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									LOG-IN Africa e-Local Governance International
                 Conference

Overview of LOG-IN Africa and Outline of e-Local
             Governance Roadmap

       Giza, Cairo, Egypt, June 5-6, 2008

  Prof. Timothy Waema, waema@uonbi.ac.ke
                                                 1
                     Agenda
1. Organizing framework
2. Where are we?
   2.1   General national context
   2.2   National context enablers and obstacles
   2.3   Local government challenges
   2.4   Summary of findings
3. Draft Roadmap
   3.1   Vision
   3.2   Strategies
   3.3   Business process re-engineering
   3.4   e-Local governance implementation
   3.5   Monitoring and evaluation
4. Conclusions
5. Summary draft roadmap
                                                   2
         1. Organizing framework
     Questions                      Outline description
1. Where are we?      Assessment of the existing e-governance
                      context at the national and local government
                      levels
2. Where do we want An expression of the overall African countries
   to go?           should aim at with respect to e-local
                    governance in the longer term - vision
3. HOW do we get      - Developing a set of suitable strategies of how
   there?             to address the key issues from the
                      assessment of e-governance context and to
                      meet the vision
                      - Methodologies and tools that are useful in
                      the implementation of e-governance projects
                      and to accomplish the vision
4. How do we know     Monitoring and evaluation framework for the
   we are getting     implementation of e-local governance projects
   there or not?                                                     3
2. Where are we?



                   4
2.1 General national context



                               5
     Overview of LOG-IN countries
      Country         WB GNI        ITU’s ICT       2008 UN e-Government
                       classif      Opportunity         readiness (2005)
                       ication         Index
                                                  Ranking          Index
1.    Egypt          LMC         Medium Average   79 (99)     0.4767 (0.3793)
2.    Ethiopia       LIC         Low Average      172 (170)   0.1857 (0.1360)
3.    Ghana          LIC         Low Average      138 (133)   0.2997 (0.2866)
4.    Kenya          LIC         Low Average      122 (122)   0.3474 (0.3298)
5.    Mauritius      UMC         Upper Average    63 (52)     0.5086 (0.5317)
6.    Morocco        LMC         Medium Average   140 (138)   0.2944 (0.2774)
7.    Mozambique     LIC         Low Average      152 (146)   0.2559 (0.2448)
8.    South Africa   UMC         Medium Average   61 (58)     0.5115 (0.5075)
9.    Uganda         LIC         Low Average      133 (125)   0.3133 (0.3081)


                                                                            6
Africa e-Government readiness




                                7
                     Observations
   Ma & RSA (UMICs) have the best e-Government readiness and
    perform equally well on the ITU IOI
   RSA leads the SA region, with a strong online presence
   Ma continues to lead the EA countries with respect to e-
    Government readiness
   Exception for Ma & Se, all the other countries in EA region had
    low infrastructure scores, which reduced their overall e-Gov
    index
   Eg (LMIC) performs well on the e-Government readiness (in the
    top 80) and continues to lead the NA countries
   Eg also scored high in the web measure index (0.6054), ranking
    28th globally
   Mo (similar to Eg with respect to GNI and IOC) performs rather
    poorly on the e-Government ranking, much like the LICs
   WA region had the lowest regional index in the survey. Gh was
    ranked 3rd after Cape Verde and Ni
   Majority of WA countries continue to lag at the bottom because
    of low scores on education, infrastructure and web
    measurement indices                                             8
2.2 National context
enablers & obstacles



                       9
            Enabling contexts
   Recognition that ICT are strategic resources –
    critical for development
   Existence of governance policy framework –
    public sector/LG reform
   Existence of national ICT policy and/or e-
    government strategy
   Alignment of e-government strategy to national
    ICT policy, governance policy and national
    development
   Existence of a government agency in charge of
    ICT
   Support by development partners
   Successful roll out of e-government pilots     10
            Constraining contexts
   Techno-centric contexts
       Inadequate/poor quality ICT infrastructure
       Inadequate/inappropriate infostructure
       Lack of/inadequate basic, technical and managerial
        ICT skills
       Inadequate ICT funding
       Inability by citizens to afford ICT equipment and
        services
   Governance-centric contexts
       Centralization of government
       Inadequate political will
       Lack of/inadequate promotion of e-government
        projects
       Inappropriate governance structures for
        implementation coordination
       Lack of legal framework                              11
                  1. Inadequate ICT
                       resource
8. Resistance                                2. Low
                      allocation
to change                                 e-readiness




