Draft Report on Activities of WP29/ITS Informal Group by UXJGPP

VIEWS: 24 PAGES: 31

									                                              Informal document No.: ITS-13-6
                                              (13th session of ITS, 23 June 2006,
                                               agenda item 4.)




   Draft Report on Activities of WP.29WP29/ITS Informal Group




        1. Activities up to Now History


        2. Exchange of Views Information and Discussion on In-Vehicle ITS
             2.1 Reports from IHRA-ITS WG
             2.2 Reports from Other OrganizationsOICA, ASV, CLEPA
             2.3 Common Understanding for Current Status of Treatment of
In-Vehicle ITS
        3. Proposals to WP.29WP29
             3.1 Treatment of In-Vehicle ITS Technologies Current Status and
Perception
             3.2 Role of ITS Informal Group


             Annex A : Document Lists
             Annex B : TOR
                                                       Draft Ver.23.1                          Formatted




Draft Report on Activities of WP.29WP29/ITS Informal Group


1. HistoryActivities up to Now

With motor vehicles becoming more and more intelligent and informative, some of the
In-Vehicle ITS technologies are now on the market. For instance, automaticadaptive
cruise control (ACC) systems to keep a preset distance with the car ahead, and
collision-mitigation braking systems (CMBS) to reduce collision speed to mitigate
damage are emerging from the development stage to the next stage of
commercialization. It is hoped that these technologies will develop further, because they
are expected to greatly contribute not only to the convenience and comfort of the driver
but also to the improvement of traffic safety by reducing damage to drivers, passengers
and pedestrians.

The issues to be addressed in relation to these technologies are, for example, that, if they
are introduced into the market without appropriate safety consideration given to them,
their future development may be hindered; that it is necessary to develop a common
understanding on safety among countries concerning the regulation and certification of
these technologies; and so on. We are now in a stage where it is essential for
WP.29WP29 to make efforts to address these issues.

In view of such circumstances, WP.29WP29 organized an informal group in June 2002
and started preparations for the ITC/Round Table and, through such operations,
developed its understanding of how to treat these technologies. As a result, at the
ITC/Round Table held on February 18, 2004, the member countries and organizations of
WP.29WP29 recognized anew that it is important to keep discussing In-Vehicle ITS
issues at WP.29WP29 and agreed to maintain the ITS Informal Group in future.

Based on this agreement at ITC/Round Table, discussion was continued and, at the
meeting of the ITS Informal Group held in November 2004, a                    terms of
references(TOR) on the activities of the ITS Informal Group was agreed upon. The TOR
positioned the ITS Informal Group as a group playing a strategic role at WP.29WP29 to
(1) develop a common understanding of the driving supportdriver assistance systems;
(2) exchange information on technology trends related to In-Vehicle ITS, and (3) review
its activities in the second year and report the results to WP.29WP29.

Accordingly, to address the above tasks including the development of a common
understanding on In-Vehicle ITS, the ITS Informal Group started in March 2005 the
activities shown below, which were scheduled for two years and mainly consisted in
exchanging information and opinions. As a result, the group developed the following
understanding that we report here to WP.29WP29 on our policy regarding driving
supportdriver assistance systems and how ITS should be treated at WP.29WP29: and
reports it to WP.29WP29 as follows:



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2. Information and Discussion on In-Vehicle ITSExchange of Views on In-Vehicle ITS

What is important in discussing a common understanding of driving supportdriver
assistance systems is the point of view from which we should classify these
technologies. In-Vehicle ITS technologies include those which support the driver by
providing information for driving, those which improve the driver’s comfort by
optimizing his/her workload, and those which directly improve safety by warning the
driver against accidentcrash or by mitigating damage. In some cases, negative effects
deserve consideration. To achieve a common understanding, it is important that
In-Vehicle ITS be treated in a comprehensive manner integrating the viewpoints related
to these functions.

From this perspective, the presentation made by Dr. Hiramatsu(IHRA-ITS WG/JARI) at
a meeting of the ITS Informal Group held in November 2004 was highly to a degree
suggestive. It consisted in first modeling the driver’s behavior in a basic sequence of
recognition, judgment, and operation and then applying In-Vehicle ITS technologies of
information presentation, warning, and control in response to each event. This provides
a basic philosophy for the development of a common understanding upon on driving
supportdriver assistance systems (See Figures 1 and 2).

Further, at the meeting of ITS Informal Group held in March 2006, Dr. Hiramatsu
showed how these technologies in information presentation, warning, and control are
used to supportassist the driver according to the sequence of driving conditions
including an accidentcrash. According to Dr. Hiramatsu (Figure 3), information
presentation is provided made as a supportassistant technology under normal driving
condition, warning as a supportassistant technology under critical condition, and control
as a supportassistant technology under pre-crashcritical andas well as normal driving
conditions.

Such a philosophy that different supportassistant technologies should be applied
according to the driver’s driving behavior and accident sequence seems suitable in
understanding In-Vehicle ITS that looks rather complicated. In particular, applying
In-Vehicle ITS technologies in response to the driver’s sequence of recognition,
judgment, and operation is useful in examining these In-Vehicle ITS supportassistant
functions from the viewpoint of human machine interface(HMI). In the following
chapters, In-Vehicle ITS will be discussed based on this philosophy.



2.1 Reports from IHRA-ITS WG

After the meeting of ITS Informal Group held in March 2005, we have received reports
from organizations and associations on common understanding of driving supportdriver
assistance systems and current technologies. Three reports from the IHRA-ITS WG
represented a large part of these reports and corresponded to the three stages of
information presentation, warning, and control.


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First, about information presentation, Dr. Gelau (IHRA-ITS WG/BASt) reported on the
European Statement of Principles(ESoP) that prescribed the HMI requirements for
onboard information systems, stating that, in Europe, the ESoP was used as voluntary
standard by each member country and automaker. TThe report also referred to the AAM
guideline used in North America and the JAMA guideline in Japan as almost equivalent
guidelines used as voluntary standards in Japan as almost equivalent guidelines,
indicating that in these guidelines included the provisions on design objectives, location
of installation, principle of information presentation, interaction with displays and
controlsthe operating system, system behaviorprinciple of system function, and
information about the systemother instructions. In relation to this subject, Canada
delivered a status report that the government and the automotive industry would be set
out memorandom of understanding(MOU) to limiting driver distraction from vehicle
telematics devices and negotiations are underway to reach an agreement., OEMs, and
suppliers signed an MOU on the treatment of onboard information systems and agreed
to use them based on this MOU in future.

