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					Urban challenge

College 2

European medieval cities

c.1000 CE onwards; Renaissance trading towns; centres of commerce, culture and
community; walled cities; churches spiritual needs, social ritual and community unity;
islands of freedom in seas of feudal obligation

Renaissance

The Renaissance (French for "rebirth"; Italian: Rinascimento, from ri- "again" and
nascere "be born") was a cultural movement that spanned roughly the 14th to the 17th
century, beginning in Florence in the Late Middle Ages and later spreading to the rest of
Europe. The term is also used more loosely to refer to the historic era, but since the
changes of the Renaissance were not uniform across Europe, this is a general use of the
term. As a cultural movement, it encompassed a resurgence of learning based on
classical sources, the development of linear perspective in painting, and gradual but
widespread educational reform. Traditionally, this intellectual transformation has resulted
in the Renaissance being viewed as a bridge between the Middle Ages and the Modern
era. Although the Renaissance saw revolutions in many intellectual pursuits, as well as
social and political upheaval, it is perhaps best known for its artistic developments and
the contributions of such polymaths as Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo, who inspired
the term "Renaissance man".

There is a general, but not unchallenged, consensus that the Renaissance began in
Florence, Tuscany in the 14th century. Various theories have been proposed to account
for its origins and characteristics, focusing on a variety of factors including the social and
civic peculiarities of Florence at the time; its political structure; the patronage of its
dominant family, the Medici; and the migration of Greek scholars and texts to Italy
following the Fall of Constantinople at the hands of the Ottoman Turks.

Industrial cities

European imperial expansion; capitalist industrialization; division advanced nations and
rest, also social order capital and labour; cities new industrial centres and dismal
concentrations of factories, poverty and slum destitution

Suburbanization and technoburbs

White (middle class) flight; socio-spatial segregation; social disharmony and class
conflict; “edge cities” and new hi-tech “technoburbs”

Suburbanization

Suburbanization (or suburbanisation) is a term used to describe the growth of areas on
the fringes of major cities. It is one of the many causes of the increase in urban sprawl.
Many residents of metropolitan areas no longer live and work within the central urban
area, choosing instead to live in satellite communities called suburbs and commute to
work via automobile or mass transit. Others have taken advantage of technological
advances to work from their homes, and chose to do so in an environment they consider
more pleasant than the city. These processes often occur in more economically
developed countries, especially in the United States, which is believed to be the first
country in which the majority of the population lives in the suburbs, rather than in the
cities or in rural areas. Proponents of containing urban sprawl argue that sprawl leads to
urban decay and a concentration of lower income residents in the inner city.

White flight

White flight is the sociologic and demographic term denoting the trend wherein white
people flee desegregated urban communities, and move to other places like commuter
towns; although an American coinage, “white flight” denotes like behavior in other
countries. In the U.S. the Brown v. Board of Education (1954) decision of the Supreme
Court — ordering the de jure racial desegregation of public schools in the United States
— was and remains a major factor propelling white flight from mixed-race cities.

The business practices of redlining, mortgage discrimination, and racially-restrictive
covenants accelerated white flight to the suburbs. The denying of banking and insurance
and other social services or the exorbitant prices of said services increased their cost to
residents in predominantly non-white suburbs and city neighborhoods. Furthermore, the
historical processes of suburbanization and urban decentralization are instances of white
privilege contributing to contemporary environmental racism.

Urban sprawl

Urban sprawl, also known as suburban sprawl, is the spreading outwards of a city and its
suburbs over rural land and to its outskirts. The problem with urban sprawl is that it is
costly to initiate the development of new infrastructure adequate enough to support its
residents. As a result, suburbanization generally results in low livability due to: (1) Long
transport distances to work (2) Low-density housing (3) Inadequate facilities eg: health,
recreational, entertainment. etc.

The term urban sprawl generally has negative connotations due to the health and
environmental issues that sprawl creates. Residents of sprawling neighborhoods tend to
emit more pollution per person and suffer more traffic fatalities. Sprawl is controversial,
with supporters claiming that consumers prefer lower density neighborhoods and that
sprawl does not necessarily increase traffic. Sprawl is also linked with increased obesity
since walking and bicycling are not viable commuting options. Sprawl negatively impacts
land and water quantity and quality, and may be linked to a decline in social capital.

College 3

Ebenezer Howard

Sir Ebenezer Howard (29 January 1850 – May 1 1928) is known for his publication
Garden Cities of To-morrow (1898), the description of a utopian city in which man lives
harmoniously together with the rest of nature. The publication led to the founding of the
Garden city movement, that realized several Garden Cities in Great Britain at the
beginning of the Twentieth Century.

Garden Cities Movement

The Garden city movement is an approach to urban planning that was founded in 1898
by Sir Ebenezer Howard in the United Kingdom. Garden cities were intended to be
planned, self-contained, communities surrounded by greenbelts, containing carefully
balanced areas of residences, industry, and agriculture.

Inspired by the Utopian novel Looking Backward, Howard published his book To-morrow:
a Peaceful Path to Real Reform in 1898 (which was reissued in 1902 as Garden Cities of
To-morrow). His idealised garden city would house 32,000 people on a site of 6,000
acres (24,000,000 m2), planned on a concentric pattern with open spaces, public parks
and six radial boulevards, 120 ft (37 m) wide, extending from the centre. The garden city
would be self-sufficient and when it reached full population, a further garden city would
be developed nearby. Howard envisaged a cluster of several garden cities as satellites of
a central city of 50,000 people, linked by road and rail.

Le Corbusier

Charles-Édouard Jeanneret-Gris, who chose to be known as Le Corbusier (October 6,
1887 – August 27, 1965), was a Swiss-French architect, designer, urbanist, writer and
also painter, who is famous for being one of the pioneers of what now is called Modern
architecture or the International Style via the principles of the International Congress of
Modern Architecture (CIAM). He was born in Switzerland, but became a French citizen in
his 30s.

He was a pioneer in studies of modern high design and was dedicated to providing better
living conditions for the residents of crowded cities. His career spanned five decades, with
his buildings constructed throughout central Europe, India, Russia, and one each in North
and South America. He was also an urban planner, painter, sculptor, writer, and modern
furniture designer

Broadacre City plan

Broadacre City was an urban or suburban development concept proposed by Frank Lloyd
Wright late in his life. He presented the idea in his article The Disappearing City in 1932.
A few years later he unveiled a very detailed twelve by twelve foot (3.7 by 3.7 m) scale
model representing an hypothetical four square mile (10 km²) community. The model
was crafted by the student interns who worked for him at Taliesin. Wright would go on
refining the concept in later books and in articles until his death in 1959. Many of the
building models in the concept were completely new designs by Wright, while others
were refinements of old ones, some of which had been rarely seen.

Broadacre City was the antithesis of a city and the apotheosis of the newly born
suburbia, shaped through Wright's particular vision. It was both a planning statement
and a socio-political scheme by which each U.S. family would be given a one acre (4,000
m²) plot of land from the federal lands reserves, and a Wright-conceived community
would be built anew from this. In a sense it was the exact opposite of transit-oriented
development. There is a train station and a few office and apartment buildings in
Broadacre City, but the apartment dwellers are expected to be a small minority. All
important transport is done by automobile and the pedestrian can exist safely only within
the confines of the one acre (4,000 m²) plots where most of the population dwells.

New urbanism

New Urbanism is an urban design movement, which promotes walkable neighborhoods
that contain a range of housing and job types. It arose in the United States in the early
1980s and continues to reform many aspects of real estate development and urban
planning. New Urbanism is strongly influenced by urban design standards prominent
before the rise of the automobile and encompasses principles such as traditional
neighborhood design (TND) and transit-oriented development (TOD). It is also closely
related to Regionalism, Environmentalism and the broader concept of smart growth. A
more ecology and pedestrian-oriented variant is New Pedestrianism.

The organizing body for New Urbanism is the Congress for the New Urbanism, founded in
1993. Its foundational text is the Charter of the New Urbanism.,

New urbanists support regional planning for open space, context-appropriate architecture
and planning, and the balanced development of jobs and housing. They believe their
strategies can reduce traffic congestion, increase the supply of affordable housing, and
rein in urban sprawl. The Charter of the New Urbanism also covers issues such as historic
preservation, safe streets, green building, and the redevelopment of brownfield land.

Market Street, downtown Celebration, Florida, US

Celebration, Florida is a census-designated place and an unincorporated master-planned
community in Osceola County in the U.S. state of Florida, near Walt Disney World Resort.
It was developed by The Walt Disney Company. Celebration is part of the Orlando–
Kissimmee Metropolitan Statistical Area.

.

