T R A N SF O R MIN G A ME R I C A
TITLE: Lesson 13: Road to War
PREPARED FOR: Dallas Telelearning
WRITER: Stephen Dyer
PRODUCER: Julia Dyer
DATE: January 28, 2005
Transforming America • TA 113 – FINAL • Road to War • 1/27/05 • 1
Introduction (1:48) Music Up
1. Archival motion picture of PRESIDENT FRANKLIN ROOSEVELT: I hope
the United States will keep out of this war. I
believe that it will. And I give you assurance and
reassurance that every effort of your government
will be directed toward that end.
2. Archival of FDR’s third NARRATOR: As war broke out in Europe in
1939, President Roosevelt’s private thoughts did
not mirror his public pronouncements.
Convinced the US would eventually enter
another world war, he decided to run for an
unprecedented third term as president.
3. Archival: “Dr. New Deal” His skills forged by the political fires of the Great
Depression and The New Deal, Roosevelt
believed he could best steer the ship of state in a
time of immense crisis.
4. Archival motion picture PRESIDENT FRANKLIN ROOSEVELT: We look
footage of FDR; could mix
with footage of the Germans forward to a world founded upon four essential
human freedoms. The first is freedom of speech
Transforming America • TA 113 – FINAL • Road to War • 1/27/05 • 2
and expression, everywhere in the world. The
second is freedom of every person to worship
God in his own way, everywhere in the world.
The third is freedom from want. The fourth is
freedom from fear.
5. Archival: Blitzkrieg in Poland, NARRATOR: Roosevelt knew that the Second
Japanese in Nanking
World War would be a massive, do or die conflict
between the forces of totalitarianism and
democracy. “Dr. New Deal” would have to
become “Dr. Win-the War.”
Segment #1: A Common Purpose
Learning Objective: Explain the main
features of American foreign policy
prior to the attack on Pearl Harbor
CALVIN CHRISTMAN (09:18:16:00): When
6. Cal Christman on Camera;
mix with archival motion Hitler came to power in January of 1933, he
picture of early Hitler
blamed all of Germany’s ills on three things. He
Super: Calvin Christman,
Cedar Valley College
blamed it on the Versailles Treaty. He blamed it
on the communists and he blamed it on the
Transforming America • TA 113 – FINAL • Road to War • 1/27/05 • 3
Jews. And he set out to destroy all three. Now,
that meant he wanted war because only through
war could you remake the map of Europe and
could you eradicate entire political and religious
groups. He built the finest army in the world. He
built the finest air force in the world. He
reoccupied the Rhineland. He forced the
7. GRAPHIC: Map sequence of
Europe highlighting German annexation of Austria and brought it into
Austria, Czechoslovakia. Germany.
8. Archival: Hitler and NARRATOR: Then, in 1938 Hitler demanded
Chamberlain at Munich
that Germany be allowed to annex a part of
Czechoslovakia. British Prime Minister Neville
Chamberlain, fearing another world war,
convinced the Czechs to give in. It was a
9. London Papers: Chamberlain Actor as NEVILLE CHAMBERLAIN: I believe it
returns from Munich (Does
archival footage exist for is peace in our time.
10. Cal Christman on Camera CALVIN CHRISTMAN (09:21:32:00): Britain had
given in at Munich in order to try and prevent war
and they had failed. And so after Munich, and
after Hitler took over the rest of Czechoslovakia,
Transforming America • TA 113 – FINAL • Road to War • 1/27/05 • 4
Britain came to the conclusion we have done
everything we could. Now we are going to have
11. Cal Christman on Camera; CALVIN CHRISTMAN (09:26:22:00): War
mix with footage from Poland
officially began Friday, September 1st, 1939,
12. GRAPHIC: Map of Europe when Germany invaded Poland. As a result of
highlighting the invasion of
Poland the German invasion, Britain and France then
declared war on Germany. The US declared
itself officially neutral.
13. Adrian Lewis on Camera; mix ADRIAN LEWIS (15:05:56:00): The Germans
with archival of Blitzkrieg
warfare innovated. They developed something called
Super: Adrian Lewis, Blitzkrieg operational doctrine. They massed
University of North Texas
tanks, artillery, infantry in one division. They also
added air power to this. They put it in a
command structure, gave that guy the initiative
and then let it go. It worked brilliantly.