Next, about warning, Dr. Burns (IHRA-ITS WG/Transport Canada) summarized current
past studies of warning systems conducted by countries and organizations, indicating
that they have had studied various ways to prompt the driver by auditory, visual, and/or
haptic means sound, sight, or touch to take necessary action in an emergencya critical
condition, but, to date, they have had not set out any guidelines on these systems. In
relation to this subject, OICA reported at the ninth meeting of the ITS Informal Group
on lane departure warning systems (LDWS). During discussion, some members
expressed their concern about the driver’s confusion that might be caused when he/she
was given more than one warning at the same time and stated that a certain guideline
was necessary to prevent such problem. Dr. Burns also indicated that the IHRA-ITS
WG plans to (1) develop a warning guidea guideline on warning systems by 2007, and
(2) develop assessment procedures and performance criteria by 2010an evaluation
method and evaluation indicators for these systems by 2010 as future activities.

In terms of control systems, Dr. Hiramatsu gave his opinion that, concerning control
under normal driving condition, the idea the philosophy of “the “Driver in the Loop”
was important. The ideaThe philosophy of “the “Driver in the Loop” says that, under
normal driving condition, the driver should be involved in driving in a way or other.
In-Vehicle ITS is only a system to supportassist, and not to replace the driver. This
means that the driver should be inevitably responsible for his/her driving. As future
subjects of study at IHRA, Dr. Hiramatsu cited three points: (1) presence (or absence) of
driver operation in car drivinghow the driver should be involved in driving; (2)
transition of control behavior from system to human driverhow the initiative should be
passed between the system and the driver; and (3) driver override.

how the driver should override the systems.
Other than control under normal driving condition, Dr. Hiramatsu referred to control in
pre-crash condition, but this is the subject covered by the report from Mr. Fujii of ASV
project to be discussed later.



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2.2 Reports from OICA, ASV, CLEPAReports from Other Organizations

We have received so far three reports from other organizations and associations: a report
from OICA on lane departure warning system(LDWS), a report from Advanced Safety
Vehicles(ASV) on Collision-Mitigation Braking Systems (CMBS), and a report from
CLEPA on sensor technologies to be used under pre-crash condition.

First, Mr. Christophe (PSA) of OICA reported on a system, adopted by some vehicles
on the market as option, that detects lanes with infrared sensors and warns the driver as
soon as he drifts from his/her lane by vibrating the seat. In discussion, some members
expressed their concern about the confusion that might be caused among drivers by the
presence of various types of warning systems on the market, stating that a certain
international harmonization was necessary.

Next, Mr. Fujii (JARI) of ASV reported on collision-mitigation braking systems
activated under pre-crash condition.           Mr. Fujii first explained the eight
principlesconcept of driving supportdriver assistance, which represent the basic
philosophy of ASV. A CMBS developed based on this philosophy activates the brakes
automatically when collision is no longer avoidable so that the damage of the driver,
passengers, and pedestrians is limited to the minimum. The CMBS gives its warning
just before the collision becomes unavoidable. and The warning informs the driver not
only of the imminent maneuvers to avoid the critical condition but of the following
activation of the automatic then activates the brakes automatically. This is to make the
driver prepare for the automatic braking. To a question of whether the driver actually
could prepare him/herself upon such short-notice warning given just before collision, an
explanation was given that the system is activated in a stage where collision is no longer
avoidable, in such a stage, damage mitigation effect is quite noticeable. Discussion
arose also as to whether the driver should be given the possibility to override the system
when it is activated. The conclusion was that there is hardly room for the driver to
override the CMBS, because under pre-crash condition where collision is no longer
avoidable, there is hardly possibility for him/her to maneuver the vehicle in a safer
direction.

Further, Mr. Halland(AUTOLIV) of CLEPA reported on integrated safety systems to be
activated under pre-crash condition, indicating that CMBS and advanced air-bag
systems would be effective as systems automatically activated under such condition.
The import of the report regarding CMBS was mostly the same as that of the report of
ASV mentioned earlier. It stated that, under condition where collision is no longer
avoidable, it is effective to reduce collision speed by automatic brakes. As to advanced
air-bag systems, it was of opinion that, by deploying air bags before collision, important
effect might be expected on damage mitigating even in high-speed collisions. The report
mentioned concluded that the recognition of obstacles was important in both systems
and hoped for further development of sensor technologies.

2.3 Current Status of Treatment ofCommon Understanding for In-Vehicle ITS

The current status of Common understanding for treatment of In-Vehicle ITS as shown



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above may be summarized as follows:

- Some of the In-Vehicle ITS technologies have already been commercialized. As shown
in Table 1, the typical examples include navigation systems in the field of information
presentation, forward obstaclecollision warning systems(FCWS) and LDWS in the field
of warning systems, ACC in the field of control under normal driving condition, and
CMBS collision-mitigating braking system in the field of control under pre-crash
condition.
- Classifying In-Vehicle ITS technologies according to the driver’s behavior and the
sequence of driving conditions including accidentcrash is effective in developing a
common understanding of In-Vehicle ITS. That is to say, they may be classified
according to the sequence of driving conditions: supportassistance by information
presentation and control under normal driving condition; support assistance by
warning under critical condition, and support assistance by control under pre-crash
condition.
- As to information presentation, each region (country) has set their own guideline on
these systems for concern fear that excessive information presented visually and/or
auditory presentation by sight and sound during driving might distract the driver’s
attention and authorizes the use of these systems based on such guideline and on a
self-commitment basis.
- As to warning systems, we have not yet any common policy widely shared. Meanwhile,
there is concern about confusion that might be caused among drivers by the presence of
various types of warning systems on the market. It is hoped that a certain method for
quantitatively evaluating these systems will be developed based on knowledge of HMI
human-machine interface
and in such a manner not to hinder advances in technologies. The IHRA-ITS WG
currently studies the possibility of conducting part of their activities in such direction.
- In the field of control under normal driving condition, it seems appropriate to base it
on the idea philosophy of the “Driver in the Loop,” which means that the driver should
be involved in driving operation in a way or other. Although IHRA-ITS WG has not
advanced so much in quantitative approach, it has identified the following as subjects of
study: (1) (1) presence (or absence) of driver operation in car driving; (2) transition of
control behavior from system to human driver; and (3) driver overridehow the driver
should be involved in driving; (2) how the initiative should be passed between the
system and the driver; (3) how the driver should override the system.
- As to control under pre-crash condition, it is understood that such control is effective
as damage-mitigation technology in circumstances where collision is no longer
avoidable.

