Lesson8: The Progressive Paradox

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					T R A N SF O R MIN G A ME R I C A
                                 FINAL SCRIPT

           TITLE:   Lesson 13: Road to War

    PREPARED FOR:   Dallas Telelearning
         WRITER:    Stephen Dyer
       PRODUCER:    Julia Dyer

          DRAFT:    FINAL
           DATE:    January 28, 2005
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           VISUAL                                              AUDIO

Introduction (1:48)                    Music Up

   1. Archival motion picture of       PRESIDENT FRANKLIN ROOSEVELT: I hope
                                       the United States will keep out of this war. I

                                       believe that it will. And I give you assurance and

                                       reassurance that every effort of your government

                                       will be directed toward that end.

   2. Archival of FDR’s third          NARRATOR: As war broke out in Europe in
      presidential campaign
                                       1939, President Roosevelt’s private thoughts did

                                       not mirror his public pronouncements.

                                       Convinced the US would eventually enter

                                       another world war, he decided to run for an

                                       unprecedented third term as president.

   3. Archival: “Dr. New Deal”         His skills forged by the political fires of the Great

                                       Depression and The New Deal, Roosevelt

                                       believed he could best steer the ship of state in a

                                       time of immense crisis.

   4. Archival motion picture          PRESIDENT FRANKLIN ROOSEVELT: We look
      footage of FDR; could mix
      with footage of the Germans      forward to a world founded upon four essential
      conquering Europe
                                       human freedoms. The first is freedom of speech
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            VISUAL                                             AUDIO

                                         and expression, everywhere in the world. The

                                         second is freedom of every person to worship

                                         God in his own way, everywhere in the world.

                                         The third is freedom from want. The fourth is

                                         freedom from fear.

   5. Archival: Blitzkrieg in Poland,    NARRATOR: Roosevelt knew that the Second
      Japanese in Nanking
                                         World War would be a massive, do or die conflict

                                         between the forces of totalitarianism and

                                         democracy. “Dr. New Deal” would have to

                                         become “Dr. Win-the War.”

Segment #1: A Common Purpose
Learning Objective: Explain the main
   features of American foreign policy
   prior to the attack on Pearl Harbor
   (LO 1)

                                         Music Up

                                         CALVIN CHRISTMAN (09:18:16:00): When
   6. Cal Christman on Camera;
      mix with archival motion           Hitler came to power in January of 1933, he
      picture of early Hitler
                                         blamed all of Germany’s ills on three things. He
   Super: Calvin Christman,
   Cedar Valley College
                                         blamed it on the Versailles Treaty. He blamed it

                                         on the communists and he blamed it on the
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          VISUAL                                             AUDIO

                                     Jews. And he set out to destroy all three. Now,

                                     that meant he wanted war because only through

                                     war could you remake the map of Europe and

                                     could you eradicate entire political and religious

                                     groups. He built the finest army in the world. He

                                     built the finest air force in the world. He

                                     reoccupied the Rhineland. He forced the
   7. GRAPHIC: Map sequence of
      Europe highlighting German     annexation of Austria and brought it into
      annexations: Rhineland,
      Austria, Czechoslovakia.       Germany.

   8. Archival: Hitler and           NARRATOR: Then, in 1938 Hitler demanded
      Chamberlain at Munich
                                     that Germany be allowed to annex a part of

                                     Czechoslovakia. British Prime Minister Neville

                                     Chamberlain, fearing another world war,

                                     convinced the Czechs to give in. It was a

                                     catastrophic miscalculation.

   9. London Papers: Chamberlain     Actor as NEVILLE CHAMBERLAIN: I believe it
      returns from Munich (Does
      archival footage exist for     is peace in our time.
   10. Cal Christman on Camera       CALVIN CHRISTMAN (09:21:32:00): Britain had

                                     given in at Munich in order to try and prevent war

                                     and they had failed. And so after Munich, and

                                     after Hitler took over the rest of Czechoslovakia,
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           VISUAL                                                    AUDIO

                                        Britain came to the conclusion we have done

                                        everything we could. Now we are going to have

                                        to fight.

   11. Cal Christman on Camera;         CALVIN CHRISTMAN (09:26:22:00): War
       mix with footage from Poland
                                        officially began Friday, September 1st, 1939,
   12. GRAPHIC: Map of Europe           when Germany invaded Poland. As a result of
       highlighting the invasion of
       Poland                           the German invasion, Britain and France then

                                        declared war on Germany. The US declared

                                        itself officially neutral.

