deoxyribonucleic acid)

    – Mutations are caused by damage to a gene.
           Not all mutations are bad!
Section 1.2: Unifying Themes
          of Biology
   Harmful Mutations         Helpful Mutations
    – Sickle Cell anemia       – Malaria Resistance
    – Cancer                   – Crop growth and insect
    – Down syndrome              repellant
    – Diabetes
Section 1.2: Unifying Themes
          of Biology
   Theme 6: Evolution
    – Change in the inherited characteristics of
      species over generations.

    – A species is a group of genetically similar
      organisms that can produce fertile offspring.
Section 1.2: Unifying Themes
          of Biology
   Theme 6: Evolution continued
    – Charles Darwin was a British naturalist who
      supported the theory of natural selection.

    – Natural selection states that organisms with
      favorable traits are more likely to survive and
      reproduce. Think “Survival of the Fittest.”
Section 1.2: Unifying Themes
          of Biology
   Theme 7: Interdependence
    – When organisms in a biological community live
      and interact with other organisms.

    – Ecology is the branch of science that studies the
      interactions of organisms with each other and
      their physical environment.
    Section 1.3: Scientific Process
   Steps to the Scientific Method:
-   Ask a question
-   Make observations / research
-   Make a hypothesis
-   Design and perform an experiment
-   Analyze results and draw conclusions
-   Communicate results
What is an Experiment?
   A planned procedure to test a hypothesis.
        Controlled group has no experimental
         treatment
        Dependent variable is the factor that is
         measured during an experiment.
        Independent variable is the factor that is

         changed during an experiment.
       Stages of Scientific
         Investigations
   Drawing Conclusions
    – After collecting and analyzing all data, a
      conclusion is made and shared.
    – It will either support or reject the hypothesis
         Hypotheses can only be supported, never

          proven.

								
To top