3. Proposals to WP.29WP29

3.1 Current Status and PerceptionTreatment of In-Vehicle ITS Technologies

3.1.1 Information Presentation Technologies

As to information presentation technologies, we estimate that the major tasks to be
addressed are the performance requirements related to distraction, including HMIHIM



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requirements. Currently, these systems are treated by each country and region on a
self-commitment basis, but the above performance requirements are mostly qualitative
requirements based on human -centered design related to distraction. Considering such
situation, in particular the fact that, in countries where the self-commitment principle is
working, some of the information presentation systems installed on vehicles maintain a
certain range of performance, we recommend that WP.29WP29 keep monitoring the
situation for the time being.

3.1.2 Accident Warning Systems

As to warning systems designed to avoid accidents, we have not yet any common
philosophy or tasks widely shared, but sorting out our views and identifying future tasks
timely is meaningful in finding out how these systems should be treated from the
viewpoint of safety. Such work should include HMI requirements, such as easiness to
understand or recognize the warning. We recommend that WP.29WP29 maintain its
cooperation with IHRA, which currently studies these subjects, and, as soon as they
give their output, study how to treat these systems.

3.1.3 Safety Driving SupportDriver Assistance Systems by Partial Control

As to In-Vehicle ITS in the field of control under normal driving condition, various
systems have been introduced into the market to improve the comfort and reduce the
workload of the driver. Meanwhile, from control systems to mitigate crash severity to
reduce collision speed to be activated under pre-crash condition, we can expect a
significant effect on damage mitigation. Some of the performance requirements such as
recognition of the vehicle ahead and other obstacles might be addressed in the years to
come.

As to these control technologies, consideration should be given to the facts that the
reliability of these systems is not yet 100%complete, as shown in the limitations of
sensors, and that many people think that basically the driver ismust be responsible for
driving. We estimate assume therefore that the current systems are not developed and
used as completely automatic systems, but as control systems to partially assistsupport
the driver.

We recommend that WP.29WP29 have the following understanding of these systems
and base its future consideration of such systems on such understanding:

- The control systems activated under normal driving or pre-crash conditions should be
designed in principle as systems in which driver is always held responsible for his/her
driving. There has not been established yet quantitative standard for such requirements,
but at least the following consideration is effective:

     - Installation of auditory or visual announcement devices that provides the driver
with necessary information on the vehicle’ssystem functioning.
     - Systems in principle allowing for switching on and off by the driver
     - Systems in principle allowing for overriding by the driver



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- The control systems activated under normal driving condition should be designed in
principle based on “the “Driver in the Loop” philosophy, where driver should be is
involved in driving in a way or other. There has not been established yet quantitative
criteria for such requirements, but at least the following consideration is effective:
      - (Auditory or visual) announcement made when the driving initiative is
passedtransferred from the system to the driver.
      - The driver should be kept involved in driving operation. For example, the starting
initiative should not be given to the system.
      - Systems in principle allowing for switching on and off by the driver
      - Systems allowing for overriding by the driver

- Control systems activated under pre-crash condition to reduce collision speed promise
a significant effect on damage mitigation. However, when control is activated in a stage
where collision is no longer avoidable, there is no room for the necessity of overriding
and the driver is not very likely to depend on the system.

3.2 Role of ITS Informal Group

In the two years after the establishment of TOR, the ITS Informal Group has collected
information on current technologies and, based on the results of such research, it studied
a common understanding on driving supportdriver assistance systems and the role of the
ITS Informal Group. The results of such study were as follows:

- The functions of In-Vehicle ITS are discussed at corresponding GR to the extent that
there are existing regulations. However, in the fields not covered by GR or on subjects
requiring strategic examination at ITS such as discussion on understanding mentioned
in 3.1 above, the ITS Informal Group should play its necessary role.
  - In cases where it is deemed necessary at WP.29WP29 or GR, or where In-Vehicle
ITS is discussed between more than one GR, and so on, the ITS Informal Group should
play its necessary role.
- Currently, technological basis is not yet sufficiently mature to establish particular
regulations or common quantitative guidelines on In-Vehicle ITS functions.
For the time being, it would be appropriate to take necessary actions based on the
understanding summarized in this report. However, in future, with the development of
more quantitative understanding or other conditions, if proposed by a member country
of WP.29WP29, the ITS Informal group should play the role of rule maker on
In-Vehicle ITS or equivalent role.

To play the above roles, it is preferable to maintain the ITS Informal Group and to
conduct its meeting about once a year regularly, but it is preferable that its activities be
conducted as necessary on the proposal of participants. In particular, as to the status of
the studies on HMI, it is hoped that WP.29WP29 will be able to get information as
necessary in coordination with the IHRA-ITS WG.




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                          Advanced Driving

                       Advanced Technologies
                      (Driver Assistance Systems)

              Assistance for          Assistance for           Assistance for
              Recognition :           Judgment :               Operation :
               Information            Warning                  Control
               presentation

Environment
                     Human Driver                      Vehicle

                                Feedback of Vehicle Behavior


                        Conventional Driving


Figure 1 Block Diagram for Conventional
         and Advanced Driving




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               Behavioral Model of a Driver
                                                         Conventional
   Level 0   recognition    judgment       operation
                                                         driving


   Level 1   recognition    judgment       operation    Information
                                                         presentation


   Level 2   recognition    judgment       operation    Warning


   Level 3   recognition    judgment       operation    Control

                Assistance by Advanced Technologies




Figure 2 Behavioral Model of a Driver and
        Level of Driver Assistance




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2.Draft Report on Activities of WP29/ITS Informal Group      Formatted: Bullets and Numbering




経緯
In Vehicle ITS に関する情報と議論
2.1 IHRA-ITS WG からの報告
2.2 他機関からの報告
2.3 In-Vehicle ITS の取扱いの現状
3.WP29 に対する提案                                                Formatted: Bullets and Numbering

3.1 In Vehicle ITS の取り扱い
3.2 今後の ITS インフォーマルグループの役割




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         Draft Report on Activities of WP29/ITS Informal Group




1経緯                                                              Formatted: Bullets and Numbering