   13. Adrian Lewis on Camera; mix      ADRIAN LEWIS (15:05:56:00): The Germans
       with archival of Blitzkrieg
       warfare                          innovated. They developed something called
   Super: Adrian Lewis,                 Blitzkrieg operational doctrine. They massed
   University of North Texas
                                        tanks, artillery, infantry in one division. They also

                                        added air power to this. They put it in a

                                        command structure, gave that guy the initiative

                                        and then let it go. It worked brilliantly.

   14. Cal Christman on Camera          CALVIN CHRISTMAN (09:27:11:00): By the

                                        summer of 1940, Germany had conquered

                                        Poland. It conquered Norway, Denmark,

                                        Holland, Belgium and France. Britain was the

                                        only power standing in the way of total German
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           VISUAL                                                AUDIO

                                       control of western and central Europe.

   15. Archival motion picture         WINSTON CHURCHILL: Let us, therefore,
       footage if available. Radio
       should be.                      brace ourselves to our duty, so bear ourselves

                                       that if the British Empire and its Commonwealth

                                       last for a thousand years, men will still say, “This

                                       was their finest hour.”

   16. Archival motion picture         PRESIDENT FRANKLIN ROOSEVELT: We
       footage of FDR
                                       must be the great arsenal of democracy. For us,

   17. GRAPHIC: Map showing            this is an emergency as serious as war itself.
       conquered Europe in relation
       to the United States
   18. Cal Christman on Camera         CALVIN CHRISTMAN (10:00:53:00): Roosevelt

                                       brings the United States to a position of all

                                       possible aid to Great Britain short of actually

                                       entering the war. November, 1939, Congress

                                       passes a cash and carry. Then September,

                                       1940, Roosevelt with an executive agreement

                                       with Churchill makes his “destroyers for bases”

                                       agreement. Then in March of 1941, Congress

                                       passes Lend-Lease and so we incrementally

                                       move closer and closer.

   19. Adrian Lewis on Camera          ADRIAN LEWIS (15:08:31:00): He understood
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            VISUAL                                               AUDIO

                                         long before the American people did that the

                                         United States had to fight World War II. He

                                         would have gotten us there one way or another.

                                         CHARLES LINDBERGH: When England asks us

                                         to enter this war, she is considering her own


   20. Archival: protesters,             NARRATOR: Not everyone agreed with
                                         Roosevelt’s policies. Charles Lindbergh and

                                         many others, including members of Congress,

                                         were strong proponents of a more isolationist


   21. EXPERT on Camera;                 CALVIN CHRISTMAN (10:03:14:00): There are
       Archival: Geisel political
       cartoon lampooning                different groups of isolationists, different
       isolationists: “Then the wolf
       ate all the children, but they    combinations that, for whatever reason, wanted
       were foreign children, so it
       didn’t matter.                    to stay out of European affairs and did not see

                                         Germany as a direct threat. Because after all, the

                                         Atlantic Ocean, the Pacific Ocean, they’re the

                                         two greatest anti-tank ditches in the world and

                                         they felt that we could be protected by those

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           VISUAL                                               AUDIO

   22. Archival motion pictures:        NARRATOR: But with Britain on the ropes and
       Germans march on Russia
                                        Russia fighting for her very life, public sentiment
   23. GRAPHIC: Map of Europe           shifted from isolationism toward helping the
       highlighting the invasion of
       USSR                             Allies. To this end, Roosevelt met publicly with

                                        Churchill to declare a common purpose.

   24. Cal Christman on Camera;         CALVIN CHRISTMAN (10:04:59:00): The
       Archival: FDR and Churchill
       meet in Canada for the           Atlantic Charter meeting was held off the coast of
       Atlantic Charter
                                        Canada in August of 1941. And I think there are

                                        three reasons, or three factors, behind it. First

                                        off, this would be the first time that President

                                        Roosevelt and Prime Minister Winston Churchill

                                        would be able to meet face to face since they

                                        became the leaders of their two countries.