14. Cal Christman on Camera CALVIN CHRISTMAN (09:27:11:00): By the
summer of 1940, Germany had conquered
Poland. It conquered Norway, Denmark,
Holland, Belgium and France. Britain was the
only power standing in the way of total German
Transforming America • TA 113 – FINAL • Road to War • 1/27/05 • 5
control of western and central Europe.
15. Archival motion picture WINSTON CHURCHILL: Let us, therefore,
footage if available. Radio
should be. brace ourselves to our duty, so bear ourselves
that if the British Empire and its Commonwealth
last for a thousand years, men will still say, “This
was their finest hour.”
16. Archival motion picture PRESIDENT FRANKLIN ROOSEVELT: We
footage of FDR
must be the great arsenal of democracy. For us,
17. GRAPHIC: Map showing this is an emergency as serious as war itself.
conquered Europe in relation
to the United States
18. Cal Christman on Camera CALVIN CHRISTMAN (10:00:53:00): Roosevelt
brings the United States to a position of all
possible aid to Great Britain short of actually
entering the war. November, 1939, Congress
passes a cash and carry. Then September,
1940, Roosevelt with an executive agreement
with Churchill makes his “destroyers for bases”
agreement. Then in March of 1941, Congress
passes Lend-Lease and so we incrementally
move closer and closer.
19. Adrian Lewis on Camera ADRIAN LEWIS (15:08:31:00): He understood
Transforming America • TA 113 – FINAL • Road to War • 1/27/05 • 6
long before the American people did that the
United States had to fight World War II. He
would have gotten us there one way or another.
CHARLES LINDBERGH: When England asks us
to enter this war, she is considering her own
20. Archival: protesters, NARRATOR: Not everyone agreed with
Roosevelt’s policies. Charles Lindbergh and
many others, including members of Congress,
were strong proponents of a more isolationist
21. EXPERT on Camera; CALVIN CHRISTMAN (10:03:14:00): There are
Archival: Geisel political
cartoon lampooning different groups of isolationists, different
isolationists: “Then the wolf
ate all the children, but they combinations that, for whatever reason, wanted
were foreign children, so it
didn’t matter. to stay out of European affairs and did not see
Germany as a direct threat. Because after all, the
Atlantic Ocean, the Pacific Ocean, they’re the
two greatest anti-tank ditches in the world and
they felt that we could be protected by those
Transforming America • TA 113 – FINAL • Road to War • 1/27/05 • 7
22. Archival motion pictures: NARRATOR: But with Britain on the ropes and
Germans march on Russia
Russia fighting for her very life, public sentiment
23. GRAPHIC: Map of Europe shifted from isolationism toward helping the
highlighting the invasion of
USSR Allies. To this end, Roosevelt met publicly with
Churchill to declare a common purpose.
24. Cal Christman on Camera; CALVIN CHRISTMAN (10:04:59:00): The
Archival: FDR and Churchill
meet in Canada for the Atlantic Charter meeting was held off the coast of
Canada in August of 1941. And I think there are
three reasons, or three factors, behind it. First
off, this would be the first time that President
Roosevelt and Prime Minister Winston Churchill
would be able to meet face to face since they
became the leaders of their two countries.
Second, both men bring their military staffs with
them. Some very important military staff
conversations took part at this meeting. Third,
you have the U.S. and Britain issuing a joint
statement of what they hoped the world would be
like once the war was over, that it would be a
world free from fear, free from want, free from
aggression. And I think what Roosevelt hoped,
Transforming America • TA 113 – FINAL • Road to War • 1/27/05 • 8
this would be an emotional tie of the two
countries that would bring us closer in step with
Great Britain and that would help further to
negate isolationist feelings.
25. Archival: ships in the North NARRATOR: By November 1941, the United
States was on a virtual war footing. But with all
eyes focused on Europe, it was an attack half a
26. GRAPHIC: Map moves from world away that sparked the flames of war.
Atlantic to Pacific, zooms into
Segment #2: This Means War
Learning Objective: Analyze the short
and long-term effects of the Pearl
Harbor attack on the American
people and American policy.
27. Archival footage of Pearl Music Up
Sounds of bombs falling, explosions.
28. Archival motion picture or PRESIDENT FRANKLIN ROOSEVELT:
radio address of FDR; the
bombs fly at Pearl Harbor Yesterday, December 7, 1941, a date which will
live in infamy, the United States of America was
suddenly and deliberately attacked by naval and
air forces of the Empire of Japan.
Transforming America • TA 113 – FINAL • Road to War • 1/27/05 • 9
29. Cal Christman on Camera CALVIN CHRISTMAN (10:07:33:00): Japan
Super: Calvin Christman, went to war against the United States because
Cedar Valley College
Japan wanted raw materials.