 自動車の知能化、情報化が進められ、ITS 技術を活用した In-Vehicle ITS の一部は
すでに市場に出回るようになった。例えば、走行時に前車との車間距離を一定間隔に
保つ ACC や衝突時に被害を軽減するために速度減速を行う被害軽減ブレーキは、開
発段階から次の段階へと移行しつつある。これら技術は、自動車の利便性や快適性の
みならず、乗員や歩行者の被害軽減の立場から道路交通安全の向上に多大に貢献する
と期待され、一層の進展が望まれている。
 この場合、安全上の適切な配慮がなされないまま市場導入が行われると将来の発展
を阻害しかねない恐れがあること、またこれら技術に関する基準・認証上の取扱いに
係る各国の安全上の共通理解の確立が望ましいこと等の課題があり、WP29 としても、
これらの課題に向けた活動を行うことが重要な段階に至っている。
              2002 年 6 月に ITS インフォーマルグループを設立し、
        WP29 は、
 かかる状況より、
ITC/ラウンドテーブルの準備作業を開始するとともに、この作業を通じてこれら技術
の取扱いについて理解を深めてきた。その結果、2004 年 2 月 18 日開催された ITC/
ラウンドテーブルでは、WP29 において In-Vehicle ITS に関する議論を継続する重
要性を WP29 に参加する各国と関係団体が改めて認識し、今後 ITS インフォーマル
グループの継続が合意された。
 これに基づき ITC/ラウンドテーブル以降検討を重ねた結果、2004 年 11 月の ITS
インフォーマルグループの会議において、ITS インフォーマルグループの活動に関す
る TOR が合意された。これにより ITS インフォーマルグループは WP29 における
戦略的役割を担うグループとして、①運転支援に関する共通理解の確立、②in-vehicle
ITS に関する技術動向を対象とした情報交換、を行うとともに、③2 年目に活動のレ
ビューを行い、WP29 に報告することとなった。
 以上のことから、ITS インフォーマルグループでは 2005 年 3 月から 2 年間の予定
で、In Vehicle ITS に関する共通理解の確立に向けた活動を含む上記課題に取り組む
ため、以下のとおりの情報交換と意見交換を中心とする活動を行った。その結果とし
て、運転支援に関する考え方および WP29 における ITS の取扱いに関し、以下のよ
うな理解に至ったので、WP29 に対して報告する。


2In Vehicle ITS に関する情報と議論                                        Formatted: Bullets and Numbering

運転支援に関する共通理解を議論する上で重要なのは、どのような視点に立ってこれ
ら諸技術を整理するかという点である。In Vehicle ITS は、運行のための情報提供に
よる支援を行うもの、負荷の最適化を図りながら快適性を向上させるもの、事故を予


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防する警報や被害軽減等により直接的に安全性の向上を狙いとするものがある。ネガ
ティブな効果に関しても考慮すべき要素がある場合もある。共通理解を図るためには、
これらの機能に係わる視点を取り込んだ包括的な取扱いが可能であることが重要と
なる。
 この観点から、2004 年 11 月の ITS インフォーマルグループの会議において、平
松より発表された内容は示唆に富むものである。すなわち、まずドライバの運転行動
を認知、判断、操作という基本的枠組みでモデル化し、つぎにそれらに対応して情報
提供、警報、制御といった In-Vehicle ITS が適用されるとする考え方は、共通理解
を図る上で基本的見方を与えるものとなっている(図 1、図 2)。
 さらに、平松は、2006 年 3 月の ITS インフォーマルグループにおいて、情報提供、
警報、制御の諸技術が、自動車の運転状況あるいは交通事故の発生機序に応じてどの
ような形で支援されるかについて示しており、それによれば(図 3)、情報提供は通
常運転時の支援技術として、また警報は危険状況時の支援技術として、さらに制御は
プリクラッシュ時および通常走行時の支援技術として適用されるものとまとめてい
る。
 このように、ドライバの運転行動や事故の発生機序に応じて各種支援技術が適用さ
れるとする考え方は、とかく複雑な In-Vehicle ITS を理解するうえで適切なものと
考えられる。とくに、認知、判断、操作というドライバの運転行動に対応させること
は、In-Vehicle ITS の支援の機能を HMI の観点から検討を加え得るにあたって有用
である。以上より、以下では、上記の考え方に沿って In-Vehicle ITS を捉えること
とする。


2.1IHRA-ITS WG からの報告                               Formatted: Bullets and Numbering

 2005 年 3 月に開催された ITS インフォーマルグループ会議以降、各機関および団
体などから運転支援に関する共通理解および現状技術の理解のための各種報告を受
けた。その内、IHRA-ITS WG からの情報提供は大きな部分を占め、計 3 件の報告が
あった。これらは上記の情報提供、警報、制御の 3 ステージに対応している。
 まず、情報提供に関して、Dr. Gelau(BASt)は車内情報機器の HMI 要件を規定
した ESoP について報告し、ESoP は欧州域内において各国あるいは各自動車メーカ
の自主基準として運用されていると述べた。ESoP とほぼ同等に位置づけられるもの
として、北米では AAM ガイドライン、また日本では JAMA ガイドラインが自主基
準として運用されていることにも触れ、これらガイドラインでは、設計の狙い、取付
け位置、情報呈示の原則、操作系とのインタラクション、システムの動作原則、イン
ストラクションなどについて記述されていると報告した。なお、カナダはこれに関連
した現状として、政府と OEM あるいはサプライヤとの間で車内情報機器の取扱い方
に関する覚書(MOU)を締結し、これに基づいて運用を図ることが計画されている


                       13/31
                                 Draft Ver.23.1            Formatted




旨の報告を行った。
つぎに、警報に関して、Dr. Burns(Transport Canada)は各国および各機関で進め
られている警報研究の現状について総括し、警報には聴覚、視覚、触覚などを介して
ドライバに対し緊急時の対応行動を促す方法が検討されているが、いまのところまだ
各国ないし各機関でガイドラインの策定に至っていないことを説明した。なお、これ
に関連する内容として、第 9 回の ITS インフォーマルグループでは OICA から車線
逸脱警報の報告がなされ、審議の過程で複数警報が出されたときのドライバの混乱を
防止するため一定のガイドラインが必要との意見が出されている。Dr. Burns はまた、
IHRA-ITS WG としての今後の活動計画として、①警報ガイドを 2007 年、②評価法お
よび評価指標を 2010 年までに提案することを提示した。
制御に関して、Dr. Hiramatsu は通常走行時の制御の考え方として、Driver in the Loop
が重要との見解を示した。Driver in the Loop は、通常走行時にドライバは何らかの形
で自動車運転に係わる必要があるとする考え方で、In-Vehicle ITS がドライバの運転
を支援する事を原則とすることに基づいている。これにより、必然的にドライバは自
動車運転の責任を負わなければならない。Dr. Hiramatsu は、IHRA における今後の課
題として、①ドライバによる運転関与のあり方、②システムからドライバへの主体移
行、③ドライバオーバライドの 3 点を挙げている。
 また平松氏は通常走行時の制御以外に、プリクラッシュ時の制御があることを指摘
しているが、この点の情報としては、後で述べる ASVproject の藤井氏からの報告が、
該当する。
2.2他機関からの報告                                                Formatted: Bullets and Numbering