College 4

Utopia is a name for an ideal community or society, that is taken from Of the Best State
of a Republic, and of the New Island Utopia, a book written in 1516 by Sir Thomas More
describing a fictional island in the Atlantic Ocean, possessing a seemingly perfect socio-
politico-legal system. The term has been used to describe both intentional communities
that attempted to create an ideal society, and fictional societies portrayed in literature.
"Utopia" is sometimes used pejoratively, in reference to an unrealistic ideal that is
impossible to achieve. It has spawned other concepts, most prominently dystopia. The
word comes from the Greek: οὐ, "not", and τόπος, "place", indicating that More was
utilizing the concept as allegory and did not consider such an ideal place to be
realistically possible. The homophone Eutopia, derived from the Greek εu, "good" or
"well", and τόπος, "place", signifies a double meaning that was almost certainly intended.
Despite this, most modern usage of the term "Utopia" assumes the latter meaning, that
of a place of perfection rather than nonexistence.

3. New Urbanism is an urban design movement, which promotes walkable neighborhoods
that contain a range of housing and job types. It arose in the United States in the early
1980s and continues to reform many aspects of real estate development and urban
planning. New Urbanism is strongly influenced by urban design standards prominent
before the rise of the automobile and encompasses principles such as traditional
neighborhood design (TND) and transit-oriented development (TOD). It is also closely
related to Regionalism and Environmentalism.

Urban sociology and culture

       The people are the city” (Shakespeare), not just form and design of built
        environment
      People’s individual aspirations, collection struggles, everyday lives and moments
       of enlightenment/ heightened awareness

      Subtle and changing relations society, community and culture in cities

      Sociology “science of society”, also anthropology, cultural studies, social theory,
       parallel to rise of industrial cities



Whose culture? Whos city?

Sharon Zukin: The Cultures of Cities (1995)

High culture and street cultures of cities: ethnicity, aesthetic and marketing tool

Urban political economy and symbolic economy of tourism, media and entertainment

NYC, privatization of public spaces

Clashes between middle-class whites and homeless, poor minority ethnic groups

Bryant Park, Manhattan: private non-profit managed park to “remove” homeless
panhandlers and drug dealers

Erosion of democratic public spaces of modernity

Conclusion:

      Cities as hubs of high class and street/ popular cultures

      People make cities; centrality of the human spirit in shaping what cities are

      Diverse social identities in cities: class, race, ethnicity, gender, sexuality etc.

      Contested cultures: poverty, underclass and social interaction in the urban
       context



College 5

Urban sustainability

Sustainability

Sustainability, in a broad sense, is the capacity to endure. In ecology, the word describes
how biological systems remain diverse and productive over time. For humans it is the
potential for long-term maintenance of wellbeing, which in turn depends on the wellbeing
of the natural world and the responsible use of natural resources.

Sustainability has become a wide-ranging term that can be applied to almost every facet
of life on Earth, from a local to a global scale and over various time periods. Long-lived
and healthy wetlands and forests are examples of sustainable biological systems.
Invisible chemical cycles redistribute water, oxygen, nitrogen and carbon through the
world's living and non-living systems, and have sustained life for millions of years. As the
earth’s human population has increased, natural ecosystems have declined and changes
in the balance of natural cycles has had a negative impact on both humans and other
living systems.

There is now abundant scientific evidence that humanity is living unsustainably.
Returning human use of natural resources to within sustainable limits will require a major
collective effort. Ways of living more sustainably can take many forms from reorganising
living conditions (e.g., ecovillages, eco-municipalities and sustainable cities),
reappraising economic sectors (permaculture, green building, sustainable agriculture), or
work practices (sustainable architecture), using science to develop new technologies
(green technologies, renewable energy), to adjustments in individual lifestyles.

Sustainable development

      Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present
       without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs

      The Brundtland Commission

Staat heel goede op de powerpoint over Klimaat congres van Kopenhagen voor meer info
kijk op de pp.

      Concept of a sustainable city, or eco-city, is one designed with consideration of
       environmental impact, inhabited by people dedicated to minimisation of required
       inputs of energy, water and food, and waste output of heat, air pollution - CO2,
       methane, and water pollution

      Pollution

      Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into an environment that causes
       instability, disorder, harm or discomfort to the ecosystem i.e. physical systems or
       living organisms. Pollution can take the form of chemical substances, or energy,
       such as noise, heat, or light. Pollutants, the elements of pollution, can be foreign
       substances or energies, or naturally occurring; when naturally occurring, they are
       considered contaminants when they exceed natural levels. Pollution is often
       classed as point source or nonpoint source pollution. The Blacksmith Institute
       issues annually a list of the world's worst polluted places. In the 2007 issues the
       ten top nominees are located in Azerbaijan, China, India, Peru, Russia, Ukraine
       and Zambia



   A sustainable city can feed itself with minimal reliance on the surrounding
   countryside, and power itself with renewable sources of energy



   Alternative energy

      Creating the smallest possible ecological footprint, and to produce the lowest
       quantity of pollution possible, to efficiently use land; compost used materials,
       recycle it or convert waste-to-energy, limiting city’s contribution to climate change

   Ecological footprint
      The ecological footprint is a measure of human demand on the Earth's
       ecosystems. It compares human demand with planet Earth's ecological capacity to
       regenerate. It represents the amount of biologically productive land and sea area
       needed to regenerate the resources a human population consumes and to absorb
       and render harmless the corresponding waste. Using this assessment, it is
       possible to estimate how much of the Earth (or how many planet Earths) it would
       take to support humanity if everybody lived a given lifestyle. For 2005,
       humanity's total ecological footprint was estimated at 1.3 planet Earths - in other
       words, humanity uses ecological services 1.3 times as fast as Earth can renew
       them. Every year, this number is recalculated - with a three year lag due to the
       time it takes for the UN to collect and publish all the underlying statistics.

      While the term ecological footprint is widely used, methods of measurement vary.
       However, calculation standards are now emerging to make results more
       comparable and consistent.



Recycling

Recycling involves processing used materials into new products to prevent waste of
potentially useful materials, reduce the consumption of fresh raw materials, reduce
energy usage, reduce air pollution (from incineration) and water pollution (from
landfilling) by reducing the need for "conventional" waste disposal, and lower greenhouse
gas emissions as compared to virgin production. Recycling is a key component of modern
waste management and is the third component of the "Reduce, Reuse, Recycle" waste
hierarchy.

Recyclable materials include many kinds of glass, paper, metal, plastic, textiles, and
electronics. Although similar in effect, the composting or other reuse of biodegradable
waste – such as food or garden waste – is not typically considered recycling.[2] Materials
to be recycled are either brought to a collection center or picked up from the curbside,
then sorted, cleaned, and reprocessed into new materials bound for manufacturing.

In a strict sense, recycling of a material would produce a fresh supply of the same
material, for example used office paper to more office paper, or used foamed polystyrene
to more polystyrene. However, this is often difficult or too expensive (compared with
producing the same product from raw materials or other sources), so "recycling" of many
products or materials involves their reuse in producing different materials (e.g.,
cardboard) instead. Another form of recycling is the salvage of certain materials from
complex products, either due to their intrinsic value (e.g., lead from car batteries, or gold
from computer components), or due to their hazardous nature (e.g., removal and reuse
of mercury from various items).

Critics dispute the net economic and environmental benefits of recycling over its costs,
and suggest that proponents of recycling often make matters worse and suffer from
confirmation bias. Specifically, critics argue that the costs and energy used in collection
and transportation detract from (and outweigh) the costs and energy saved in the
production process; also that the jobs produced by the recycling industry can be a poor
trade for the jobs lost in logging, mining, and other industries associated with virgin
production; and that materials such as paper pulp can only be recycled a few times
before material degradation prevents further recycling. Proponents of recycling dispute
each of these claims, and the validity of arguments from both sides has led to enduring
controversy.

      Around 50% of the world’s population now lives in cities and urban areas, which
       are essentially unsustainable thus providing challenges for environmentally
       conscious planning and development

      Sustainable design

Sustainable design (also called environmental design, environmentally sustainable
design, environmentally-conscious design, etc) is the philosophy of designing physical
objects, the built environment and services to comply with the principles of economic,
social, and ecological sustainability. The intention of sustainable design is to "eliminate
negative environmental impact completely through skillful, sensitive design".
Manifestations of sustainable designs require no non-renewable resources, impact on the
environment minimally, and relate people with the natural environment. Applications of
this philosophy range from the microcosm — small objects for everyday use, through to
the macrocosm — buildings, cities, and the earth's physical surface. It is a philosophy
that can be applied in the fields of architecture, landscape architecture, urban design,
urban planning, engineering, graphic design, industrial design, interior design, and
fashion design.

Sustainable design is mostly a general reaction to global environmental crises, the rapid
growth of economic activity and human population, depletion of natural resources,
damage to ecosystems and loss of biodiversity. The limits of sustainable design are
reducing. Whole earth impacts are beginning to be considered because growth in goods
and services is consistently outpacing gains in efficiency. As a result, the net effect of
sustainable design to date has been to simply improve the efficiency of rapidly increasing
impacts. The present approach, which focuses on the efficiency of delivering individual
goods and services does not solve this problem. The basic dilemmas include: the
increasing complexity of efficiency improvements, the difficulty of implementing new
technologies in societies built around old ones, that physical impacts of delivering goods
and services are not localized but distributed throughout the economies, and that the
scale of resource uses is growing and not stabilizing.



