Content Based Language Instruction Mariko Henstock

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					Developing Critical Thinking
 Content-Based Language
              Mariko Henstock
Dept. of Modern Languages & Comparative Literature
             Boston University
          Instructional Innovation Conference
                     March 2, 2012
                    Boston University
 Creating a Linguistics Course

• Department asked me to teach a course:
  – Japanese linguistics
  – History of the Japanese language

• Required course for double majors in
  Linguistics & Japanese
   Course of “Mixed Abilities”

• Linguistics background
  –5 Linguistics majors
  –5 had never studied linguistics

• Japanese skills
  –8 had completed 4th year Japanese
  –4 had studied Japanese 2 years only
  –3 had studied abroad in Japan
              Course Goals
• Learn linguistics and improve language skills

• Develop analytical and critical approach toward
  Japanese language
  – Break “stereotypes” of Japanese language in class
  – Gain deeper understanding of modern spoken &
    written Japanese

• Experience a course taught in "real Japanese"
Content-Based Instruction (CBI)
                  (Morita 2009)

• Integrates content & language instruction

• Allows students to use the language as a
  vehicle for acquiring the lecture content

• Used in culture, literature, and history
  courses, but not linguistics

• Allegedly fosters critical thinking
3 Prototype CBI Models
       (Brinton 2007)
     3 Prototype CBI Models
                (Brinton 2007)
1) Theme-based instruction
    • Focus on theme within language class
2) Adjunct instruction
    • Link separate Japanese language and
       content courses
3) Sheltered instruction
    • Focus on content but use Japanese
    • Accommodate the students' level
              Course Goals
• Learn linguistics and improve language skills

• Develop analytical and critical approach toward
  Japanese language
  – Break “stereotypes” of Japanese language in class
  – Gain deeper understanding of modern spoken &
    written Japanese

• Experience a course taught in "real Japanese"
           Harvard Solutions
• Harvard Business School sent students to
  overseas to solve real world business
  problems (Harvard Gazette, Jan. 2012)

• Success of "Flipped classroom" teaching
  model: Class is a place for discussions
  and peer learning (Harvard School of
  Engineering & Applied Sciences, Feb. 2012)
         Our students can…
• Engage in experiences through media
  (YouTube, videos) or interviews with
  Japanese [exchange] students at BU

• Examine, observe, and find patterns in such
  real world content through open

• Discuss their findings and exchange ideas
  with classroom discussions & peer learning
         Examples of Weekly
Watch a drama, YouTube video, or interview your
   Japanese friend. Observe and share something
   you noticed about the language.

Identify the use of classical Japanese proverbs in
    modern Japanese texts

Understand and explain why some example dialogues
   between young Japanese are grammatically
                   A Typical Week
•       Students prepare reading (in English)
•       Lecture in Japanese/English
•       Weekly paper with a topic
•       Class discussion
•       Active learning to connect their observation &
        findings to linguistics
    –     Practice for critical thinking with peer learning
    –     Answer open-ended questions
            How did it work out?

1st year
     Strong language skills
     Strong linguistics skills

2nd year
    Several had low Japanese language level
    Lower linguistics and critical thinking ability
    Had to adjust much more for these students
           How did it work out?
1st year
    Several said they enjoyed the assignments
    Improved their critical thinking over the course
    through the weekly assignments
    Helped them writing the term paper
2nd year
    Several hated the open-ended assignments
    Wanted precise instruction on exactly what to do
     • These needed “critical thinking” training the most
           Outcome of 1st year
• Improved the quality of term papers
• Developed critical & analytical approach toward
  Japanese language from a linguistics perspective
   – Gained deeper understanding of Japanese
   – Improved awareness of linguistics influence on the
     Japanese language
• Could recognize instances of classical Japanese in
  modern texts
• Seemed to have helped turn them from passive
  learners into active learners through critical thinking
   – Achieved goal of Content-Based Instruction
    Reflection of one                     1st    year
• Weekly reflection assignments
    • Examined specific aspect of the language
       – e.g. Noting the mistakes that native Japanese speakers
         make when learning English
    • Required critical analysis of Japanese and English
• Reading classical Japanese texts
    • Examined how Japanese evolved
    • Japanese literature courses at Boston University use
      only translated material
• Both inspired my term paper
•   迫田久美子 (2009) 「ICJLE 2009 シドニー大会を振り返って-参加者と主催者の視点から考える
    国際大会の意義 と役割」日本語教育143号
•   清田淳子 (2001) 「教科としての『国語』と日本語教育を統合した内容重視のアプローチの試み」日
    本語教育1               11号
•   北原保雄 (2004)「問題な日本語」大修館書店
•   金水敏 (2006) 「現代に生きる古典日本語」日本語教育国際研究大会 招待パネル発表 コロン
•   金水敏 (2007) "On "Role Language" in Contemporary Japanese: An Investigation on
    Prototypical Styles in Japanese"            Japan Forum Invited speech, Harvard University
•   Akemi Morioka (2009) Teaching Japanese with Content-Based Instruction (CBI):
    Addressing critical thinking, learner autonomy, and motivation (July 2011)
•   Donna M. Brinton (2007) Content-Based Instruction: Reflecting on its Applicability to the
    Teaching of Korean 12th Annual Conference A,erican Association of Teachers of Korean,
    Chicago, Illinois 2007
    Q6Tz_AW63M0qL2TYt3WknhGOtw&pli=1 (July 2011)

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