 他機関ないし団体として、これまでに計 3 件の報告があった。OICA は車線逸脱警
報、ASV は被害軽減ブレーキ、CLEPA はプリクラッシュ時のセンサー技術に関する
報告を行った。
 まず、OICA の Mr. Christophe(PSA)は一部の市販車にオプション採用した、
赤外線センサーにより車線を検知し、逸脱時にはシート振動によってドライバに警報
を発するというシステムについて報告した。議論では、各種警報システムが市場に出
回ると、ドライバが混乱する恐れがあるとして一定の国際整合が必要との意見があっ
た。
 つぎに、ASV の Mr. Fujii(JARI)はプリクラッシュ時の被害軽減ブレーキについ
て報告した。藤井氏はまず ASV の原則的な考え方である運転支援の 8 項目について
説明した。この考え方をもとに開発された被害軽減ブレーキは、衝突が不可避なとき
に自動ブレーキを作動させ、ドライバ、乗員、歩行者等の道路利用者の被害を最小限
に止めようとの目的で開発されている。同システムは、衝突が不可避となる直前に警
報が発せられその後に自動ブレーキが作動する段階に移行する。これはドライバに自
動ブレーキに対る認識を与えるものである。この点について直前であるため十分な準


                         14/31
                                    Draft Ver.23.1       Formatted




備ができないのではないかという疑問について、同システムの作動が衝突不可避の段
階であり、この段階では被害軽減効果は極めて大きくなると説明された。また、同シ
ステム作動時のドライバのオーバライドの可能性について議論され、プリクラッシュ
時の衝突不可避のような状況では、ドライバにはより安全な方向に操作する余地はほ
とんどなく、オーバライドの余地もほとんどないとされた。
 さらに、CLEPA の Mr. Halland はプリクラッシュ時の統合安全システムについて
報告し、プリクラッシュ時に自動的に作動するシステムとして、被害軽減ブレーキお
よび先進エアバッグが有効になるとの報告を行った。被害軽減ブレーキについては、
先に ASV から報告されたものとほぼ同じ内容であり、衝突不可避な条件で自動ブレ
ーキによって衝突速度を低減することが効果的との見解を述べた。先進エアバッグに
ついては、衝突前にエアバッグの展開を行うことで、高速時の衝突でも被害軽減に大
きな効果が期待できるとしている。これら両システムでは、衝突対象物の認識が重要
となり、センサー技術のさらなる発展が期待されると総括している。


2.3In-Vehicle ITS の取扱いの現状                                Formatted: Bullets and Numbering

 以上をまとめると、以下のとおりである。
In-Vehicle ITS 技術は、すでに一部で商品化が図られている。表 1 に示すように、         Formatted: Bullets and Numbering

情報提供ではナビゲーションシステムが代表例として挙げられ、警報では前方障害物
衝突警報や車線逸脱警報など、さらに制御では通常走行時の例でいえば ACC、プリ
クラッシュ時の例でいえば被害軽減ブレーキなどが挙げられる。
In-Vehicle ITS をドライバ挙動および事故の発生機序に基づいて整理する方法は、
In-Vehicle ITS に関する共通理解を図るうえで有用である。すなわち、事故の発生機
序に応じて、通常走行時には主に情報提供と制御による二つの支援、危険状況時には
警報による支援、プリクラッシュ時には制御による支援に分類される。
情報提供については、運転中の視覚、聴覚などを介した情報がドライバにディスト
ラクションを生じさせるという懸念から、各地域(各国)では独自に基本原則を定め
self-commitment の形で運用されている。
警報については、広く活用されているような統一的な考え方はない。一方で各種の
警報システムが市場に出回るとドライバが混乱することが懸念され、技術進歩を阻害
しない形で、HMI の知見に基づく、定量的な評価方法が開発されることが期待され
る。IHRA-ITS WG では、そのような活動の方向性も検討されている。
制御のうち通常走行時については、何らかの形でドライバが自動車運転に係わるこ
とが重要との考えに基づき、Driver in the Loop を基本に据えることが適切と考えられ
る。Driver in the Loop は、定量的なアプローチは進んでいないが、IHRA-ITS WG か
ら次のような検討課題が提示されている。①ドライバによる運転関与のあり方、②シ
ステムからドライバへの主体移行、③ドライバオーバライドのあり方


                            15/31
                                 Draft Ver.23.1            Formatted




制御のうちプリクラッシュ時については、衝突不可避時の被害軽減技術として有効
と理解される。




3WP29 に対する提案                                               Formatted: Bullets and Numbering




3.1現状と認識                                                   Formatted: Bullets and Numbering

3.1.1 情報提供技術について
情報提供技術については、HMI 要件などを含み、Distraction に関する性能要件が主
たる課題と認識する。現状は、各国、各地域ごとの self-commitment として扱われ
ているが、これらは、Distraction に関する Human Centerized Design を基礎にし
た定性的な要件である。この現状、特に self-commitment が機能している国の車両
に備え付けられる情報提供装置は、ある一定の範囲の性能を維持しているもの見られ
ることから、WP29 としては、当面は必要に応じ、これらの状況を Watch していく
ことを勧告(Recommend)する。
3.1.2 事故回避を目的とする警報について
事故回避を目的とする警報については、まだ一定の考え方や課題の整理について広く
受け入れられたものは存在しないが、早急に考え方を整理し課題を明らかにしていく
ことは、これら装置を安全の観点からどのように取り扱うべきかを明らかにしていく
上で、有意義である。このような作業にあたっては、警報の理解しやすさや識別性と
いった HMI 要件が含まれるべきである。WP29 としては、これらを検討している
IHRA と協力関係を持ち、今後、そのアウトプットを得た段階で、取り扱いについて
検討することを勧告(Recommend)する。
3.1.3.部分的な制御による安全のための運転の支援
制御のうち通常走行時の In-Vehicle ITS については、快適性の向上や負担軽減を狙
いとして各種システムの市場展開が進んでいる。一方、制御のうちプリクラッシュ時
の衝突速度低減のためのシステムは、被害軽減に対し大きな効果が期待できる。前方
車両など衝突対象物の識別性といった性能要件などについては、今後検討すべき課題
とされる可能性がある。
これら制御技術に関し、センサーの限界なども含めたシステムの信頼性が絶対ではな
いという現状とともに、本来自動車運転はドライバが責任を負い遂行すべきものとの
考え方が一般的であることから、いまのところ、現状のシステムは完全自動システム
ではなく、運転者の支援としての制御を行うための装置として開発され、利用されて
いると認識する。
この様なシステムに対して、WP29 が次のような認識を持ち、今後このような装置の
取り扱いに関して検討(Consideration)を行う際の基礎とすることを勧告する。