New Urbanism

New Urbanism is an urban design movement, which promotes walkable neighborhoods
that contain a range of housing and job types. It arose in the United States in the early
1980s and continues to reform many aspects of real estate development and urban
planning. New Urbanism is strongly influenced by urban design standards prominent
before the rise of the automobile and encompasses principles such as traditional
neighborhood design (TND) and transit-oriented development (TOD). It is also closely
related to Regionalism and Environmentalism.

The organizing body for New Urbanism is the Congress for the New Urbanism, founded in
1993. Its foundational text is the Charter of the New Urbanism, which says: “We
advocate the restructuring of public policy and development practices to support the
following principles: neighborhoods should be diverse in use and population;
communities should be designed for the pedestrian and transit as well as the car; cities
and towns should be shaped by physically defined and universally accessible public
spaces and community institutions; urban places should be framed by architecture and
landscape design that celebrate local history, climate, ecology, and building practice.”

New urbanists support regional planning for open space, context-appropriate architecture
and planning, and the balanced development of jobs and housing. They believe their
strategies can reduce traffic congestion, increase the supply of affordable housing, and
rein in urban sprawl. The Charter of the New Urbanism also covers issues such as historic
preservation, safe streets, green building, and the redevelopment of brownfield land



Smart growth

Smart growth is an urban planning and transportation theory that concentrates growth in
the center of a city to avoid urban sprawl; and advocates compact, transit-oriented,
walkable, bicycle-friendly land use, including neighborhood schools, complete streets,
and mixed-use development with a range of housing choices.

Smart growth values long-range, regional considerations of sustainability over a short-
term focus. Its goals are to achieve a unique sense of community and place; expand the
range of transportation, employment, and housing choices; equitably distribute the costs
and benefits of development; preserve and enhance natural and cultural resources; and
promote public health.



Conclusion

      Introduction to concept of urban sustainability and ecocities, with examples

      Links to urban planning practice: sustainable design, new urbanism, smart growth

      Political sensitivites on global stage, tensions between North and South

Deel 2 gaat over de stad Calgary voor alles kijk maar op powerpoint

      Canada’s fourth largest and most rapidly growing city

      Highest per capita income in Canada: $47,178 in 2006

      Oil and gas industry accounted for 53% of the Alberta economy (direct and
       multiplier effects) in 2004

      Oil and gas drives the Calgary economy

Costs of growth

      Longer commutes

      More traffic congestion

      $10.4 billion infrastructure deficit
      Rising infrastructure and operating costs, leading to higher taxes (23% increase in
       property taxes, over 3 years, proposed in 2008)

      Rising cost of housing (new housing prices up 65% from 2005 to 2007; highest
       rental housing costs in Canada)

      Rising homelessness (over 4000 people homeless in 2009; 19% of all households
       at risk in 2006)

      Difficulty attracting sufficient labour

      Ecological footprint estimated at 9.9 global hectares per person—highest in
       Canada (1.9 ha/person available globally)

      Calgary produces 17.7 tonnes of carbon dioxide per capita, ranking it fifth-highest
       in a 2010 comparison of 50 global cities

      Declining quality of life Is This Sustainable?

Voor meer check pp.



College 6a Beaumont

   1. Sustainable development

Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without
compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs (The Brundtland
Commission); Refer also to the points made in Levente’s lecture

2. Characteristics of an ecocity

These ecological cities are achieved through various means, such as:

   * Different agricultural systems such as agricultural plots within the city (suburbs or
centre). This reduces the distance food has to travel from field to fork. Practical work out
of this may be done by either small scale/private farming plots or through larger scale
agriculture (eg farmscrapers).

   * Renewable energy sources, such as wind turbines, solar panels, or bio-gas created
from sewage. Cities provide economies of scale that make such energy sources viable.

   * Various methods to reduce the need for air conditioning (a massive energy
demand), such as planting trees and lightening surface colors, natural ventilation
systems, an increase in water features, and green spaces equaling at least 20% of the
city's surface. These measures counter the "heat island effect" caused by an abundance
of tarmac and asphalt, which can make urban areas several degrees warmer than
surrounding rural areas—as much as six degrees Celsius during the evening.

   * Improved public transport and an increase in pedestrianization to reduce car
emissions. This requires a radically different approach to city planning, with integrated
business, industrial, and residential zones. Roads may be designed to make driving
difficult.
   * Optimal building density to make public transport viable but avoid the creation of
urban heat islands.

   * Solutions to decrease urban sprawl, by seeking new ways of allowing people to live
closer to the workspace. Since the workplace tends to be in the city, downtown, or urban
center, they are seeking a way to increase density by changing the antiquated attitudes
many suburbanites have towards inner-city areas. One of the new ways to achieve this is
by solutions worked out by the Smart Growth Movement.

  * Green roofs

  * Zero-emission transport

  * Zero-energy building

  * Sustainable urban drainage systems or SUDS

  * energy conservation systems/devices

  * Xeriscaping - garden and landscape design for water conservation

3. Implications for urban planning

Sustainable design

New urbanism

Smart growth




Planning for sustainability in European cities

      Timothy Beatley (2003)

      The Sustainable Urban Development Reader

      Prof. urban planning, University of Virginia, US

      Green urbanism

      Planning for sustainability

      European cities

Argument

      Hard evidence European cities

      Compact, walkable, energy-efficient, green communities can be created

      Cities that are sustainable, livable and also economically viable

      Against largely US view that these qualities are “nice” but not possible
       economically
Features

      Policies to limit/ restrict sprawl

      Accepting higher density developments (compared to US urban/ suburban areas)

      New developments adjacent to exisiting urban areas

      Fostering urban development and industrial reuse

      Higher density makes possible more efficient public transit and energy systems,
       and facilitates pedestrian spaces

Points to consider

      Growing car use and large ecological footprints of European cities: threats to
       future viability?

      Crucial role of municipatities in green urbanism

      Key role of partnerships between diverse stakeholders in green urbanism

      Political economy of sustainability and differences in governance arrangements

      Political culture, openness to green politics and stronger planning and land-use
       control systems

Great attractiveness of urban living in Europe

College 6b Levente Ronczyk PhD,

   •   Urbanization processes today are different from the urban transitions of the past:

           –   Magnitude:

                     •   ~3.5 billion people live in urban areas (UN 2009)

           –   Speed:

                     •   2000, 2.86 billion       2030, 5 billion (UN 2009)

           –   Quality:

                     •   One-third of all urban households in the world live in absolute
                         poverty (UN 2002).

The characteristic of urban development

   •   The European city is a social-oriented city, where individual productivity defined a
       person’s social status within the community.

   •   Urbanization was triggered by industrialization, which resulted a new distribution
       of population in the space and in the society.

   •   Industrial urbanisation resulted compact cities.
   •   The increasing personal mobility (automobile, public transport) led to spatial
       expansion of settlements.




   •   There was no longer necessary to live and work in the same place.

   •   Due to the mobility the spatial representation of society emerged.

   •   The evolved socio-spatial structures had massive influence on the housing market
       and caused unrest and new social and environmental problems in the cities.

   •   Socio-political concepts made an appearance on the urban planning, and tried to
       protect housing market from the market forces:

       - Social or council housing

          –   Renovation and up valued by development new service subcenters,
              creation of new function.

          –   Social jobs were created for the former worker class, who lost their jobs
              due to the deindustrialisation.



   –   Globalization reduced the ability of the cities to integrate all its population.

   –   Significant disparities appears nowadays in the urban areas.

   –   Increasing spatial polarisation and social exclusion.

   –   Cities are face to with shrinking tax revenues.

   –   The economic considerations are the bases of the municipalities’ decision-making
       processes.



Sustainable urban development

   •   "Improving the quality of life in a city, including ecological, cultural, political,
       institutional, social and economic components without leaving a burden on the
       future generations. A burden which is the result of a reduced natural capital and
       an excessive local debt. Our aim is that the flow principle, that is based on an
       equilibrium of material and energy and also financial input/output, plays a crucial
       role in all future decisions upon the development of urban areas."

Key dimensions for sustainable development

   •   Sustainable urban economy

   •   Sustainable urban environment

   •   Sustainable urban society
Sustainable Urban Economy

   •   Economic activity should serve the common good, be self-renewing, and build
       local assets and self-reliance.

   •   A stable economic situation is a basic precondition for sustainable urban
       development.

   •   Welfare is a relative phenomena, many citizens can feel themselves poor because
       the social barriers.

   •   Lack of sufficient income (personal and municipality level) could be the biggest
       challenge.

Sustainable urban environment

   •   Conflicts between private and environmental goods,

   •   Unsustainable lifestyle (urban mobility),

   •   Exploitation of non-renewable resources

   •   Degradation of ecological resources,

   •   Contamination of local environment

Sustainable urban society

   •   Central element of the sustainability.

   •   Redistribution of wealth.