30. GRAPHIC: Map of Pacific ADRIAN LEWIS (15:11:30:00): Japan is an
showing West Coast of US,
Hawaii and Japan island nation. It is a resource poor nation. Even
Super: Adrian Lewis, today Japan depends on shipping. It depends on
University of North Texas
external resources for its oil and coal and iron
ore, etc. – all of those things that make an
industrial power run.
31. Cal Christman on Camera CALVIN CHRISTMAN (10:07:33:00): But close
by in Southeast Asia, you had British Malaya with
32. GRAPHIC: Map highlights
areas in Southeast Asia huge deposits of tin and production of rubber.
You have the Dutch East Indies with tremendous
oil production. These were materials Japan
wanted. Now that Europe was at war, Britain
could not properly protect British Malaya. The
Dutch could not protect the Dutch East Indies.
There was only one policeman in that whole area
that could possibly stop Japan from robbing the
Dutch East Indies and British Malaya. That was
the American Pacific fleet at Pearl Harbor.
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33. Akira Iriye on Camera AKIRA IRIYE (11:09:43:00): By October 1941,
Super: Akira Iriye, the Japanese leadership had decided that war
was going to come. It was inevitable with the
U.S. And therefore, if it was going to come,
Japan would have to choose the timing of its
34. Cal Christman on camera CALVIN CHRISTMAN (10:09:08) Now as far as
why we got caught by surprise, I think probably
that the key factor was yes, we knew Japan was
going to war, there was no doubt about that. But
we thought their attack would come in the
Southeast Asia area because, after all, that’s
where the raw materials were.
35. Adrian Lewis on Camera ADRIAN LEWIS (15:19:51:00): Tactically, it was
a great success. They caught the battleships
there and destroyed a number of them.
Operationally, it was a failure because the
decisive instrument for the conduct of naval
warfare was not the battleship. The aircraft
carrier is the dominant instrument for the conduct
of naval warfare. Strategically, it was a failure
Transforming America • TA 113 – FINAL • Road to War • 1/27/05 • 11
also because one of the assumptions that the
Japanese held is that Americans were weak, that
Americans lacked the moral fiber to fight the
Japanese. That was very wrong. As a matter of
fact, nothing did more to unite the United States
than the attack at Pearl Harbor.
PRESIDENT FRANKLIN ROOSEVELT: I ask
that the Congress declare a state of war between
the United States and the Japanese Empire.
36. Archival, headlines: NARRATOR: In the wake of Pearl Harbor, the
Declarations of war
United States declared war on Japan. Germany,
Japan’s ally, consequently declared war on the
U.S. Almost immediately some American troops
were flung into action.
37. Eddie Fung on camera EDDIE FUNG (07:25:44) We shipped out of
Super: Eddie Fung Honolulu on the first of December of 1941, and
when we got word that Pearl Harbor had been hit
the whole convoy was diverted to Brisbane,
38. Eddie Fung personal pics(?)
Australia. So we were the first U.S. troops on
foreign soil from the outbreak of the war.
Transforming America • TA 113 – FINAL • Road to War • 1/27/05 • 12
39. Archival footage/pics of The battalion was sent to Java to fulfill the
combat in Dutch East Indies
commitment that FDR had made to help the
Dutch defend the Dutch East Indies. The
Japanese were invading the 1st of March. Within
seven days, the Dutch decided to capitulate and
on March 8, capitulation orders came down to
surrender to the Japanese. That was when
we…the war ended for us.
40. Archival footage/pics of Allied We went up to Burma to work on a railroad to link
POWS, Burma railroad
construction (BRIDGE ON Thailand to Burma. They used 61,000 Allied
THE RIVER KWAI?)
prisoners. I weighed, probably, at least 100
pounds when I left Batavia in September of ’42
and in May of ’43 I weighed 60 pounds. Being a
prisoner of war is like being thrown into the
biggest human lottery in the world. You don’t
know what’s going to happen in the draw and
that’s the way I looked at it. You just got lucky in
Actor reading sign: All persons of Japanese
ancestry, both alien and non-alien, will be
evacuated from the above area by 12 o’clock
Transforming America • TA 113 – FINAL • Road to War • 1/27/05 • 13
noon, Saturday, May 9, 1942.
