Nutritional disorders among Indian urban slum children by ssiddiq99

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									            Indian Pediatrics – Environmental Health Project
                          Special Article Series

Nutritional Problems in Urban                                         The urban population is rapidly expanding
                                                                  because of large-scale migration to cities for a
Slum Children
                                                                  possible better life. The cities and towns are
                                                                  also expanding but the sheer volume of people
Shanti Ghosh                                                      compromises the ability of the city to meet
Dheeraj Shah                                                      their basic needs. A large proportion of this
                                                                  migrating population ends up residing in
     Nutritional problems like protein energy
malnutrition (PEM), anemia and vitamin A deficiency
                                                                  slums in inhuman conditions. As a result,
continue to plague a large proportion of Indian                   urban poverty and hunger are increasing in
children. The diets and nutritional status of urban               many developing countries.
slum children in India is far away from being
satisfactory. The nutritional status of slum children is              Lack of basic amenities like safe drinking
worst amongst all urban groups and is even poorer                 water, proper housing, drainage and excreta
than the rural average. Urban migration has not                   disposal make this population vulnerable to
provided them salvation from poverty and                          infections which further compromises the
undernutrition. Another distressing feature is the lack
of any significant improvement over the years in this
                                                                  nutrition of those living in the slums. It is
population. Most common causes of malnutrition                    projected that more than half of the Indian
include faulty infant feeding practices, impaired                 population will live in urban areas by 2020 and
utilization of nutrients due to infections and parasites,         nearly one third of this urban population
inadequate food and health security, poor                         will be of slum dwellers(1,2). The ongoing
environmental conditions and lack of proper child                 process of rapid urbanization has deleterious
care practices. High prevalence of malnutrition
among young children is also due to lack of
                                                                  repercussions on health and nutrition
awareness and knowledge regarding their food                      especially for children. Malnutrition in young
requirements and absence of a responsible adult care              children has long-term negative effects
giver. With increasing urban migration in the years               on physical and cognitive development.
ahead, the problem of malnutrition in urban slums                 Addressing nutritional problems of urban poor
will also acquire increasing dimension unless special             is therefore must for overall development of
efforts are initiated to mitigate the health and
nutrition problems of the urban poor. Improving
                                                                  the country.
nutritional status of urban poor requires a more
direct, more focused, and more integrated strategy.
                                                                  Magnitude of the Problem
Key words: Infant feeding, Nutrition, Urban slums.                    The major nutritional problems are
                                                                  protein energy malnutrition (PEM), vitamin A
Dr. Shanti Ghosh, Consultant Pediatrician, 5,
   Aurobindo Marg, New Delhi 110 016.
                                                                  deficiency (VAD), iron deficiency anemia
                                                                  (IDA) and iodine deficiency disorders (IDD).
Dr. Dheeraj Shah, Senior Lecturer, Department of
    Pediatrics, University College of Medical Sciences            This chapter focuses on the current scenario in
    and GTB Hospital, Dilshad Garden, Delhi 110                   relation to the nutritional status of children in
    095, India.                                                   urban slums in India.