   •   Good Governance:

             –   Openness

             –   Participation

             –   Responsibility

             –   Efficiency

             –   Coherence



College 6c

Gaat over stad Graz, voor meer info check pp, hier wat ik handig vond:

What is ECOPROFIT

   •   Win-win model,
   •      Main aim is to provide businesses with, economic advantage based on the
          application of preventive, innovative, integrated environmental technologies,

Improving the ecological situation within the city or region (through the cooperation with
the local municipality)

History

   •      ECOPROFIT – ECOlogical PROject For Integrated environmental Technology

   •      Programme for sustainable economic development, which was developed by the
          Environment Department of City of Graz in 1991.

The Programme

   •      ECOPROFIT is a specific way of cooperation among local authorities, businesses,
          research institutions and consultants, which work together in commonly designed
          training programmes, and the establishment of a network connecting all
          participating companies.

   •      ECOPROFIT Academy was founded for the international dissemination of the
          project.



The benefits of ECOPROFIT

   •      Advantages for authorities

             –   Efficient and economic benefits to the environment through better use of
                 resources

             –   Establishment of sustainable structures through an efficient economic
                 support system

             –   Funds to support innovative companies rather than expenses for
                 environmental recovery

             –   Safeguarding of jobs through successful companies

             –   Competitive and regional advantages

             –   Higher quality of life for the inhabitants of a region

             –   Improvements to environmental quality in a region, helping to stimulate
                 tourism

             –   Helping to achieve Local Agenda 21 objectives to reach the Kyoto target

   •      Advantages for companies

             –   Increase in production efficiency and reduction of costs through lower
                 consumption of raw materials and energy

             –   Reduction of costs through less waste and emissions
           –   Legal certainty through official support

           –   Training of employees in the areas of environmental protection, production
               efficiency and cost awareness

           –   Synergies through common training programs with other companies

           –   Support of the project by local authorities

           –   International market opportunities through networking

           –   Certification as an official "ECOPROFITâ -company" and integration in joint
               PR activities

           –   Preparation or addition to EMAS or ISO 14001

College 6 d gaat over stad pecs, weinings boeiends




College 7 Urban spaces and spaces of the urban

Foundations urban geography (Chicago School, Quantitative Revolution, spatial science,
internal structure of cities, relations between cities, e.g. rank-size ruleand other social
physics);

Marxist and humanist critiques;

Feminism and postmodernism;

Emotional geographies of affect

(Re) examining urban geography



Functional integration of cities and regions across space in global economy;
homogenization and decline of local difference, against reassertion of the particular;
political and social-cultural dimensions, not just economic; cities in film

Economic transformations underpinning cities; Political economy perspective rooted in
radical (urban) geography tradition; suburbanization, gentrification and postmodern
cities

Verder staan er nog wat theorien moet je zelf maar even kijken



College 8a Beaumont : Urban politics and governance



      What is modernism?

      Modernism
   Modernism, in its broadest definition, is modern thought, character, or practice.
    More specifically, the term describes both a set of cultural tendencies and an array
    of associated cultural movements, originally arising from wide-scale and far-
    reaching changes to Western society in the late nineteenth and early twentieth
    centuries. The term encompasses the activities and output of those who felt the
    "traditional" forms of art, architecture, literature, religious faith, social
    organization and daily life were becoming outdated in the new economic, social
    and political conditions of an emerging fully industrialized world. Modernism
    rejected the lingering certainty of Enlightenment thinking, and also that of the
    existence of a compassionate, all-powerful Creator. This is not to say that all
    modernists or modernist movements rejected either religion or all aspects of
    Enlightenment thought, rather that modernism can be viewed as a questioning of
    the axioms of the previous age. A salient characteristic of modernism is self-
    consciousness. This often led to experiments with form, and work that draws
    attention to the processes and materials used (and to the further tendency of
    abstraction). The poet Ezra Pound's paradigmatic injunction was to "Make it new!"
    However, the break from the past was not a clean break. Pound's phrase
    identified one modernist objective, even as T.S. Eliot emphasized the relation of
    the artist to tradition. These oppositions are inherent to modernism: it is in its
    broadest cultural sense the assessment of the past as different to the modern
    age, the recognition that the world was becoming more complex, and that the old
    "final authorities" (God, government, science, and reason) were subject to intense
    critical scrutiny. Current interpretations of modernism vary. Some divide 20th
    century reaction into modernism and postmodernism, whereas others see them as
    two aspects of the same movement



   What do we mean by “pluralism”

     Pluralism

   Pluralism is the name of entirely unrelated positions in opposition to monism in
    metaphysics and epistemology. In metaphysics, pluralism claims a plurality of
    basic substances making up the world; in epistemology, pluralism claims that
    there are several conflicting but still true descriptions of the world.



   What is the difference between globalization and internationalization?

   . Globalization and internationalization

   Qualitatively different processes at stake here: (a) Internationalization involves
    the simple extension of economic activities across national boundaries; essentially
    a quantitative process which leads to a more extensive geographical pattern of
    economic activity; (b) Globalization processes are qualitatively different from
    internationalization, involving not merely the geographicaal extension of economic
    activity across nastional boundaries but also – and more importantly – the
    functional integration of such internationally dispersed activities

   In addition....

   Urban spaces and spaces of the urban (1) changing the way we think about cities
    and specifically the urban (2) from a bounded entity and container conception,
    towards assemblages of processes concentrated in certain places (3) urban
        constituted by interaction of processes running within, through and beyond the so
        called city itself



Aristotle’s Politics

In addition to his works on ethics, which address the individual, Aristotle addressed the
city in his work titled Politics. Aristotle's conception of the city is organic, and he is
considered one of the first to conceive of the city in this manner. Aristotle considered the
city to be a natural community. Moreover, he considered the city to be prior to the family
which in turn is prior to the individual, i.e., last in the order of becoming, but first in the
order of being . He is also famous for his statement that "man is by nature a political
animal." Aristotle conceived of politics as being like an organism rather than like a
machine, and as a collection of parts none of which can exist without the others. It
should be noted that the modern understanding of a political community is that of the
state. However, the state was foreign to Aristotle. He referred to political communities as
cities. Aristotle understood a city as a political "partnership" . Subsequently, a city is
created not to avoid injustice or for economic stability , but rather to live a good life:
"The political partnership must be regarded, therefore, as being for the sake of noble
actions, not for the sake of living together" . This can be distinguished from the social
contract theory which individuals leave the state of nature because of "fear of violent
death" or its "inconveniences."

On Liberty

Mill's On Liberty addresses the nature and limits of the power that can be legitimately
exercised by society over the individual. One argument that Mill develops further than
any previous philosopher is the harm principle. The harm principle holds that each
individual has the right to act as he wants, so long as these actions do not harm others.
If the action is self-regarding, that is, if it only directly affects the person undertaking the
action, then society has no right to intervene, even if it feels the actor is harming
himself. He does argue, however, that individuals are prevented from doing lasting,
serious harm to themselves or their property by the harm principle. Because no-one
exists in isolation, harm done to oneself also harms others, and destroying property
deprives the community as well as oneself. Mill excuses those who are "incapable of self-
government" from this principle, such as young children or those living in "backward
states of society".

Mill argues that despotism is an acceptable form of government for those societies that
are "backward", as long as the despot has the best interests of the people at heart,
because of the barriers to spontaneous progress. Though this principle seems clear, there
are a number of complications. For example, Mill explicitly states that "harms" may
include acts of omission as well as acts of commission. Thus, failing to rescue a drowning
child counts as a harmful act, as does failing to pay taxes, or failing to appear as a
witness in court. All such harmful omissions may be regulated, according to Mill. By
contrast, it does not count as harming someone if — without force or fraud — the
affected individual consents to assume the risk: thus one may permissibly offer unsafe
employment to others, provided there is no deception involved. (Mill does, however,
recognize one limit to consent: society should not permit people to sell themselves into
slavery). In these and other cases, it is important to keep in mind that the arguments in
On Liberty are grounded on the principle of Utility, and not on appeals to natural rights.

The question of what counts as a self-regarding action and what actions, whether of
omission or commission, constitute harmful actions subject to regulation, continues to
exercise interpreters of Mill. It is important to emphasize that Mill did not consider giving
offense to constitute "harm"; an action could not be restricted because it violated the
conventions or morals of a given society. The idea of 'offense' causing harm and thus
being restricted was later developed by Joel Feinberg in his 'offense principle' essentially
an extension of J.S.Mill's 'harm principle'.

On Liberty involves an impassioned defense of free speech. Mill argues that free
discourse is a necessary condition for intellectual and social progress. We can never be
sure, he contends, that a silenced opinion does not contain some element of the truth.
He also argues that allowing people to air false opinions is productive for two reasons.
First, individuals are more likely to abandon erroneous beliefs if they are engaged in an
open exchange of ideas. Second, by forcing other individuals to re-examine and re-affirm
their beliefs in the process of debate, these beliefs are kept from declining into mere
dogma. It is not enough for Mill that one simply has an unexamined belief that happens
to be true; one must understand why the belief in question is the true one.