41. Archival or B-roll of the NARRATOR: While some Americans were held
prisoner by Japan, many Japanese-Americans
suffered a similar fate at home in the United
42. Alice Yang Murray on Camera ALICE YANG MURRAY (09:10:29): After Pearl
Super: Alice Yang Murray, Harbor there was obviously a great shock in this
UC Santa Cruz
country and there was genuine fear on the West
Coast that the Japanese might possibly invade.
There was hysteria and panic. And when you
combine that with the long history of anti-
Japanese sentiment, you ignited this firestorm of
hostility towards people of Japanese ancestry.
43. Archival of Internment Camps Actor as internee BEN YORITA: We could only
take what we could carry, and most of us were
carrying two suitcases or duffle bags.
44. Alice Yang Murray on ALICE YANG MURRAY (10:03:00:00): They
Camera; mix with footage of
camps, if available were tagged with a number, basically treated like
luggage, put on a bus or a train and sent to what
was called an assembly center. They were
Transforming America • TA 113 – FINAL • Road to War • 1/27/05 • 14
almost always at race tracks or old county
fairgrounds. So many people remember finding
that their new home was, in fact, a hastily
converted horse stall. People were then
transported to the more permanent war
relocation authority centers and there were ten of
those and they were almost always in desolate
and remote locations.
45. Archival: Japanese- NARRATOR: Nearly 100,000 Japanese-
Americans receive an apology
from the US government Americans were confined during World War II in
conditions that can at best be termed inadequate
and at worst cruel and destructive.
46. Archival: Japanese-American Ironically, Japanese-Americans served with great
soldiers receive combat
medals distinction in the armed forces. One combat
team became the most decorated unit in U.S.
military history for its size and length of service.
The unit received over 18,000 individual
decorations for bravery, 9,500 Purple Hearts,
seven Presidential Unit Citations, and twenty
Congressional Medals of Honor.
47. Alice Yang-Murray ALICE YANG MURRAY (10:28:36): But there
Transforming America • TA 113 – FINAL • Road to War • 1/27/05 • 15
were a lot of Japanese-Americans who had deep
wounds, deep psychological wounds, that had
been caused by the camps. The sense of shame,
this fear of being associated with the Japanese
heritage, and there were a lot of people who
thought the safest thing to do was to simply
blend in – not have ties with anyone of Japanese
ancestry, never speak the Japanese language,
never try to teach your children anything about
Japan. You have to understand, many of them
were adolescents or children and so they could
never quite cope with what had happened to
them in terms of what it meant to be an American
and what it meant to be of Japanese ancestry.
Segment #3: The Great Arsenal of
Learning Objective: Analyze the process
of wartime mobilization and its
effects on the American people (LO
48. Archival motion picture SONG (Boogie Woogie Bugle Boy): He was a
footage of FDR
famous trumpet man from out Chicago way….
Transforming America • TA 113 – FINAL • Road to War • 1/27/05 • 16
He had a boogie style that no one else could
He was the top man at his craft….but then his
number came up and he was gone with the
He’s in the army now, a blowin’ reveille….
49. David Kennedy on Camera; DAVID KENNEDY (02:05:36:00): Well, the first
archival of the great beast of
American industry--factories, and most dramatic thing to be said about
mobilization is that it ended the Depression. The
Super: David Kennedy,
Stanford University unemployment rate goes, virtually overnight, from
14-15% in 1941 to about 1%, which effectively is
no unemployment at all. It takes the war, not all
the policies of the New Deal, finally to overcome
this great, deep, protracted economic crisis.
PRESIDENT FRANKLIN ROOSEVELT: We
shall send you, in ever increasing numbers,
ships, planes, tanks, guns. That is our purpose
and our pledge.
DAVID KENNEDY: The second thing is that the
United States effects what was then called, and
Transforming America • TA 113 – FINAL • Road to War • 1/27/05 • 17
has been known in the history books ever since,
as this production miracle. It produces war
materiel on a scale and of a quantity and a
quality, for that matter, such as was virtually
unimaginable in warfare – forty billion bullets and
thousands upon thousands of long-range bomber
aircraft. It completely outfits and deploys 16
million men in the army, millions of tanks. These
production numbers are just astronomical. The
third characteristic of mobilization is that the
United States is the only belligerent in World War
II that managed not only to raise and equip a
large scale armed force, and in fact in the
process heavily equip its allies, but at the same
time to raise civilian standards of living at home.
50. Archival: the gears of industry NARRATOR: The availability of good jobs
begin to turn
shifted populations from south to north, east to
west as people followed jobs to new homes.