                         16/31
                                Draft Ver.23.1           Formatted




通常走行時、又はプリクラッシュで作動する制御に関して、運転者が運転に責任を                   Formatted: Bullets and Numbering

持つことが維持されるようなシステムを原則とすべきである。このための要件につい
て、定量的な考え方は確立されていないが、少なくとも次のような配慮は有効である。
運転者が作動に関する必要な把握をするための表示や告知装置の設置
原則 ON/OFF ができるような機構
原則オーバーライドができること。
制御のうち通常走行時に用いられるシステムは、何らかの形でドライバ自身が自動
車運転に係わる Driver in the Loop を原則とするべきである。どのような形態を
Driver in the Loop の要件とすべきかについて、定量的な考え方は確立されていない
が、少なくとも次のような配慮は有効である。
システムから運転者に操作が戻される際の告知(音、表示)
運転者が操作に継続的に関与すること。例えば、発進はシステムに委ねないこと。
制御のうちプリクラッシュ時の衝突速度低減のためのシステムは、被害軽減に対し
大きな効果が期待できるが、衝突が避けられない段階で制御を行う場合は、オーバー
ライドの必要な余地がほとんど考えられないこと、運転者のシステムに対する依存が
発生する懸念が薄いことが認識される。


3.2ITS インフォーマルグループの役割                                    Formatted: Bullets and Numbering

ITS インフォーマルグループは TOR 策定以降の 2 年間で、現状技術の関する情報収
集を行い、またそれに基づく議論によって運転支援に関する共通理解とともに、ITS
インフォーマルの役割について検討した。その結果は、つぎのようになる。
In-Vehicle ITS の機能に関し、既存の基準が存在する場合には該当する GR で検討さ        Formatted: Bullets and Numbering

れるが、GR がカバーしない分野や、3.1 に挙げた認識に関する議論など、ITS での戦
略的な検討が必要な内容に関しては、ITS インフォーマルが必要な役割を果たすべき
である。
WP29 又は GR において必要が生じた場合、In-Vehicle ITS が複数の GR にまたがっ
て議論される場合等で、具体的な要請があれば、ITS インフォーマルは必要な役割を
果たすべきである。
現状では、In-Vehicle ITS の機能に関する特有の規制(regulation)あるいは、統一され
た定量的なガイドラインの確立に関して、技術的基礎は未成熟である。当面この報告
に記された認識に基づき、必要な行動をとることが適当であるが、今後、より定量的
な認識の確立、その他の条件の進展により、この点に関して WP29 のメンバー国によ
って提起される場合は、In-Vehicle ITS に関するルールメーキング又はそれに準ずる
機能を果たすべきである。
上記の役割を担うために、 インフォーマルグループは存続することが望ましいが、
           ITS
活動は、WP29 の参加メンバーの提起によって、必要に応じ行われることが望ましい。


                        17/31
                                          Draft Ver.23.1              Formatted




特に、HMI の研究の状況は、IHRA-ITS WG との連携等により、WP29 が必要に応じ
て情報を得られるようにすることが望まれる。




        Active Safety                          Passive Safety
            Primary Safety                      Secondary Safety


   Normal     Critical    Pre-Crash    Crash    In-Crash Post-Crash


                         Driving Condition


  Information                                      Control at pre-
                             Warning               crash condition
  presentation
       &
   Control at
normal condition                  Two types of control

 Figure 3 Driver Assistance according to
     Sequence of Driving Condition




                               18/31
                                                                        Draft Ver.23.1                                      Formatted




              Table 1 Examples of In-Vehicle ITS Systems in the Market
                                                                 Names of the systems are tentatively given in the table.

       Assistant level                              Function                                      Examples

Recognition    Information    Information provided to the driver for route          Navigation system
assistance     presentation   guidance, for notification of the unforeseeable       Information on curving roads
                              events on the road as well as enhancement of          Night vision, etc.
                              visibility etc.

Judgment       Warning        A signal informing the driver of a hazardous          FCWS
assistance                    situation, which if not corrected by an immediate     LDWS
                              action, will result in equipment damage and/or        SOWS
                              personal injury                                       Night pedestrian warning
                                                                                    Unsteady driving warning, etc.

Operation      Control        Automatic control for pre-crash situation to mitigate CMBS
assistance                    crash severity as well as control for normal driving ACC
                              to improve convenience                                LKA
                                                                                    LSF
                                                                                    Parking assist
                                                                                    Navi-cooperative shift, etc.


SYSTEMS
ACC: Adaptive Cruise Control                                     LKA: Lane Keeping Assist system
CMBS: forward Collision damage Mitigation Braking System         LSF: Low Speed Following
FCWS: Forward Collision Warning System                           SOWS: Side Obstacle Warning System
LDWS: Lane Departure Warning System                              VICS: Vehicle Information and Communication System




                                                         19/31
                                                                Draft Ver.23.1              Formatted




                                  Advanced Driving

                              Advanced Technologies
                             (Driver Assistance Systems)

                     Assistance for            Assistance for          Assistance for
                     Recognition :             Judgment :              Operation :
                      Information              Warning                 Control
                      presentation

     Environment
                            Human Driver                        Vehicle

                                        Feedback of Vehicle Behavior


                                 Conventional Driving


     Figure 1 Block Diagram for Conventional
              and Advanced Driving


1)                                                                                          Formatted: Bullets and Numbering
                           Behavioral Model of a Driver
                                                                             Conventional
        Level 0         recognition      judgment         operation
                                                                             driving


        Level 1         recognition      judgment         operation         Information
                                                                             presentation


        Level 2         recognition      judgment         operation         Warning


        Level 3         recognition      judgment         operation         Control

                            Assistance by Advanced Technologies




     Figure 2 Behavioral Model of a Driver and
             Level of Driver Assistance


                   Active Safety                          Passive Safety
                    Primary Safety                          Secondary Safety


           Normal     Critical     Pre-Crash      Crash     In-Crash Post-Crash


                                 Driving Condition


          Information                                           Control at pre-
                                       Warning                  crash condition
          presentation
               &
         Control at
      normal condition                       Two types of control

         Figure 3 Driver Assistance according to
             Sequence of Driving Condition

                                          20/31
                                                 Draft Ver.23.1                      Formatted