      19th century social philanthropy in cities

      1850-1910 more interventionist urban politics to deal with basic infrastructure,
       disease and social disorder

      Formal urban government initiated in this periods

      Since 1960/ 70s rise of neoliberalism, new modes of governance and PPP



In the 1930s, Keynes spearheaded a revolution in economic thinking, overturning the
older ideas of neoclassical economics that held that free markets would automatically
provide full employment as long as workers were flexible in their wage demands.
Following the outbreak of World War II Keynes's ideas concerning economic policy were
adopted by leading Western economies. During the 1950s and 1960s, the success of
Keynesian economics was so resounding that almost all capitalist governments adopted
its policy recommendations.

Keynes's influence waned in the 1970s, partly as a result of problems that began to
afflict the Anglo-American economies from the start of the decade, and partly due to
critiques from Milton Friedman and other economists who were pessimistic about the
ability of governments to regulate the business cycle with fiscal policy. However, the
advent of the global financial crisis in 2007 has caused a resurgence in Keynesian
thought. Keynesian economics has provided the theoretical underpinning for the plans of
President Barack Obama, Prime Minister Gordon Brown and other global leaders to ease
the recession. In 1999, Time Magazine named Keynes one of the 100 Most Important
People of the 20th Century and reported that, "His radical idea that governments should
spend money they don't have may have saved capitalism". Keynes is widely considered
the father of modern macroeconomics, and by commentators such as John Sloman, the
most influential economist of the 20th century. In addition to being an economist, Keynes
was also a civil servant, a patron of the arts, a director of the Bank of England, an
advisor to several charitable trusts, a writer, a private investor, an art collector, and a
farmer. Of towering stature, Keynes stood at six foot, six inches.

VINEX-locations

Vinex stands for "Vierde Nota Ruimtelijke Ordening Extra", a notation of the ministry for
housing, spatial scheduling, and environment management in the Netherlands (Ministry
of VROM). Large outer city areas were pointed out in this notation for massive new
housing development. To accommodate the further increasing of population in the
Netherlands the Ministry of VROM determined a number of main points in the Vinex-
document for the construction of new housing districts as from that moment (1993). The
most important point was that new districts had to be placed near existing town centers.
It hereby had to contribute to the following aims: (1) Endorsement of existing malls
(Increasing the potential number of customers) (2) Limit the removals of unsatisfied
inhabitants in the (medium)big cities (3) Protection of open areas by concentrating the
agglomerations round existing (medium) big cities (4) Limiting of traffic between house,
work and stores (short distances offer more possibilities for public transport, bicycles and
walking)

The Vinex-locations also had to diminish the unjust pricing of housing. This means that
certain households live in 'too cheap' houses when compared to their income, as a result
of which these houses no longer become available to households with a lower income. So
they tried to solve the shortage of cheap houses by luring richer households to the more
expensive Vinex-locations. Nevertheless the Vinex-locations had a determined share of
cheaper rentable houses.

Biopolitics

The term "biopolitics" or "biopolitical" can refer to several different yet compatible
concepts. (1) In the work of Michel Foucault, the style of government that regulates
populations through biopower (the application and impact of political power on all aspects
of human life). (2) In the works of Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri, anti-capitalist
insurrection using life and the body as weapons; examples include flight from power and,
'in its most tragic and revolting form', suicide terrorism. Conceptualised as the opposite
of biopower, which is seen as the practice of sovereignty in biopolitical conditions. (3)
The political application of bioethics. (4) A political spectrum that reflects positions
towards the sociopolitical consequences of the biotech revolution. (5) Political advocacy
in support of, or in opposition to, some applications of biotechnology. (6) Public policies
regarding some applications of biotechnology. (7) Political advocacy concerned with the
welfare of all forms of life.



College 8b Van Dijk

Loss of open space

      Non-built up pieces of a city

      Dilemma:
       compact city strategy
       saves landscape
       but infill ruins parks and enclaves

      Causes of open space loss:
       - housing
       - wind turbines
       - office parks

The NIMBY myth

   ›   Why would ‘Not In My BackYard’ be inferior?

   ›   Emotions are not less important than knowledge

   ›   Strategic actions are not deceptive or intended to manipulate

The People: Uninvited interference
   ›   Planning procedures allow “participation”
       (hearings / inspraak)

   ›   Only when the decision-makers say there is room for it

   ›   Official moments are not about dialogue

   ›   To really discuss plans, you need much more



College 9 Faith-based organizations and exclusion in European cities

       Short quiz

      What is “pork barrel politics”?

      What are the politics and power issues related to megaprojects?

      What is/was the Jane Addams Hull House (Chicago)?

      Pork barrel politics

      Pork barrel is a derogatory term referring to appropriation of government
       spending for localized projects secured solely or primarily to bring money to a
       representative's district. The usage originated in American English. Typically,
       "pork" involves funding for government programs whose economic or service
       benefits are concentrated in a particular area but whose costs are spread among
       all taxpayers. Public works projects, certain national defense spending projects,
       and agricultural subsidies are the most commonly cited examples. Pork-barrel
       projects, or earmarks, are added to the federal budget by members of the
       appropriation committees of United States Congress. This allows delivery of
       federal funds to the local district or state of the appropriation committee member,
       often accommodating major campaign contributors. To a certain extent, a
       member of Congress is judged by their ability to deliver funds to their
       constituents. The Chairman and the ranking member of the U.S. Senate
       Committee on Appropriations are in a position to deliver significant benefits to
       their states.

      Megaprojects, power and projects

      A megaproject (sometimes also called "major program") is an extremely large-
       scale investment project. Megaprojects are typically defined as costing more than
       US$1 billion and attracting a lot of public attention because of substantial impacts
       on communities, environment, and budgets. Megaprojects can also be defined as
       "initiatives that are physical, very expensive, and public.“ Care in the project
       development process may be needed to reduce any possible optimism bias and
       strategic misrepresentation. Megaprojects include bridges, tunnels, highways,
       railways, airports, seaports, power plants, dams, wastewater projects, Special
       Economic Zones (SEZ), oil and natural gas extraction projects, public buildings,
       information technology systems, aerospace projects, and weapons systems.

      The megaproject paradox was first identified by Oxford professor Bent Flyvbjerg,
       in his book with Nils Bruzelius and Werner Rothengatter, Megaprojects and Risk.
       The paradox consists in the fact that more and bigger megaprojects are being
       planned and built despite their poor performance record in terms of cost overruns,
       schedule delays, and benefit shortfalls. For the majority of megaprojects,
       performance is significantly and consistently below what could be called "best" –
       or "good" – practice, when measured in these terms. This has been the case for
       decades and existing data show no immediate end to this state of affairs.

      Jane Addams Hull House

      Hull House, the most well known settlement house in the United States, was co-
       founded in 1889 by Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr. Located in the Near West
       Side of Chicago, Illinois, Hull House immediately opened its doors to the recently
       arrived European immigrants. By 1911, Hull House had grown to 13 buildings. In
       1912 the Hull House complex was completed with the addition of a summer camp,
       the Bowen Country Club. With its innovative social, educational, and artistic
       programs, Hull House became the standard bearer for the movement that had
       grown, by 1920, to almost 500 settlement houses nationally. The Hull mansion
       and several subsequent acquisitions were continuously renovated to
       accommodate the changing demands of the association. The original building and
       one additional building (which has been moved 200 yards (182.9 m)) survive
       today. On June 12, 1974, the Hull House building was designated a Chicago
       Landmark. On June 23, 1965, it was designated as a U.S. National Historic
       Landmark. On October 15, 1966, which is the day that the National Historic
       Preservation Act of 1966 was enacted, it was listed on the National Register of
       Historic Places. Hull House was one of the four original members to be listed on
       both the Chicago Registered Historic Places and the National Register of Historic
       Places list (along with Chicago Pile-1, Robie House & Lorado Taft Midway Studios).



Exploring the Postsecular (Brill)

   (1) The re-emergence of the religious in secular domains has led prominent scholars
       such as Jrgen Habermas and Charles Taylor to speculate about a new postsecular
       age. The alleged shift from the secular to the postsecular is most visible in the
       spheres of urban public space, governance and civil society

   (2) This volume addresses contemporary relations between religion, politics and
       urban societies primarily from a theoretical perspective, while also paying
       attention to empirical manifestations of the central conceptual ideas

   (3) The primary focus is the relations between public religion, deprivatization of
       religion and theorizations of modernity and modernities, with the secondary and
       closely related focus on theorizing postsecular urbanism including the role of faith
       based organizations (FBOs) in cities.

Postsecular Cities (Continuum)

Our proposed edited volume is unique in that that we: (1) bring together a diversity of
approaches and interpretations (based on both theory and practice), secular, postsecular
and critical, in a single volume as the first coherent reference source of its kind in the
academic literature; (2) make explicit both the social science and the theological
ideological assumptions underlying recent attempts at grasping postsecular cities (i.e.
explicitly recognizing the contrasting transcendent and immanent epistemologies often
contained within theological and secular approaches to the urban); and (3) offer case
studies from a variety of empirical geographical contexts across the globe, avoiding the
Eurocentricity of elements of the prevailing postsecular discourse.
FBOs are an important organizational realm within civil society at the heart of the UK
government’s desire to roll back the state and roll out services to faith groups, among
others. How to emphasize the progressive, ethical, value-added of FBOs against poverty
and exclusion on the one hand and to avoid neoliberal governance of welfare on the
cheap on the other?