One unusual aspect of the economic expansion
was that it lifted everyone.
Transforming America • TA 113 – FINAL • Road to War • 1/27/05 • 18
51. Guadalupe San Miguel on GUADALUPE SAN MIGUEL, JR. (9457,
22:16:11): During the war, opportunities
Super: Guadalupe San Miguel, Jr.
University of Houston opened up in agriculture. Again, the vast number
of men employed in agriculture, including the
52. Archival ftg./pics of men
enlisting (including minority
Latino population, left and joined the armed
forces. But because of the great need for food to
53. Archival ftg./pics of minorities
including Latinas working in feed not only the American people but the
soldiers involved in the war, there was a
tremendous need for labor. And that provided
increased opportunities for people, primarily from
Mexico, to find jobs in the United States.
Because of the war effort and the manpower
needs of the country, that opened up
54. Archival ftg/pics, headlines:
Mexican-American farm opportunities in defense industries. So jobs
workers, bracero (guest
worker) program opened up for Latina females in the defense
55. Archival ftg/pics/headlines: NARRATOR: While minorities benefited from
Zoot Suit riots, Geisel
cartoons equating U.S. the economic boom, discrimination persisted.
discrimation with Nazism,
Double V campaign Pay scales were not always equal and
segregation and racial violence continued. For
African-Americans, the struggle to gain access to
Transforming America • TA 113 – FINAL • Road to War • 1/27/05 • 19
defense industry jobs was absorbed into a larger
campaign that called for a “Double Victory”.
56. Clay Carson on camera CLAYBORNE CARSON (9587, 7:16:26): There
Super: Clayborne Carson, was a feeling that you need to bring democracy
at home as well as democracy abroad. You need
to fight racism at home as well as fight against
fascism abroad. So the notion of a “Double V
Campaign” was something that encapsulated the
goals of African-Americans. It was initiated by the
Pittsburgh Courier at the beginning of the war
and became enormously popular as a way of
unifying the black population to support the war,
but to see the war as a means to making social
gains at home.
57. Archival: A. Philip Randolph NARRATOR: As the result of a landmark
negotiation with black labor leader A. Philip
Randolph, President Roosevelt issued Executive
Order 8802, which ensured job access to African-
58. Archival: A. Philip Randolph PRESIDENT FRANKLIN ROOSEVELT: In
some communities employers dislike to employ
Transforming America • TA 113 – FINAL • Road to War • 1/27/05 • 20
women. In others they are reluctant to hire
Negroes. We can no longer afford to indulge
such prejudices or practices.
SONG: Rock-a-bye my baby…
there ain’t gonna be no war….
there ain’t gonna be no war over here…
59. Archival: women in the NARRATOR: Women, too, flocked to the
workplace to replace the fifteen million men gone
to the armed forces.
60. Archival: “Rosie the Riveter (Actor as ADELE ERENBERG, aircraft
We Can Do It!!”
worker): For me defense work was the
beginning of my emancipation as a woman. For
the first time in my life I found out that I could do
something with my hands besides bake a pie.
61. Susan Hartmann on Camera; SUSAN HARTMANN (09:10:01:00): Women
Super: Susan Hartmann, got a taste of employment during the war. They
Ohio State University
liked the financial rewards. Some of them liked
the opportunity to do something besides
childcare and housework.
Transforming America • TA 113 – FINAL • Road to War • 1/27/05 • 21
SONG: We’re one for all and we’re all for one…
they’ll get a lickin’ before we’re done…
Millions of voices are ringing….
SUSAN HARTMANN: The morale was really
pretty good during World War II and one of the
ways of coping, whether it be with the separation
from husband, the increasing strain because of
working all day and then having housework at
night and on the weekends. I think they coped
with that because they really felt that they were
contributing to a war that was the right war, a
62. Archival: kids during war NARRATOR: But work did not make everything
all right. The war was a time of tremendous
disruption in family life. Couples were separated.
Children did not receive as much attention.
Every family sacrificed in some way.
63. Charlene McAden on Camera CHARLENE MCADEN (04:18:57): On
Super: Charlene McAden Saturdays, you would go around and pick up iron
or any metal and bring it to a collection agency.
64. Archival ftg./pics: wartime
rationing, conservation and
Transforming America • TA 113 – FINAL • Road to War • 1/27/05 • 22
65. Charlene McAden on camera I had two uncles that fought. Mother was very
close to her brothers and I know she worried very
much about them and was always tickled to
66. Charlene family pics of death when we got a letter from one of them and
uncles in uniform, copy of
letter from one uncle that they were okay.