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Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM)                        major cities of the country revealed slum
                                                         population to be the worst off in dietary and
    PEM is the most widely prevalent form of
                                                         nutritional profiles with only 13% of children
malnutrition among children. Severe PEM,
                                                         having normal weight for age(3) (Gomez
often associated with infection contributes to
                                                         classification). The prevalence of severe
high child mortality in underprivileged com-
                                                         malnutrition was also maximum in urban
munities. Further, early malnutrition can have
lasting effects on growth and functional status.
                                                             Most data on prevalence of malnutrition in
Nutritional Anthropometry
                                                         urban slums is available from individual
    Malnutrition continues to plague large               studies, many of which are community based.
proportion of children in India. In the second           Table I presents the summary of relevant
National Family Health Survey (NFHS-2)                   studies published in last two decades( 4-15). A
report, almost half of children under three              valid comparison of the studies is not possible
years of age (47%) were underweight, and a               because of disparity in regard to the age of
similar percentage (46%) was stunted(1). The             children studied, the method of classification
proportion of children who were severely                 of malnutrition (Gomez, IAP, WHO etc.),
undernourished was also notable – 18%                    “standards” used (Harvard or NCHS) and the
according to weight for age and 23%                      sampling methods. Overall, the prevalence of
according to height for age. Wasting was less            underweight among under-5 children was 52-
prevalent affecting 16% of children under                68% with the exception of a study from Delhi
three years of age.                                      reporting a prevalence of 82%(14). The
                                                         National Institute of Nutrition’s Jabalpur
    Countrywide data for the prevalence of
                                                         and Calcutta study(15) reported a higher
malnutrition in urban slums is lacking. In the
                                                         prevalence (94% and 92% respectively) as
NFHS-2 report, undernutrition was higher in
                                                         Gomez classification was used. If Gomez’s
rural areas than in urban areas. The figures for
                                                         Grade I of malnutrition (80-90% of expected
underweight, stunting and wasting in urban
                                                         weight for age) is excluded, the prevalence
areas were 38%, 36% and 13%(1). However,
                                                         from these studies is also comparable to the
these results can not be extrapolated to the
                                                         other studies. It is evident that the prevalence
urban slums as the survey seems to cater
                                                         of malnutrition in urban slums is much higher
mainly to the urban middle-class. This is
                                                         than national average for rural and urban
evident from the housing characteristics of the
                                                         areas. The prevalence of wasting and stunting
sampled urban population as 81% of urban
                                                         available from relevant studies is also much
population in the survey had facility of toilets
                                                         higher in comparison to NFHS data for rural or
and 88% were living in houses having <4
                                                         urban population(1). Some of these studies
persons per room(1). This is not what the
                                                         also reported a significantly higher prevalence
status is in urban slums. Official urban health
                                                         of malnutrition in urban slum children
statistics hide the appalling health and
                                                         in comparison to urban or rural popu-
nutrition conditions of urban slum dwellers,
                                                         lation(7,15). Studies from other Asian
most of whom are not ‘official’ residents of the
                                                         countries also indicate similar trend. Limited
cities, and therefore, do not get included in
                                                         data from infants(5) and adolescent girls(6)
urban statistics. Data collected by the National
                                                         also indicate a similar picture.
Nutrition Monitoring Bureau (NNMB),
pertaining to five population groups in 15                  In the past few decades, there has been a

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                        TABLE I–Prevalence of Malnutrition in Urban Slum Children

City/ Year (Ref.)      Profile of     Classifi-     Prevalence of                     Key
                       children        cation       malnutrition                    findings
                       included         used

Vadodara            3157 underfive     IAP        63%                Moderate and severe malnutrition
2002(4)                                           Grade I- 41%;      higher in elder children and girls.
                                                  Grade II- 20%;     Nutritional status of children started
                                                  > Grade III- 2%    worsening in the 2nd year of
Delhi, 2001(5)      150 infants         IAP       26%                Late introduction of semi solids,
                    (6-12 months)                 Grade I- 11%;      dilution of milk and lack of
                                                  Grade II- 9%;      exclusive breastfeeding in first 6
                                                  > Grade III- 6%    months identified as possible
                                                                     etiological factors.
Varanasi, 2001(6) 70 adolescent girls WHO         Chronic energy     No significant association of
                  (13 to 18 years)                deficiency –51%    income, type of family, working
                                                  Stunting- 10%      and literacy status with nutritional
Chandigarh,         1400 preschool     IAP        67%                Prevalence in slum population
1999(7)             children                                         significantly higher than rural
                                                                     (45%) or urban (21%) population.
Delhi               630 children       WHO        58%–Underweight    Underweight, wasted and stunted
1997(8)             (< 6 years)                   53%–Stunted        children had significantly lower
                                                  23%– Wasted        energy and protein intakes than
                                                                     normal children.
Lucknow             1061 children      WHO        68%–Underweight    No association between weight or
1997(9)             (1.5-3.5 years)               63%–Stunted        height and intestinal parasite
                                                  26%–Wasted         positivity.
Srinagar            584 preschool      IAP        60%                Higher prevalence in females and
1997(10)            children                      Grade I–33%        with illiterate and poor parents.
                                                  Grade II–21%
                                                  > Grade III–6%
Calcutta            1280 under five    IAP        51%                Malnutrition more in older and
1994(11)                                          Grade I–28%        female children.
                                                  Grade II–17%
                                                  > Grade III–7%
Bhopal, 1992(12) 1000 children         IAP        63%                Positive association with birth order,
                                                  Grade I–41%        family size and illiteracy among
                                                  Grade II–15%       fathers. Girls more likely to
                                                  > Grade III- 2%    have severe grades.
Delhi               88 children        IAP        58%                Malnutrition more likely to be in
1990(13)            (0-5 years)                   Grade I–41%        infants, girls, those with illiterate
                                                  Grade II–15%       parents and higher birth order.
                                                  > Grade III–2%