Neoliberal welfare shifts have recently been clearly articulated by David Cameron in his
first keynote speech as Prime Minister in the UK to the Conservative Conference, October
2010: “Fairness means giving people what they deserve – and what people deserve
depends on how they behave.” The State welfare system will be fair, then, when
deployed in relation to the particular individuals who make demands upon it.

Following the 2010 general election, the Conservative Party formed coalition
government with the Liberal Democrats, with David Cameron as Prime Minister. Cameron
appointed Duncan Smith as Secretary of State for Work and Pensions, with responsibility
for seeing through changes to the welfare state.

In November 2010 a major shake-up in the welfare system will benefit all those who
"play by the rules", Work and Pensions Secretary Iain Duncan Smith said. In a Commons
statement on 11 November 2010, he said: "This is our contract: we make work pay and
support you through the Work Programme to find a job. "But in return, if we do that, we
also expect co-operation from those who are seeking work. "That is why we are
developing a regime of sanctions for those who refuse to play by the rules as well as
targeted work activity for those who need to get used to the habits of work".

The Big Society is the flagship policy idea of the 2010 Conservative Party general election
manifesto and forms part of the legislative programme of the Conservative – Liberal
Democrat Coalition Agreement. The aim is "to create a climate that empowers local
people and communities, building a big society that will 'take power away from politicians
and give it to people'. IIt was launched in the 2010 Conservative manifesto and
described by The Times as "an impressive attempt to reframe the role of government and
unleash entrepreneurial spirit". Nat Wei, one of the founders of the Big Society Network,
was appointed by David Cameron to advise the government on the Big Society
programme. The plans include setting up a Big Society Bank and introducing a national
citizen service. The stated priorities are: (1) Give communities more powers (2)
Encourage people to take an active role in their communities (3) Transfer power from
central to local government (4) Support co-ops, mutuals, charities and social enterprises
(5) Publish government data.



Postsecular engagement

      The coming together of faith-motivated people with others, irrespective of faith or
       other social identities

      Who collectively share the political and ethical ambition to “get something done”

      Work for social justice for the vulnerable and marginalized in contemporary cities

What are FBOs

      Faith based organizations (FBOs)

      FBOs have direct entrance to the ‘poor side’ of cities because of their activities in
       deprived neighbourhoods and among excluded groups
      Their members also often belong to these deprived and excluded groups
       themselves

      Directly or indirectly refer to one of the monotheistic religions (Judaism,
       Christianity and Islam) or religious values

      Active in combating poverty and social exclusion

      Tend to fill the gap left after the supposed withdrawal of the welfare state in
       several domains of public life



FBOs have direct entrance to the ‘poor side’ of cities because of (1) their activities in
deprived urban neighbourhoods and among excluded groups and (2) as in the case of
many FBOs with a non-western background, because their members often belong to
these deprived and excluded groups themselves. Therefore the central questions concern
those FBOs in an urban context.



What is the position of FBOs in combating poverty and other forms of social distress
cities? How has this role changed over time and how do these activities contribute to
combating social exclusion and promoting social cohesion? What are the implications for
policies and the governance of European cities? From both scientific and policy
perspectives, there is a great need for better empirical and comparative data on what is
going on in European cities in matters of poverty and exclusion policies and, in particular,
the contribution of FBOs in the reduction (or deepening) of the problems.



Working plan

To answer the research questions, we conduct research in 21 cities in 7 countries,
following several steps:

Theoretical conceptualisation will construct an innovative register for the naming and
framing of social reality in focus.


The mapping of FBOs and their role in matters of social exclusion should provide us with
an overview of the present situation.


A survey, quantitative and qualitative data collection and transnational comparison will
be conducted to assess and evaluate the role of FBOs, their relation to other NGOs, the
political and institutional conditions and the context of welfare state retrenchment.


FACIT assumptions

      FBOs tend to fill the gap left after the supposed withdrawal of the welfare state
       (neoliberalization; globalization)

      Possibly a return to the charity of former times, when such associations occupied
       the fore of social help in many countries
      Or, a new type of welfare regime with (1) stronger focus on local policies (2) with
       new interplays between local authorities and civil society organizations

Hypothesis 1

      On the relation between FBOs and the welfare state:

      “Globalisation, neoliberal reforms and the retreat of the welfare state open spaces
       for NGOs in general and FBOs in particular to engage in economic, social and
       political actions with vulnerable, excluded and marginalized citizens; types of
       activities of FBOs depend on the welfare regime in question”

Hypothesis 2

      On the changing position of FBOs:

      “FBOs (like NGOs in general) have to re-invent the roles that are connected to
       these positions, as well with respect to the state, with respect to each other and
       to their ‘clientele’ in combating various forms of exclusion in cities”

Hypothesis 3

      On FBOs with respect to policy and governance:

      “In developing new forms of governance for the implementation of social policies
       involving FBOs, account has to be taken of the changing relations between FBOs
       and welfare states and their own changing positions; participation of FBOs in
       social policies depends on whether public authorities follow a rather top-down or
       bottom-up approach towards governance”

Hypothesis 4

      About the urban context:

“The hypothesised processes above are said to congeal and intensify in urban
environments, the specific form will depend on the urban welfare regime, and the city
has the social scale that permits the gathering in sufficient numbers of like-minded, faith-
motivated and action-oriented people

Hyperreality

In semiotics and postmodern philosophy, the term hyperreality characterizes the inability
of consciousness to distinguish reality from fantasy, especially in technologically
advanced postmodern cultures. Hyperreality is a means to characterize the way
consciousness defines what is actually "real" in a world where a multitude of media can
radically shape and filter the original event or experience being depicted. Some famous
theorists of hyperreality include Jean Baudrillard, Albert Borgmann, Daniel Boorstin, and
Umberto Eco.

Most aspects of hyperreality can be thought of as "reality by proxy." For example, a
viewer watching pornography begins to live in the non-existent world of the
pornography, and even though pornography is not an accurate depiction of sex, for the
viewer, the reality of "sex" becomes something non-existent. Some examples are
simpler: the McDonald's "M" arches create a world with the promise of endless amounts
of identical food, when in "reality" the "M" represents nothing, and the food produced is
neither identical nor infinite.
Baudrillard in particular suggests that the world we live in has been replaced by a copy
world, where we seek simulated stimuli and nothing more. Baudrillard borrows, from
Jorge Luis Borges (who already borrowed from Lewis Carroll), the example of a society
whose cartographers create a map so detailed that it covers the very things it was
designed to represent. When the empire declines, the map fades into the landscape and
there is neither the representation nor the real remaining – just the hyperreal.
Baudrillard's idea of hyperreality was heavily influenced by phenomenology, semiotics,
and Marshall McLuhan.



Conclusion

      Religion and FBOs taboo among secular and progressive social science

      Retreat of the state and valorizing FBOs theoretically unclear and politically
       contested

      Limited political and empirical realities, “hyper-reality” and critical/ alternative
       urbanism

      Thinking about cities in new ways, implications for politics, policy and planning
       interventions

      Tips for the exam: see also Nestor



Einde van pp staan voorbeeld vragen voor tentamen, kijk er even na kan handig zijn!

College 10 Global economic restructuring and cities



Short quiz

      Why do FBOs locate where they do?

      Are there FBOs in Groningen? If so, which ones and what do they do?

      What are the implications of FBOs for urban planning?

Possible answers

1. Location: property ownership/ visibility (Diaconie), low cost buildings (Salvation
Army), intentional community in in a deprived neighbourhood (Oudezijds 100),
accessibility (Kruispost), invisibility (CARF mission houses).

Function: Early warning/ help under protest (Diaconie), Community building (Oudezijds
100), Service delivery (Salvation Army, Kruispost 100), Political campaigning (CARF/
Jubilee).

2. INLIA and others? Het Openhof; Leger des Heils; others

3. Planners need to be close to the ground; in and among the people, organizations and
processes where seeking to intervene effectively; bottom-up and grassroots planning
models and approaches, e.g. Luuk Boelens/ Utrecht
Globalization

Globalization (or globalisation) describes an ongoing process by which regional
economies, societies, and cultures have become integrated through a globe-spanning
network of communication and execution. The term is sometimes used to refer
specifically to economic globalization: the integration of national economies into the
international economy through trade, foreign direct investment, capital flows, migration,
and the spread of technology. However, globalization is usually recognized as being
driven by a combination of economic, technological, sociocultural, political, and biological
factors. The term can also refer to the transnational circulation of ideas, languages, or
popular culture through acculturation.