Annex A: Document Lists


1)   K. Wani, Overview of the Past and Future Work of WP29WP29, MLIT, ITS/RT,
     February 18, 2004.
2)   C. Fuss, ITS Driver Assistance Systems, BMW, ITS/RT, February 18, 2004.
3)   V. Wiber, Driver Focus : A North American Perspective, AAM, ITS/RT, February
     18, 2004.
4)   A. Iihoshi, Driver Assistance System : Lane Keep Assist System, JAMA, ITS/RT,
     February 18, 2004.
5)   I. Noy, Harmonized Research on ITS, IHRA-ITS WG/TC, ITS/RT, February 18,
     2004.
6)   K. Hiramatsu, A Note for Common Understanding in Advanced Systems,
     IHRA-ITS WG/JARI, 8th-ITS Informal Group Meeting/WP29WP29-134th,
     November 19, 2004.
7)   J. Christophe, Lane Departure Warning System Developed by PSA Peugeot
     Citroen, OICA, 9th-ITS Informal Group Meeting/WP29WP29-135th, March 11,
     2005.
8)   T. Fujii, Forward Collision Damage Mitigation Braking Systems on ASV,
     ASV/JARI, 10th-ITS Informal Group Meeting/WP29WP29-136th, June 24,
     2005.
9)   C. Gelau, Recent Developments of the “European Statement of Principles on
     HMI”,       IHRA-ITS      WG/BASt,        10th-ITS      Informal      Group
     Meeting/WP29WP29-136th, June 24, 2005.
10) P. Burns, ITS Warnings: Design and Performance Considerations, IHRA-ITS
     WG/TC, 11th-ITS Informal Group Meeting/WP29WP29-137th, November 18,
     2005.
11) Y. Haland, Integrated Safety by Pre-Crash Triggering, OICACLEPA/Autoliv,
     11th-ITS Informal Group Meeting/WP29WP29-137th, November 18, 2005.
12) K. Hiramatsu, The Idea of “Driver in the Loop” in Advanced Driver Assistance
     Systems,     IHRA-ITS       WG/JARI,       12th-ITS      Informal     Group
     Meeting/WP29WP29-138th, March 10, 2006.




                                       21/31
                                                       Draft Ver.23.1                          Formatted




Annex B: TOR (Note: Wordings are up-dated in the draft report.)



                Terms of Reference of WP29WP29/ITS Informal Group

                        Transmitted by the representative of Japan

1.      Introduction

As a result of efforts to equip motor vehicles with artificial intelligence and information,
some advanced technologies for in-vehicle Intelligent Transport Systems ("ITS") were
introduced into the automobile market. The acceleration of widespread use of these
technologies was desired, because they would not only contribute vehicles convenience
but also bring enhanced safety into road traffic.

If used without appropriate safety considerations, however, in-vehicle ITS technologies
might be rejected by the market before their full development, and it was necessary to
achieve among stakeholder countries a common understanding of possible regulations
and certification procedures for these technologies. There were increasing expectations
that the WP29WP29 take the initiative in the building of such a consensus.

In response the WP29WP29 established its ITS Informal Group in June 2002, began
preparation for the ITC Roundtable, and deepened its understanding of in-vehicle ITS
issues. Consequently at the ITC Roundtable meeting of 18 February 2004, WP29WP29
member and organizations reconfirmed the importance of discussing in-vehicle ITS
issues at the WP29WP29 and agreed to continue the ITS Informal Group activity.

2.      Role of the ITS Informal Group

The ITS Informal Group assumes the role of a "strategic group" who, for supporting the
development of new technologies for enhancing safety, works to expand the knowledge
of these technologies, develops a common understanding of them, discusses the course
of their handling in the regulatory framework if necessary, and reports the discussion
results to the WP29WP29.

3.      Understanding on the ITS Informal Group's Discussion

(1) Scope
The technologies to be discussed by the WP29WP29/ITS Informal Group are In-vehicle
Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) which are on-board systems for safety that utilize
information that is received from direct sensing and/or telecommunications via the road
infrastructure or other source.
In conducting its discussion, the Informal Group observes the following understanding
concerning the above-specified ITS:

     - It is important to emphasize that certain ITS applications use advanced
       technologies to provide in-vehicle support for reducing the number of crashes and


                                           22/31
                                                      Draft Ver.23.1                         Formatted




      attendant injuries and deaths. Other ITS applications provide in-vehicle
      information for purposes other than improved safety. Whatever the primary
      function is, both types of ITS applications can have important unintentional
      influences on safety (positive and negative.)

In addition, since there are strong expectations for ITS contributions to the enhancement
of vehicle safety, the following understanding is necessary at the same time.

  - Certain areas of systems are expected to be discussed primarily for enhancing
    safety of the vehicles. They include systems that use advanced technologies for
    enhancing safety, and that advise/warn, and/or assist the driver with the purpose of
    vehicle functions and performance in driving.

In relation to the function of in-vehicle ITS for safety enhancement, the extent of
system’s assistance to driver's control is an important issue to be deliberated including
how far the "assist" can be extended and what is the relation with "substitution." Such
discussion can be based on certain actual in-vehicle ITS systems. (Please refer to
Attachment 1 for the schematic of a driving assistance system.)

(2)   Points to be considered

Bearing in mind that the purpose of the ITS Informal Group will include the support of
development of advanced technologies for safety enhancement, and that these
technologies are still at the course of their future development, the ITS Informal Group
recognize to consider the following points:

  - The introduction of ITS into market shall not be hindered as far as there are no
    clear problems on safety.

  - For encouraging introduction of ITS, role of governments in the area of safety
    should be considered. Such role of governments may include followings.
      * If current regulations are holding back ITS from market, revisions should be
       studied.
      * If necessary, methodologies should be developed and applied for assessing the
       safety impact, estimation of effectiveness and potential safety degradation.

  - Also, role of industries and other means than regulations on vehicle construction
    should be considered (ex. civil law, industry's guidelines).

  -    It is preferable to get a common understanding on advanced technologies
      considering the above-mentioned role of governments among members.

Because in-vehicle ITS involves sophisticated technologies for warning or assisting the
driver, the following special considerations are important in discussing the future course
of in-vehicle ITS:

  - It is important to deal with the issues from a view point of HMI and an aspect of



                                          23/31
                                                          Draft Ver.23.1                         Formatted




        the driver’s responsibility is duly taken into account.