                                          3. Lack of
7. No BP          2.3 Key LG             governance
re-               challenges              structures
engineering



6. Lack of ICT                        4. Unaffordability
policy/strategy    5. Limited ICT          of ICT
                  human capacities
                        1. Reliance on
                     external consultants
 8. Websites                                     2. Mixed
                         & contractors
 at publishing                               effects on good
     stage                                     governance



                     2.4 Summary               3. Central
  7. Content                                  dependency
inappropriate,
                           of
  socially “in-         Findings
accessible” ...


     6. Some                                4. Unsatisfactory
  beginning to         5. Focus on              technical
provide e-services   e-administration             quality
3. The Draft Roadmap



                       14
                    3.1 Vision

   Answers the question “Why”?

   Vision:

       e-Government implementation resulting in
        good local governance outcomes and
        contributing to local economic and social
        development



                                                    15
             3.2 Strategies for:
   High quality national backbone infrastructure
   Developing an enabling national governance policy
    framework
   Developing e-Governance strategy at national & local
    levels and ensuring alignment
   ICT human resources capacity development
   Financial resources allocation for LGs and ICT at
    national & local levels
   Increasing affordability
   Nurturing political will
   Increasing communication
   Business process re-design
   e-Governance projects management
                                                           16
                       3.3 BPR
   Undesirable to automate inefficient manual or
    semi-automated systems
   Recommend adopt a standard business
    process mapping methodology
   Recommend adopt and adapt the Egyptian
    team’s business process mapping
    methodology and tool for complex e-
    Governance projects. Advantages include:
       Standards
       Available documentation
       Appropriateness – developed with local context in
        mind
       Minimal cost                                        17
3.4 Deployment methodology
      Create & sustain         Vision, e-champions,
    favourable conditions      stakeholders




                            Updated vision, expected
          Inception         outcomes & outputs,
                            system quality attributes



       Development
       & deployment

                             Actual outcomes,
   Systematic assessment     governance
    of project outcomes      enhancements, system
                             quality attributes 18
    3.5 Monitoring & evaluation
   Adopt the LOG-IN Africa e-Local governance
    assessment framework:
       Create the outcome and output indicators at project
        planning
       Use the indicators to monitor progress and evaluate

   Involvement of policy makers in establishing
    the outcome indicators and in M&E

   Citizen participation at all stages of M&E



                                                          19
                    4. Conclusions
   National context was both enabling and constraining
       Common enabling contexts included recognition that ICTs are
        crucial for development, supportive ICT policy/e-govt strategy
        frameworks, successful e-govt pilots, decentralization policy,
        etc.
       Constraining contexts are both governance-centric (e.g.
        centralization of govt, political will) and techno-centric (ICT
        infrastructure, ICT training)
   Varied levels and effects of decentralization of
    government
   Poor e-readiness of LGs and local communities
   Focus on e-administration with static & socially
    “inaccessible” content
   Mixed results on the effects of ICTs on good
    governance – from no effect to some effect
                                                                      20
       5. Summary draft roadmap
   Development of an e-Governance strategic direction that is
    aligned to the wider governance reform programme, national
    development plan and national ICT policy and cascaded to
    the LG level
   Development of good governance outcome indicators for e-
    Governance projects as part of project planning
   Re-engineering business processes for the priority e-Local
    governance projects to be implemented using a specific
    business process mapping methodology. To this end, the
    Egyptian LOG-IN Africa team has developed a BPM
    methodology and tool that can used by other governments
   Rolling out the e-Local governance projects using an
    adapted version of the iterative four-stage e-Governance
    implementation framework that has been tried and tested by
    the Moroccan LOG-IN Africa team
   Using the M&E methodology that has been developed to
    monitor and evaluate the implementation of projects
   Ensuring participation of policy makers and citizens in all the
                                                                21
    above activities
Thank
 you
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