Maquila

A maquiladora or maquila is a factory that imports materials and equipment on a duty-
free and tariff-free basis for assembly or manufacturing and then re-exports the
assembled product, usually back to the originating country. A maquila is also referred to
as a "twin plant", or "in-bond" industry. Currently about 1.3 million Mexicans are
employed in maquiladoras. The term "maquiladora", in the Spanish language, refers to
the practice of millers charging a "maquila", or "miller's portion" for processing other
people's grain. Maquila in Mexico (pictured)

Sweatshops

It can be said that globalization is the door that opens up an otherwise resource-poor
country to the international market. Where a country has little material or physical
product harvested or mined from its own soil, large corporations see an opportunity to
take advantage of the “export poverty” of such a nation. Where the majority of the
earliest occurrences of economic globalization are recorded as being the expansion of
businesses and corporate growth, in many poorer nations globalization is actually the
result of the foreign businesses investing in the country to take advantage of the lower
wage rate: even though investing, by increasing the Capital Stock of the country,
increases their wage rate.

One example used by anti-globalization protestors is the use of sweatshops by
manufacturers. According to Global Exchange these “Sweat Shops” are widely used by
sports shoe manufacturers and mentions one company in particular – Nike. There are
factories set up in the poor countries where employees agree to work for low wages.
Then if labour laws alter in those countries and stricter rules govern the manufacturing
process the factories are closed down and relocated to other nations with more
conservative, laissez-faire economic policies. There are several agencies that have been
set up worldwide specifically designed to focus on anti-sweatshop campaigns and
education of such. In the USA, the National Labor Committee has proposed a number of
bills as part of the The Decent Working Conditions and Fair Competition Act, which have
thus far failed in Congress. The legislation would legally require companies to respect
human and worker rights by prohibiting the import, sale, or export of sweatshop goods.
Specifically, these core standards include no child labor, no forced labor, freedom of
association, right to organize and bargain collectively, as well as the right to decent
working conditions. Tiziana Terranova has stated that globalization has brought a culture
of "free labour". In a digital sense, it is where the individuals (contributing capital)
exploits and eventually "exhausts the means through which labour can sustain itself". For
example, in the area of digital media (animations, hosting chat rooms, designing games),
where it is often less glamourous than it may sound. In the gaming industry, a Chinese
Gold Market has been established
Do we have sweatshops in The Netherlands?

1. Think about transnational migration to cities of the Randstad like Rotterdam

The Information Age

The Information Age, also commonly known as the Computer Age or Information Era, is
an idea that the current age will be characterized by the ability of individuals to transfer
information freely, and to have instant access to knowledge that would have been
difficult or impossible to find previously. The idea is linked to the concept of a Digital Age
or Digital Revolution, and carries the ramifications of a shift from traditional industry that
the Industrial Revolution brought through industrialization, to an economy based around
the manipulation of information. The period is generally said[weasel words] to have
begun in the latter half of the 20th century, though the particular date varies. Since the
invention of social media in the early 21st century, some[who?] have claimed that the
Information Age has evolved into the Attention Age. The term has been widely used since
the late 1980s and into the 21st century



Spatial mismatch is the sociological, economic and political phenomenon associated with
economic restructuring in which employment opportunities for low-income people are
located far away from the areas where they live. In the United States, this takes the form
of high concentrations of poverty in central cities, with low-wage, low-skill employment
opportunities concentrated in the suburbs. The term was first used by John F. Kain in
1968. In The Truly Disadvantaged: The Inner City, the Underclass, and Public Policy
(1987), William Julius Wilson was an early exponent, one of the first to enunciate at
length the spatial mismatch theory for the development of a ghetto underclass in the
United States



College 11a right to the city I

Short quiz

      What is deindustralization?

      What is postindustrial society?

      What do we mean by a radical urbanism

      Deindustrialization

      Deindustrialization (also spelled deindustrialisation) is a process of social and
       economic change caused by the removal or reduction of industrial capacity or
       activity in a country or region, especially heavy industry or manufacturing
       industry. It is an opposite of industrialization.

      Postindustrial society

      A post-industrial society is a society in which an economic transition has occurred
       from a manufacturing based economy to a service based economy, a diffusion of
       national and global capital, and mass privatization. The prerequisites to this
       economic shift are the processes of industrialization and liberalization. This
       economic transition spurs a restructuring in society as a whole.
       Radical urbanism

       The right analysis of what is going on in the world in the context of neoliberal
        global capitalism; a coherent analysis of the urban dimensions; with analysis of an
        alternative for more social justice contained within that approach; ethical turn and
        hope for a better future for the poor, vulnerable and marginalized in cities today
        (expanding on this in the lecture today)



       Multitude of Spaces depending on contents: social (spatial) practice

       When we evoke Time, we must immeadiately say what it is that moves or
        changes therein

       Physical space has no reality without the Energy that is deployed with it



Social life

The architect, the planner, the sociologist, the economist, the philosopher or the
politician cannot out of nothingness create new forms and relations ... Only social life
(praxis) in its global capacity possesses such powers - or does not possess them“
(Lefebvre 1996: 151

Users

Use value, subordinated for centuries to exchange value, can now come first again ... An
urban reality for ‚users‘ and not for capitalist speculators, builders and technicians

Participation + appropriation

The right to the oeuvre, to participation and appropriation (clearly distinct from the right
to property), are implied in the right to the city“ (Lefebvre 1996: 174

Inhabitans

Who can ignore that the Olympians of the new bourgeois aristocracy no longer inhabit.
They go from grand hotel to grand hotel, or from castle to castle ... They are everywhere
and nowhere“ (Lefebvre 1996: 159)

„That is how they fascinate people immersed into everyday life. They transcend everyday
life, possess nature and leave it up to the cops to contrive culture“ (ibid.)

Protest movements and social movements

Social movements are a type of group action. They are large informal groupings of
individuals and/or organizations focused on specific political or social issues, in other
words, on carrying out, resisting or undoing a social change.

Modern Western social movements became possible through education (the wider
dissemination of literature), and increased mobility of labor due to the industrialization
and urbanization of 19th century societies. It is sometimes argued that the freedom of
expression, education and relative economic independence prevalent in the modern
Western culture is responsible for the unprecedented number and scope of various
contemporary social movements. However others point out that many of the major social
movements of the last hundred years grew up, like the Mau Mau in Kenya, to oppose
Western colonialism. Political science and sociology have developed a variety of theories
and empirical research on social movements. For example, some research in political
science highlights the relation between popular movements and the formation of new
political parties as well as discussing the function of social movements in relation to
agenda setting and influence on politics. Modern movements, such as The Borgen Project
have utilized technology and the internet to mobilize people globally. Adapting to
communication trends is a common theme among successful movements.

Squatting

Squatting is the act of occupying an abandoned or unoccupied space or building, usually
residential, that the squatter does not own, rent or otherwise have permission to use.
According to author Robert Neuwirth, there are one billion squatters globally, that is,
about one in every seven people on the planet. Yet, according to Kesia Reeve, "squatting
is largely absent from policy and academic debate and is rarely conceptualized, as a
problem, as a symptom, or as a social or housing movement

Radical urbanism concerns the following 5 points according to Marcuse:

   1. Linking various issues and developments together in a single radical explanation
      of what is happening in the world; explanation of who benefits and who loses out
      under capitalist urbanization processes;

   2. Can name the system as “capitalist”, and not just a free-market, neoliberal
      system;

   3. Explicit focus on alternatives that are immediately feasible, large or small
      regulations to make difference to the world;

   4. Democracy and decision making should not aim for consensus (as implicit in much
      of urban and planning theory), as not based on a radical analysis of the world; as
      some gain and some lose, need to focus on power relations and differences
      between people and social groups;

   5. Myth of the benevolent state; decision making by rational persuasion alone unable
      to change power relations, unable to shake policies of governments to help the
      vulnerable and marginalized of our cities



College 11b right to the city II

Gaat over het kraken in Nederland, kijk zelf maar.

College 12 postsecular urban space

Short quiz

      What is the right to the city?

      What is radical urbanism?