                                        Second, both men bring their military staffs with

                                        them. Some very important military staff

                                        conversations took part at this meeting. Third,

                                        you have the U.S. and Britain issuing a joint

                                        statement of what they hoped the world would be

                                        like once the war was over, that it would be a

                                        world free from fear, free from want, free from

                                        aggression. And I think what Roosevelt hoped,
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            VISUAL                                               AUDIO

                                         this would be an emotional tie of the two

                                         countries that would bring us closer in step with

                                         Great Britain and that would help further to

                                         negate isolationist feelings.

   25. Archival: ships in the North      NARRATOR: By November 1941, the United
       Atlantic; convoys
                                         States was on a virtual war footing. But with all

                                         eyes focused on Europe, it was an attack half a
   26. GRAPHIC: Map moves from           world away that sparked the flames of war.
       Atlantic to Pacific, zooms into
       Pearl Harbor

Segment #2: This Means War
Learning Objective: Analyze the short
   and long-term effects of the Pearl
   Harbor attack on the American
   people and American policy.

   27. Archival footage of Pearl         Music Up
                                         Sounds of bombs falling, explosions.

   28. Archival motion picture or        PRESIDENT FRANKLIN ROOSEVELT:
       radio address of FDR; the
       bombs fly at Pearl Harbor         Yesterday, December 7, 1941, a date which will

                                         live in infamy, the United States of America was

                                         suddenly and deliberately attacked by naval and

                                         air forces of the Empire of Japan.
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          VISUAL                                             AUDIO

   29. Cal Christman on Camera       CALVIN CHRISTMAN (10:07:33:00): Japan
   Super: Calvin Christman,          went to war against the United States because
   Cedar Valley College
                                     Japan wanted raw materials.

   30. GRAPHIC: Map of Pacific       ADRIAN LEWIS (15:11:30:00): Japan is an
       showing West Coast of US,
       Hawaii and Japan              island nation. It is a resource poor nation. Even
   Super: Adrian Lewis,              today Japan depends on shipping. It depends on
   University of North Texas
                                     external resources for its oil and coal and iron

                                     ore, etc. – all of those things that make an

                                     industrial power run.

   31. Cal Christman on Camera       CALVIN CHRISTMAN (10:07:33:00): But close

                                     by in Southeast Asia, you had British Malaya with
   32. GRAPHIC: Map highlights
      areas in Southeast Asia        huge deposits of tin and production of rubber.

                                     You have the Dutch East Indies with tremendous

                                     oil production. These were materials Japan

                                     wanted. Now that Europe was at war, Britain

                                     could not properly protect British Malaya. The

                                     Dutch could not protect the Dutch East Indies.

                                     There was only one policeman in that whole area

                                     that could possibly stop Japan from robbing the

                                     Dutch East Indies and British Malaya. That was

                                     the American Pacific fleet at Pearl Harbor.
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           VISUAL                                                AUDIO

   33. Akira Iriye on Camera             AKIRA IRIYE (11:09:43:00): By October 1941,
   Super: Akira Iriye,                   the Japanese leadership had decided that war
   Harvard University
                                         was going to come. It was inevitable with the

                                         U.S. And therefore, if it was going to come,

                                         Japan would have to choose the timing of its


   34. Cal Christman on camera           CALVIN CHRISTMAN (10:09:08) Now as far as

                                         why we got caught by surprise, I think probably

                                         that the key factor was yes, we knew Japan was

                                         going to war, there was no doubt about that. But

                                         we thought their attack would come in the

                                         Southeast Asia area because, after all, that’s

                                         where the raw materials were.

   35. Adrian Lewis on Camera            ADRIAN LEWIS (15:19:51:00): Tactically, it was

                                         a great success. They caught the battleships

                                         there and destroyed a number of them.

                                         Operationally, it was a failure because the

                                         decisive instrument for the conduct of naval

                                         warfare was not the battleship. The aircraft

                                         carrier is the dominant instrument for the conduct

                                         of naval warfare. Strategically, it was a failure
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           VISUAL                                                 AUDIO

                                        also because one of the assumptions that the

                                        Japanese held is that Americans were weak, that

                                        Americans lacked the moral fiber to fight the

                                        Japanese. That was very wrong. As a matter of

                                        fact, nothing did more to unite the United States

                                        than the attack at Pearl Harbor.

                                        PRESIDENT FRANKLIN ROOSEVELT: I ask

                                        that the Congress declare a state of war between

                                        the United States and the Japanese Empire.

