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Chapter 1: Biology and You Relate the seven properties of life to a living organism Describe seven themes that can help you organize what you learn about biology Bell Ringer: Why is this rabbit alive, but a brick is not? Section 1.1: Themes of Biology Biology is the study of living things. All living things share certain characteristics that non-living things lack. Characteristics of Living Organisms 7 Properties of Life – Cellular Organization – Reproduction – Metabolism – Homeostasis – Heredity – Responsiveness – Growth and Development Do nonliving things have any of these characteristics in common? – Answer: No – Why? They are NOT ALIVE! Section 1.2: Unifying Themes of Biology Theme 1: Cellular Structure and Function – Cells are highly organized, tiny structures with thin coverings called membranes. – All living things are made up of cells, which: Are the smallest units capable of all life functions Can be single or multi-celled The human body contains more than 100 trillion cells! Section 1.2: Unifying Themes of Biology Theme 2: Reproduction – What is reproduction? The process by which organisms make more of their own kind from one generation to the next. – ALL living things can reproduce – Reproduction is an essential part of living Example: Bacteria reproduce every 15 minutes Section 1.2: Unifying Themes of Biology Theme 3: Metabolism – The sum of all the chemical reactions carried out in an organism. – Almost all energy used by organisms is originally captured from sunlight How? Section 1.2: Unifying Themes of Biology Theme 3: Metabolism continued – The Energy Flows from: The sun to plants From the plants to plant-eating organisms, From plant-eating organisms to meat eating organisms – How do humans obtain energy? From eating a varied diet. Section 1.2: Unifying Themes of Biology Theme 4: Homeostasis – The maintenance of internal conditions in spite of changes in the external environment. – What do we do to maintain homeostasis of body temperature? • We shiver, sweat, or change our behavior. Section 1.2: Unifying Themes of Biology Theme 5: Heredity – The passing of traits from parent to offspring – All living things are able to pass on traits to their offspring through genes that transfer from parent to offspring each generation. Section 1.2: Unifying Themes of Biology Theme 5 Heredity continued – What is a gene? The basic unit of heredity Are coded in molecules called DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) – Mutations are caused by damage to a gene. Not all mutations are bad! Section 1.2: Unifying Themes of Biology Harmful Mutations Helpful Mutations – Sickle Cell anemia – Malaria Resistance – Cancer – Crop growth and insect – Down syndrome repellant – Diabetes Section 1.2: Unifying Themes of Biology Theme 6: Evolution – Change in the inherited characteristics of species over generations. – A species is a group of genetically similar organisms that can produce fertile offspring. Section 1.2: Unifying Themes of Biology Theme 6: Evolution continued – Charles Darwin was a British naturalist who supported the theory of natural selection. – Natural selection states that organisms with favorable traits are more likely to survive and reproduce. Think “Survival of the Fittest.” Section 1.2: Unifying Themes of Biology Theme 7: Interdependence – When organisms in a biological community live and interact with other organisms. – Ecology is the branch of science that studies the interactions of organisms with each other and their physical environment. Section 1.3: Scientific Process Steps to the Scientific Method: - Ask a question - Make observations / research - Make a hypothesis - Design and perform an experiment - Analyze results and draw conclusions - Communicate results What is an Experiment? A planned procedure to test a hypothesis. Controlled group has no experimental treatment Dependent variable is the factor that is measured during an experiment. Independent variable is the factor that is changed during an experiment. Stages of Scientific Investigations Drawing Conclusions – After collecting and analyzing all data, a conclusion is made and shared. – It will either support or reject the hypothesis Hypotheses can only be supported, never proven.
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