      Names three ways planners can work towards social justice at the local
       neighbourhood level

      The Right to the City
      Social movements, broad coalitions of actors fighting politically for greater social,
       economic and environmental justice in cities; cities for everyone not just the few

      Radical urbanism

      The right analysis of what is going on in the world in the context of neoliberal
       global capitalism; a coherent analysis of the urban dimensions; with analysis of an
       alternative for more social justice contained within that approach; ethical turn and
       hope for a better future for the poor, vulnerable and marginalized in cities today.
       Following Marcuse the following points are important: (1) Linking various issues
       and developments together in a single radical explanation of what is happening in
       the world; explanation of who benefits and who loses out under capitalist
       urbanization processes; (2) Can name the system as “capitalist”, and not just a
       free-market, neoliberal system; (3) Explicit focus on alternatives that are
       immediately feasible, large or small regulations to make difference to the world;
       (4) Democracy and decision making should not aim for consensus (as implicit in
       much of urban and planning theory), as not based on a radical analysis of the
       world; as some gain and some lose, need to focus on power relations and
       differences between people and social groups; and (5) Myth of the benevolent
       state; decision making by rational persuasion alone unable to change power
       relations, unable to shake policies of governments to help the vulnerable and
       marginalized of our cities

      Activities for social justice at the neighbourhood level

      (1) Forming a coalition of residents and organizations to contest government
       policies and to fight for alternatives that benefit the most deprived inhabitants
       that includes middle classes, intellectuals and artists as well we low-income and
       working class residents; (2) Direct and active involvement of residents in decision
       making that affects their lives and the neighbourhood at large; not just lip-service
       but real power to the people and demonstrable effects of that involvement; (3)
       Socially relevant, useful and economically viable initiatives to activate people and
       to generate wealth and jobs; activities to increase people’s employability like job-
       search, CV/ resume writing, language courses, workfare/ social activation type
       activities; if no jobs, the voluntary work but paying attention to tension to
       positive/ activation and negative punitive style compulsion (4) Community wide
       initiatives that bind people from diverse social groups and backgrounds into a
       shared sense of identity, while respecting fundamental differences too; cooking
       courses, sports events, BBQs (5) Political activism, protest movements and
       campaigning; cultivating a local culture of political discussion and enagement,
       romantic and intellectual as well as practical and hard-nosed (6) Planners need to
       be aware of and sensitive too these



College 13a the future of the city I

Short quiz

      What do we mean by postsecular urban spaces?

      How secular is The Netherlands?

      What are the implications of postsecular urbanism for planning practice?
Space colonization

Space colonization (space settlement, space humanization, space habitation) is
autonomous (self-sufficient) human habitation outside of Earth. It is a long-term goal of
national space programs. The first space colony may be on the Moon, or on Mars. Ample
quantities of all the necessary materials are on the Moon and near Earth asteroids, and
solar energy is readily available. In 2005 NASA Administrator Michael Griffin identified
space colonization as the ultimate goal of current spaceflight programs.

Artist's conception of a space habitat called the Stanford torus, by Don Davis (pictured).

Stanford Torus

The Stanford torus is a proposed design for a space habitat capable of housing 10,000 to
140,000 permanent residents. The Stanford Torus was proposed during the 1975 NASA
Summer Study, conducted at Stanford University, with the purpose of speculating on
designs for future space colonies. (Gerard O'Neill later proposed his Island One or Bernal
sphere as an alternative to the torus.) "Stanford torus" refers only to this particular
version of the design, as the concept of a ring-shaped rotating space station was
previously proposed by Wernher von Braun. It consists of a torus, or donut-shaped ring,
that is 1.8 km in diameter (for the proposed 10,000 person habitat described in the 1975
Summer Study) and rotates once per minute to provide between 0.9g and 1.0g of
artificial gravity on the inside of the outer ring via centripetal acceleration. Sunlight is
provided to the interior of the torus by a system of mirrors. The ring is connected to a
hub via a number of "spokes", which serve as conduits for people and materials travelling
to and from the hub. Since the hub is at the rotational axis of the station, it experiences
the least artificial gravity and is the easiest location for spacecraft to dock. Zero-gravity
industry is performed in a non-rotating module attached to the hub's axis. The interior
space of the torus itself is used as living space, and is large enough that a "natural"
environment can be simulated; the torus appears similar to a long, narrow, straight
glacial valley whose ends curve upward and eventually meet overhead to form a
complete circle. The population density is similar to a dense suburb, with part of the ring
dedicated to agriculture and part to housing.

College 13b

Gaat over computer spel sim city,

College 14

Short quiz

      How useful are visualizations like Google Maps/ Earth for studying cities?

      What is your opinion about Second Life and Sim City?

      What are the implications for urban planning?

      1. How useful are visualizations like Google Maps/ Earth for studying cities?

      Visualizing cities through these techniques and tools is basically useful, because
       seeing adds an extra level of understanding that text alone cannot show. These
       tools do not need to be central to the course, merely tools to help make better
       sense of the issues, themes and processes addressed in the course. It is
       sometimes difficult to know how these visualization tools add to the understanding
       beyond simple description, however sophisticated and impressive graphically. Do
       not need to overuse them
      2. What is your opinion about Second Life and Sim City?

      Interesting tools and particulalry Sim City opens up some fascinating issues for
       cities and urban planning. Sim City should be presented at an earlier point in the
       course because the issues and implications are quite an eye opener. Virutual
       worlds rather than real ones so notwithstanding issues of “philosophy of the real”
       these tools remain fascinating and great fun, rather than about the real world of
       planning

      3. What are the implications for urban planning?

      Extra tools for visualization and handy tools for convincing stakeholders within
       planning practice where text alone might have less impact. Collaborative
       implications as well.

      Consider also the following (1) descriptive overview as a handy starting point ( 2)
       then further analysis based on theoretical engagements, research projects and
       outcomes (3) tends towards description so rather limited in some ways (4)
       poststructuralist critiques of maps and mapping in history and philosophy of
       geography, applicable also for visualization tools in planning; so power relations,
       multiple social identities, subjectification etc (5) can use tools for visualizing urban
       ideals/ utopias, then can assess reasons for problems meeting these ideals in
       reality and therefore how better to overcome them in the future



Social capital

Social capital is a sociological concept, which refers to connections within and between
social networks. Though there are a variety of related definitions, which have been
described as "something of a cure-all" for the problems of modern society, they tend to
share the core idea "that social networks have value. Just as a screwdriver (physical
capital) or a college education (human capital) can increase productivity (both individual
and collective), so do social contacts affect the productivity of individuals and groups".

In geography

In order to understand social capital as a subject in geography, one must look at it in a
sense of space, place, and territory. In its relationship, the tenants of geography relate to
the ideas of social capital in the family, community, and in the use of social networks.
The biggest advocate for seeing social capital as a geographical subject was American
economist and political scientist, Robert Putnam. His main argument for classifying social
capital as a geographical concept is that the relationships of people is shaped and molded
by the areas in which they live.There are many areas in which social capital can be
defined by the theories and practices. Anthony Giddens developed a theory in 1984 in
which he relates social structures and the actions that they produce. In his studies he
does not look at the individual participants of these structures, but how the structures
and the social connections that stem from them are diffused over space.[88] If this is the
case, the continuous change in social structures could bring about a change in social
capital, which can cause changes in community atmosphere. If an area is plagued by
social organizations who’s goals are to revolt against social norms, such as gangs, it can
cause a negative social capital for the area causing those who disagreed with said
organizations to relocate thus taking their positive social capital to a different space than
the negative.

Negative social capital
It has been noted that social capital may be not always invested towards positive ends.
An example of the complexities of the effects of social capital is violent or criminal gang
activity that is encouraged through the strengthening of intra-group relationships.
(Bonding social capital) This iterates the importance of distinguishing between bridging
social capital as opposed to the more easily accomplished bonding of social capital. In the
case of deleterious consequences of social capital, it is a disproportionate amount of
bonding vis-à-vis bridging.

Without "bridging" social capital, "bonding" groups can become isolated and
disenfranchised from the rest of society and, most importantly, from groups with which
bridging must occur in order to denote an "increase" in social capital. Bonding social
capital is a necessary antecedent for the development of the more powerful form of
bridging social capital. Bonding and bridging social capital can work together productively
if in balance, or they may work against each other. As social capital bonds and stronger
homogeneous groups form, the likelihood of bridging social capital is attenuated. Bonding
social capital can also perpetuate sentiments of a certain group, allowing for the bonding
of certain individuals together upon a common radical ideal. The strengthening of insular
ties can lead to a variety of effects such as ethnic marginalization or social isolation. In
extreme cases ethnic cleansing may result if the relationship between different groups is
so strongly negative. In mild cases, it just isolates certain communities such as suburbs
of cities because of the bonding social capital and the fact that people in these
communities spend so much time away from places that build bridging social capital.

Transit-oriented development (TOD)

A transit-oriented development (TOD) is a mixed-use residential or commercial area
designed to maximize access to public transport, and often incorporates features to
encourage transit ridership. A TOD neighborhood typically has a center with a train
station, metro station, tram stop, or bus stop, surrounded by relatively high-density
development with progressively lower-density development spreading outwards from the
center. TODs generally are located within a radius of one-quarter to one-half mile (400 to
800 m) from a transit stop, as this is considered to be an appropriate scale for
pedestrians.

Many of the new towns created after World War II in Japan, Sweden, and France have
many of the characteristics of TOD communities. In a sense, nearly all communities built
on reclaimed land in the Netherlands or as exurban developments in Denmark have had
the local equivalent of TOD principles integrated in their planning. Transit-oriented
development is sometimes distinguished by some planning officials from "transit-
proximate development" (see, e.g. comments made during a Congressional hearing
because it contains specific features that are designed to encourage public transport use
and differentiate the development from urban sprawl. Examples of these features include
mixed-use development that will use transit at all times of day, excellent pedestrian
facilities such as high quality pedestrian crossings, narrow streets, and tapering of
buildings as they become more distant from the public transport node. Another key
feature of transit-oriented development that differentiates it from "transit-proximate
development" is reduced amounts of parking for personal vehicles.



Verder staan er nog voorbeeld vragen in het college

				
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