   36. Archival, headlines:             NARRATOR: In the wake of Pearl Harbor, the
      Declarations of war
                                        United States declared war on Japan. Germany,

                                        Japan’s ally, consequently declared war on the

                                        U.S. Almost immediately some American troops

                                        were flung into action.

   37. Eddie Fung on camera             EDDIE FUNG (07:25:44) We shipped out of

      Super: Eddie Fung                 Honolulu on the first of December of 1941, and

                                        when we got word that Pearl Harbor had been hit

                                        the whole convoy was diverted to Brisbane,
   38. Eddie Fung personal pics(?)
                                        Australia. So we were the first U.S. troops on

                                        foreign soil from the outbreak of the war.
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           VISUAL                                                AUDIO

   39. Archival footage/pics of          The battalion was sent to Java to fulfill the
      combat in Dutch East Indies
                                         commitment that FDR had made to help the

                                         Dutch defend the Dutch East Indies. The

                                         Japanese were invading the 1st of March. Within

                                         seven days, the Dutch decided to capitulate and

                                         on March 8, capitulation orders came down to

                                         surrender to the Japanese. That was when

                                         we…the war ended for us.

   40. Archival footage/pics of Allied   We went up to Burma to work on a railroad to link
      POWS, Burma railroad
      construction (BRIDGE ON            Thailand to Burma. They used 61,000 Allied
                                         prisoners. I weighed, probably, at least 100

                                         pounds when I left Batavia in September of ’42

                                         and in May of ’43 I weighed 60 pounds. Being a

                                         prisoner of war is like being thrown into the

                                         biggest human lottery in the world. You don’t

                                         know what’s going to happen in the draw and

                                         that’s the way I looked at it. You just got lucky in

                                         the draw.

                                         Actor reading sign: All persons of Japanese

                                         ancestry, both alien and non-alien, will be

                                         evacuated from the above area by 12 o’clock
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            VISUAL                                              AUDIO

                                         noon, Saturday, May 9, 1942.

   41. Archival or B-roll of the         NARRATOR: While some Americans were held
       following sign:
                                         prisoner by Japan, many Japanese-Americans

                                         suffered a similar fate at home in the United


   42. Alice Yang Murray on Camera       ALICE YANG MURRAY (09:10:29): After Pearl
   Super: Alice Yang Murray,             Harbor there was obviously a great shock in this
   UC Santa Cruz
                                         country and there was genuine fear on the West

                                         Coast that the Japanese might possibly invade.

                                         There was hysteria and panic. And when you

                                         combine that with the long history of anti-

                                         Japanese sentiment, you ignited this firestorm of

                                         hostility towards people of Japanese ancestry.

   43. Archival of Internment Camps      Actor as internee BEN YORITA: We could only

                                         take what we could carry, and most of us were

                                         carrying two suitcases or duffle bags.

   44. Alice Yang Murray on              ALICE YANG MURRAY (10:03:00:00): They
       Camera; mix with footage of
       camps, if available               were tagged with a number, basically treated like

                                         luggage, put on a bus or a train and sent to what

                                         was called an assembly center. They were
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           VISUAL                                             AUDIO

                                      almost always at race tracks or old county

                                      fairgrounds. So many people remember finding

                                      that their new home was, in fact, a hastily

                                      converted horse stall. People were then

                                      transported to the more permanent war

                                      relocation authority centers and there were ten of

                                      those and they were almost always in desolate

                                      and remote locations.

   45. Archival: Japanese-            NARRATOR: Nearly 100,000 Japanese-
       Americans receive an apology
       from the US government         Americans were confined during World War II in

                                      conditions that can at best be termed inadequate

                                      and at worst cruel and destructive.

   46. Archival: Japanese-American    Ironically, Japanese-Americans served with great
       soldiers receive combat
       medals                         distinction in the armed forces. One combat

                                      team became the most decorated unit in U.S.

                                      military history for its size and length of service.

                                      The unit received over 18,000 individual

                                      decorations for bravery, 9,500 Purple Hearts,

                                      seven Presidential Unit Citations, and twenty

                                      Congressional Medals of Honor.