     - In-vehicle ITS is a newborn subject matter appearing in the WP29WP29's agenda,
       and it is still difficult to predict the future course of ITS development. Accordingly,
       the ITS Informal Group should discuss general issues characteristic of advanced
       technologies and unsuitable for GRs, receiving guidance from WP29WP29 and
       working in concert with GRs whenever necessary.

4.      Current Situation of ITS related Activities

Concerning the new technologies included within the scope of the ITS Informal Group,
attempts were made to collect information on the research and development projects,
guideline formulation, and standardization and regulation discussions conducted in
various countries (see Attachments 2 to 4). This information was collected to help
determine the role of the WP29WP29 and plan efficient information collection and
other activities of the WP29WP29 related to in-vehicle ITS. These schematic was
produced by Japanese experts, reflecting the opinions expressed at the meetings of the
ITS Informal Group till now and the ITC Roundtable of 18 February 2004.

Attachment 2 lists up the in-vehicle ITS projects in the various regions of the world.
Attachment 3 introduces the categorization of in-vehicle ITS systems and their negative
aspects. Attachment 4 identifies the negative factors examined in regional projects.

According to the information collected on various negative aspects(Attachment 4),
guidelines on "distraction" have already been established in some regions. Although
manufacturers' voluntary effort is the central approach to the issue of "reliability", there
are brake by-wires and some other individual items beginning to be discussed for
incorporation into ECE Regulations.

On the other hand, regarding "overtrust", “lack of trust" and "misunderstanding",
attempts to qualitatively understand the concepts and organize policy are beginning in
various regions. These negative aspects are issues related to driving assistance, which is
one of HMI aspects (Attachment 3). What is important is to share the knowledge
obtained from various projects and regions and refine it into a common understanding
of issues related to driving assistance within the WP29WP29.

Additionally, developments in in-vehicle ITS needs to be constantly monitored, and
information needs to be exchanged on new ITS technologies with attention to
relationships between regulations and a new ITS technology.

While IHRA is conducting research activities aiming at the harmonization of regulations
and while ISO is working to formulate international technical standards, the ITS
Informal Group may try to collaborate with these two organizations in striving to
achieve its tasks.

5.      Work Plan




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Assuming the WP29WP29/ITS Informal Group to found its activities on the
Understandings on the ITS Informal Group’s Discussion defined in section 3 and on the
Current Situation of ITS related Activities in section 4, the work plan below has been set
for the ITS Informal Group.

(1)   Short-term Tasks

1)    A common understanding of driving assistance

The ITS Informal Group will identify and discuss points for ensuring the safety of
various driving assistance systems. Although this discussion will not be aimed at
formulating technical requirements or guidelines, it will be targeted at the establishment
of a common understanding that will provide basic concepts for handling new in-vehicle
ITS technologies in each country. This discussion will be terminated in two years from
the accepting this TOR.

2)    Information exchange

Information concerning in-vehicle ITS will be exchanged. If proposals are made to
examine the conflict between a new in-vehicle ITS technology and an existing
regulation, direction to dissolving the conflict will be discussed and the results of the
discussion will be reported to the WP29WP29.

(2)   Medium-term Tasks

After completing the above short-term tasks, the WP29WP29 will decide activities for
the ITS Informal Group or, if the Group is deemed to have completed its mission, will
discuss other approaches to addressing in-vehicle ITS issues.




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                                                                                   ATTACHMENT 1

                                       Driving Assistance

In driving a motor vehicle, it is the driver who observes the surroundings and the
running condition of his/her vehicle, while making judgments for appropriate driving
responses and operating the steering wheel, acceleration pedal and brake accordingly in
the conventional driving system (Figure 1).

This driving system may be supported by a separate "driving assistance system"
designed to assist part of the driver's recognition, decision-making and control by
utilizing advanced technologies. The driving assistance including assistance for control
should be distinguished from the driver "complete substitution" which means to take
over the whole driver's functions.

Various research institutes are engaged in studies on the form, extent, timing, and other
elements of appropriate driver assist. While some types of driver assist systems are
already in practical use on vehicles, as a whole they are still at their developmental stage.
Consequently it is good time for countries and regions to deepen their understandings of
desirable technologies for driving assistance.



                                                                       Assistance for Control
                                   Advanced Assistance Technologies
                                             先進技術
                                    Advanced Assistance Technologies
      Advanced Assistance System


                            Assistance for              Assistance for
                            Cognition                   Decision-Making
 Outside Information
                                         Human Driver                           Vehicle
                                            ドライ
                                          Human Driver                          自動車
                                                                                Vehicle


        Conventional System                   バ
                                                       Feedback of Car Behavior



                Figure 1 Block Diagram of Car Driving




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Attachment 3 : In-vehicle ITS Categories and Negative Aspects
          Categories of ITS                         Examples of systems                         Examples of negative factors (concerns)
Information collection                 Cell phone                                        Driver distraction
                                       Internet,                                          Cognitive distraction
                                       Navigation system, multi-media terminals            Visual distraction, etc.
                                                                                  etc.                                                    etc.
Driving              Information       Navigation system, traffic information            Overtrust
   assistance             support      AFS, Night Vision                                  Overtrust
                                       FCW, LDW                                           Reduced Situation Awareness, etc.
                                       Curving road status                               Misunderstanding
                                       Warning of crossing collision                      Driver confusion
                                       Road-ahead obstacles                                Command effect
                                                                                  etc. Lack of trust
                     Assistance        ACC, LKS                                            Lack of trust
                         for control   CMS/IBA                                             Increased discomfort, stress, etc.
                                       Stop & Go                                         Reliability
                                                                                           Failsafe
                                                                                           Electronic hardware reliability, etc.
                                                                                  etc.                                                    etc.
Automatic drive                        Automatic drive                                   Responsibility of the driver
                                       Convoy pilot system
                                                                                  etc                                                     etc



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Attachment 4 : Negative Factors Examined in Regional Projects




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                                               agenda item 4.)                                                                                                      Formatted




Reliability is considered to include the following 2 factors.                                             *: Warning Integration
 * Failure does not impair safety./Back Up  (5) Failsafe                                                 **: Limited to telematics information devices including
 * The driver can cope with the errors made by a less-than-perfect device.                                          cell phones, navigation systems, and internet
      Included in (2), (3), and (4).                                                                     ***: Recommendation on Safe and Efficient In-vehicle
                                                                                                                    Information and Communication Systems
ASV: Advanced Safety Vehicle
IVI: Intelligent Vehicle Initiative                                           ADASE: Advanced Driver Assistance Systems in Europe
CAMP: Collision Avoidance Matrix Project
DWM: Driver Workload Metrics
MCAI: Multiple Collision Alarm Interference




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