DIANE SWANN-WRIGHT (10:08:13): My
Super: Dianne Swann-Wright
mother had seven brothers and six of them
served in World War II. I remember my mother
saying that there were shortages, many
shortages, during the war and that people had to
make do with what they had.
67. Vine Deloria on camera VINE DELORIA, JR. (14:05:49): First couple of
Super: Vine Deloria, Jr. years of World War II there were immense
gardens that they put in. And the bureau at Pine
68. Archival ftg/pics: victory
gardens Ridge would just plow 40, 50 acres and then
people would go in and pick a plot and then
69. Deloria family pics: Vine
Deloria Sr. in priest robes, they’d all be growing vegetables and it was, all of
a sudden, you’re solving some food problems.
But church services…my father couldn’t get
enough gas to drive around and hold service.
Transforming America • TA 113 – FINAL • Road to War • 1/27/05 • 23
70. Vine Deloria on Camera The war was really hard on him, the trauma of
these caskets coming back…having to console
the family and a…he was football coach at Martin
for two years so, you know, there were kids that
just a couple years ago he was teaching how to
throw a football and they’re coming back dead
now. So it gets, I think, very emotional for me to
Summary: It Didn’t Matter
Who You Were (3:04)
Learning Objective: Assess how
wartime mobilization shaped modern
71. Archival: the battleships burn Music up
at Pearl Harbor, industry at
full capacity, and the
internment camps NARRATOR: The first foreign military attack on
American territory since 1812…the most
dramatic economic expansion in American
history…and what some have called the single
greatest assault on the Constitution. World War
II resulted in enormous change on the American
Transforming America • TA 113 – FINAL • Road to War • 1/27/05 • 24
72. Adrian Lewis on Camera ADRIAN LEWIS (16:01:23): Socially, politically,
Super: Adrian Lewis, economically, the United States was
University of North Texas
transformed. It was technological revolution. You
73. Reprise images from
know, the microwave oven in your kitchen right
program: technology, women
and minorities at work, etc.
now was developed during World War Two for
submarines. You’ve heard of Rosie the Riveter –
that transformed America. The men went off to
war, the women went to the factories. When the
war came to an end and the men came back
home, the women went back into the kitchen.
However, their daughters did not.
There was a migration of blacks out of the south.
My parents moved out of Arkansas. Some of
them went to Chicago where the industry was
booming and then others went to Berkeley. And
in the Bay Area was where they were building
those liberty ships and they used to brag about
how many ships they could turn out a day.
74. Cal Christman on camera CALVIN CHRISTMAN (10:17:13:00): Ultimately
Super: Calvin Christman, this migration would be important, certainly in the
Cedar Valley College
postwar period, because many of those African-
Transforming America • TA 113 – FINAL • Road to War • 1/27/05 • 25
Americans would remain and thus would become
a very important political voting group within the
Northern and Western cities.
75. Clay Carson on Camera CLAYBORNE CARSON (07:13:59:): It’s during
Super: Clayborne Carson, this period that African-Americans become more
integrated in American life even as many of the
aspects of segregation continue. World War II as
a mobilization of the entire society brought many
African-Americans closer to the mainstream,
even in terms of being in the military, even as a
76. African-Americans in the
segregated military. They were at least part of
the same institution that was shaping the lives of
so many Americans.
77. Don Fixico on camera DONALD FIXICO (06:07:47): Something like
Super: Donald Fixico, 25,000 Indians fought in World War II – Indian
University of Kansas
people fighting for the United States government.
And in the process of that they changed
78. American Indians in the
attitudes. They changed the attitudes of Indian
people, the federal government, of bureaucrats
throughout the entire world.
Transforming America • TA 113 – FINAL • Road to War • 1/27/05 • 26
79. Guadalupe San Miguel on GUADALUPE SAN MIGUEL, JR. (23:12:24)
We have over half a million Latinos that
Super: Guadalupe San Miguel, Jr.
University of Houston participated in the war. Whether they were
Puerto Rican, whether they were Cuban or
80. Latinos in the military
whether they were Mexican, and they got a new
sense of pride in being American. They were
being treated as equals. If you were a soldier,
81. American soldiers of all
persuasions, in combat, under you followed orders and it didn’t matter who you
were. What mattered was that you became part
of a unit to fight the enemy and that you did
everything in your power to make sure that you
survived and that you accomplished the mission.