   47. Alice Yang-Murray              ALICE YANG MURRAY (10:28:36): But there
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            VISUAL                                               AUDIO

                                          were a lot of Japanese-Americans who had deep

                                          wounds, deep psychological wounds, that had

                                          been caused by the camps. The sense of shame,

                                          this fear of being associated with the Japanese

                                          heritage, and there were a lot of people who

                                          thought the safest thing to do was to simply

                                          blend in – not have ties with anyone of Japanese

                                          ancestry, never speak the Japanese language,

                                          never try to teach your children anything about

                                          Japan. You have to understand, many of them

                                          were adolescents or children and so they could

                                          never quite cope with what had happened to

                                          them in terms of what it meant to be an American

                                          and what it meant to be of Japanese ancestry.

Segment #3: The Great Arsenal of
  Democracy (8:04)
Learning Objective: Analyze the process
   of wartime mobilization and its
   effects on the American people (LO

   48. Archival motion picture            SONG (Boogie Woogie Bugle Boy): He was a
       footage of FDR
                                          famous trumpet man from out Chicago way….
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           VISUAL                                              AUDIO

                                        He had a boogie style that no one else could


                                        He was the top man at his craft….but then his

                                        number came up and he was gone with the


                                        He’s in the army now, a blowin’ reveille….

   49. David Kennedy on Camera;         DAVID KENNEDY (02:05:36:00): Well, the first
       archival of the great beast of
       American industry--factories,    and most dramatic thing to be said about
       furnaces, etc.
                                        mobilization is that it ended the Depression. The
   Super: David Kennedy,
   Stanford University                  unemployment rate goes, virtually overnight, from

                                        14-15% in 1941 to about 1%, which effectively is

                                        no unemployment at all. It takes the war, not all

                                        the policies of the New Deal, finally to overcome

                                        this great, deep, protracted economic crisis.

                                        PRESIDENT FRANKLIN ROOSEVELT: We

                                        shall send you, in ever increasing numbers,

                                        ships, planes, tanks, guns. That is our purpose

                                        and our pledge.

                                        DAVID KENNEDY: The second thing is that the

                                        United States effects what was then called, and
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           VISUAL                                                AUDIO

                                         has been known in the history books ever since,

                                         as this production miracle. It produces war

                                         materiel on a scale and of a quantity and a

                                         quality, for that matter, such as was virtually

                                         unimaginable in warfare – forty billion bullets and

                                         thousands upon thousands of long-range bomber

                                         aircraft. It completely outfits and deploys 16

                                         million men in the army, millions of tanks. These

                                         production numbers are just astronomical. The

                                         third characteristic of mobilization is that the

                                         United States is the only belligerent in World War

                                         II that managed not only to raise and equip a

                                         large scale armed force, and in fact in the

                                         process heavily equip its allies, but at the same

                                         time to raise civilian standards of living at home.

   50. Archival: the gears of industry   NARRATOR: The availability of good jobs
       begin to turn
                                         shifted populations from south to north, east to

                                         west as people followed jobs to new homes.

                                         One unusual aspect of the economic expansion

                                         was that it lifted everyone.
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            VISUAL                                               AUDIO

   51. Guadalupe San Miguel on            GUADALUPE SAN MIGUEL, JR. (9457,
                                          22:16:11): During the war, opportunities
Super: Guadalupe San Miguel, Jr.
  University of Houston                   opened up in agriculture. Again, the vast number

                                          of men employed in agriculture, including the
   52. Archival ftg./pics of men
      enlisting (including minority
                                          Latino population, left and joined the armed
                                          forces. But because of the great need for food to
   53. Archival ftg./pics of minorities
      including Latinas working in        feed not only the American people but the
      defense industry
                                          soldiers involved in the war, there was a

                                          tremendous need for labor. And that provided

                                          increased opportunities for people, primarily from

                                          Mexico, to find jobs in the United States.

                                          Because of the war effort and the manpower

                                          needs of the country, that opened up
   54. Archival ftg/pics, headlines:
       Mexican-American farm              opportunities in defense industries. So jobs
       workers, bracero (guest
       worker) program                    opened up for Latina females in the defense


   55. Archival ftg/pics/headlines:       NARRATOR: While minorities benefited from
       Zoot Suit riots, Geisel
       cartoons equating U.S.             the economic boom, discrimination persisted.
       discrimation with Nazism,
       Double V campaign                  Pay scales were not always equal and

                                          segregation and racial violence continued. For

                                          African-Americans, the struggle to gain access to
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           VISUAL                                             AUDIO

                                       defense industry jobs was absorbed into a larger

                                       campaign that called for a “Double Victory”.

   56. Clay Carson on camera           CLAYBORNE CARSON (9587, 7:16:26): There
   Super: Clayborne Carson,            was a feeling that you need to bring democracy
   Stanford University
                                       at home as well as democracy abroad. You need

                                       to fight racism at home as well as fight against

                                       fascism abroad. So the notion of a “Double V

                                       Campaign” was something that encapsulated the

                                       goals of African-Americans. It was initiated by the

                                       Pittsburgh Courier at the beginning of the war

                                       and became enormously popular as a way of

                                       unifying the black population to support the war,

                                       but to see the war as a means to making social

                                       gains at home.

   57. Archival: A. Philip Randolph    NARRATOR: As the result of a landmark

                                       negotiation with black labor leader A. Philip

                                       Randolph, President Roosevelt issued Executive

                                       Order 8802, which ensured job access to African-


   58. Archival: A. Philip Randolph    PRESIDENT FRANKLIN ROOSEVELT: In
       with FDR
                                       some communities employers dislike to employ
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           VISUAL                                               AUDIO

                                       women. In others they are reluctant to hire

                                       Negroes. We can no longer afford to indulge

                                       such prejudices or practices.

                                       SONG: Rock-a-bye my baby…

                                       there ain’t gonna be no war….

                                       there ain’t gonna be no war over here…

   59. Archival: women in the          NARRATOR: Women, too, flocked to the
                                       workplace to replace the fifteen million men gone

                                       to the armed forces.

   60. Archival: “Rosie the Riveter    (Actor as ADELE ERENBERG, aircraft
       We Can Do It!!”
                                       worker): For me defense work was the

                                       beginning of my emancipation as a woman. For

                                       the first time in my life I found out that I could do

                                       something with my hands besides bake a pie.

   61. Susan Hartmann on Camera;       SUSAN HARTMANN (09:10:01:00): Women
   Super: Susan Hartmann,              got a taste of employment during the war. They
   Ohio State University
                                       liked the financial rewards. Some of them liked

                                       the opportunity to do something besides

                                       childcare and housework.
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           VISUAL                                             AUDIO

                                       SONG: We’re one for all and we’re all for one…

                                       they’ll get a lickin’ before we’re done…

                                       Millions of voices are ringing….

                                       SUSAN HARTMANN: The morale was really

                                       pretty good during World War II and one of the

                                       ways of coping, whether it be with the separation

                                       from husband, the increasing strain because of

                                       working all day and then having housework at

                                       night and on the weekends. I think they coped

                                       with that because they really felt that they were

                                       contributing to a war that was the right war, a

                                       necessary war.

   62. Archival: kids during war       NARRATOR: But work did not make everything

                                       all right. The war was a time of tremendous

                                       disruption in family life. Couples were separated.

                                       Children did not receive as much attention.

                                       Every family sacrificed in some way.

   63. Charlene McAden on Camera       CHARLENE MCADEN (04:18:57): On
   Super: Charlene McAden              Saturdays, you would go around and pick up iron

                                       or any metal and bring it to a collection agency.
   64. Archival ftg./pics: wartime
      rationing, conservation and
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           VISUAL                                              AUDIO

   65. Charlene McAden on camera        I had two uncles that fought. Mother was very

                                        close to her brothers and I know she worried very

                                        much about them and was always tickled to
   66. Charlene family pics of          death when we got a letter from one of them and
      uncles in uniform, copy of
      letter from one uncle             that they were okay.

                                        DIANE SWANN-WRIGHT (10:08:13): My
   Super: Dianne Swann-Wright
                                        mother had seven brothers and six of them

                                        served in World War II. I remember my mother

                                        saying that there were shortages, many

                                        shortages, during the war and that people had to

                                        make do with what they had.

   67. Vine Deloria on camera           VINE DELORIA, JR. (14:05:49): First couple of
   Super: Vine Deloria, Jr.             years of World War II there were immense

                                        gardens that they put in. And the bureau at Pine
   68. Archival ftg/pics: victory
      gardens                           Ridge would just plow 40, 50 acres and then

                                        people would go in and pick a plot and then
   69. Deloria family pics: Vine
      Deloria Sr. in priest robes,      they’d all be growing vegetables and it was, all of
      conducting services
                                        a sudden, you’re solving some food problems.

                                        But church services…my father couldn’t get

                                        enough gas to drive around and hold service.
Transforming America      •   TA 113 – FINAL   •   Road to War    •   1/27/05    •    23

           VISUAL                                              AUDIO

   70. Vine Deloria on Camera           The war was really hard on him, the trauma of

                                        these caskets coming back…having to console

                                        the family and a…he was football coach at Martin

                                        for two years so, you know, there were kids that

                                        just a couple years ago he was teaching how to

                                        throw a football and they’re coming back dead

                                        now. So it gets, I think, very emotional for me to

                                        remember that.

   Summary: It Didn’t Matter
   Who You Were (3:04)
   Learning Objective: Assess how
   wartime mobilization shaped modern

   71. Archival: the battleships burn   Music up
       at Pearl Harbor, industry at
       full capacity, and the
       internment camps                 NARRATOR: The first foreign military attack on

                                        American territory since 1812…the most

                                        dramatic economic expansion in American

                                        history…and what some have called the single

                                        greatest assault on the Constitution. World War

                                        II resulted in enormous change on the American

                                        home front.
Transforming America   •   TA 113 – FINAL   •   Road to War    •   1/27/05     •   24

           VISUAL                                           AUDIO

   72. Adrian Lewis on Camera        ADRIAN LEWIS (16:01:23): Socially, politically,
   Super: Adrian Lewis,              economically, the United States was
   University of North Texas
                                     transformed. It was technological revolution. You
   73. Reprise images from
                                     know, the microwave oven in your kitchen right
      program: technology, women
      and minorities at work, etc.
                                     now was developed during World War Two for

                                     submarines. You’ve heard of Rosie the Riveter –

                                     that transformed America. The men went off to

                                     war, the women went to the factories. When the

                                     war came to an end and the men came back

                                     home, the women went back into the kitchen.

                                     However, their daughters did not.

                                     There was a migration of blacks out of the south.

                                     My parents moved out of Arkansas. Some of

                                     them went to Chicago where the industry was

                                     booming and then others went to Berkeley. And

                                     in the Bay Area was where they were building

                                     those liberty ships and they used to brag about

                                     how many ships they could turn out a day.

   74. Cal Christman on camera       CALVIN CHRISTMAN (10:17:13:00): Ultimately
   Super: Calvin Christman,          this migration would be important, certainly in the
   Cedar Valley College
                                     postwar period, because many of those African-
Transforming America    •   TA 113 – FINAL   •   Road to War     •   1/27/05    •   25

           VISUAL                                            AUDIO

                                      Americans would remain and thus would become

                                      a very important political voting group within the

                                      Northern and Western cities.

   75. Clay Carson on Camera          CLAYBORNE CARSON (07:13:59:): It’s during
   Super: Clayborne Carson,           this period that African-Americans become more
   Stanford University
                                      integrated in American life even as many of the

                                      aspects of segregation continue. World War II as

                                      a mobilization of the entire society brought many

                                      African-Americans closer to the mainstream,

                                      even in terms of being in the military, even as a
   76. African-Americans in the
                                      segregated military. They were at least part of

                                      the same institution that was shaping the lives of

                                      so many Americans.

   77. Don Fixico on camera           DONALD FIXICO (06:07:47): Something like
   Super: Donald Fixico,              25,000 Indians fought in World War II – Indian
   University of Kansas
                                      people fighting for the United States government.

                                      And in the process of that they changed
   78. American Indians in the
                                      attitudes. They changed the attitudes of Indian

                                      people, the federal government, of bureaucrats

                                      throughout the entire world.
Transforming America      •      TA 113 – FINAL   •   Road to War    •   1/27/05      •    26

            VISUAL                                                AUDIO

   79. Guadalupe San Miguel on             GUADALUPE SAN MIGUEL, JR. (23:12:24)
                                           We have over half a million Latinos that
Super: Guadalupe San Miguel, Jr.
  University of Houston                    participated in the war. Whether they were

                                           Puerto Rican, whether they were Cuban or
   80. Latinos in the military
                                           whether they were Mexican, and they got a new

                                           sense of pride in being American. They were

                                           being treated as equals. If you were a soldier,
   81. American soldiers of all
      persuasions, in combat, under        you followed orders and it didn’t matter who you
                                           were. What mattered was that you became part

                                           of a unit to fight the enemy and that you did

                                           everything in your power to make sure that you

                                           survived and that you accomplished the mission.

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