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                    TABLE I (contd.)–Prevalence of Malnutrition in Urban Slum Children

City/ Year (Ref.)      Profile of    Classifi-     Prevalence of                       Key
                       children       cation       malnutrition                      findings
                       included        used
Delhi               486 preschool      IAP       82%                    Age, sex and education had a
1989( 14)           children                     Grade I–32%            significant association with PEM.
                                                 Grade II–44%
                                                 > Grade III–6%
Calcutta            601 under five     Gomez     92 %                   Severe forms of malnutrition more
1989(15)                               and       Grade I–40%            common in urban slum population
                                       WHO       Grade II–44%           than rural and tribal groups .
                                                 Grade III–9 %
Jabalpur            870 under five     Gomez     94%                    Severe forms of malnutrition more
1989(15)                               and       Grade I–28%            common in urban slum population
                                       WHO       Grade II–45%           than rural and tribal groups.
                                                 Grade III–21%
                                                 Wasting- 29%

significant decline in protein energy mal-               Dietary Intake
nutrition in the country but it is still
unacceptably high. The proportion of children                Feeding practices play a pivotal role in
under three years of age who were under-                 determining the nutritional status, morbidity
weight decreased from 53% in NFHS-1 to                   and survival of children, particularly in the
47% in NFHS-2 and the proportion of severely             neonatal period and infancy. Proper infant
underweight decreased from 20% to 18%(16).               feeding, starting from the time of birth is
Similarly, prevalence of stunting and severe             important for the physical and mental
stunting decreased from 52% and 29% in                   development of the child. The timing and type
NFHS-l to 45% and 23% in NFHS-2. There is                of supplementary foods introduced in an
scarcity of published data reporting the trends          infant’s diet also have significant effects on the
in prevalence of malnutrition in urban slums.            child’s nutritional status.
Gross comparison of available studies (Table             Infant feeding practices
I) fails to demonstrate a positive trend. In a
longitudinal study on 845 under-five slum                    Recommendations state that breastfeeding
children in Pune, 40-50% children below 2                should begin immediately after childbirth and
years of age further deteriorated their                  infants should be exclusively breastfed for the
nutritional status during the study period of            first six months of life. After six months,
two years, while most children above 2 year              adequate and appropriate complementary
age remained in their same lower grade of                foods should be added to the infant’s diet in
nutritional status(17).                                  order to provide sufficient nutrients for

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optimal growth(18). It is recommended that               30-40% of infants younger than 4 months of
breastfeeding should continue along with                 age(5,20-24). The majority of children are first
complementary foods, through the second                  put to breast on the 3rd day after birth and
year of life or beyond. It is further                    colostrum was discarded in upto 90% of
recommended that a feeding bottle with a                 children of the urban slums(25). Use of
nipple should not be used at any age, for                prelacteal feeds is almost universal. Use of
reasons related mainly to sanitation and the             feeding bottles, animal milk and commercial
prevention of infections.                                milk formulae for feeding the young infant
                                                         was very common. When animal milk is
    Although breastfeeding is nearly universal
                                                         given, most added plain water to the animal
in India, very few children begin breastfeeding
                                                         milk in ratios upto 3:1(26). Those giving their
immediately after birth. Countrywide data
                                                         infants formula milk also diluted it
from NFHS-2 documented that only 19% and
                                                         staggeringly excessively. Of the children
45% of women in urban areas started
                                                         using bottles: most had only 1 bottle and
breastfeeding in the first hour and first day of
                                                         1 nipple which is seldom cleaned properly
childbirth, respectively. Fifty-five percent of
children under four months of age were
exclusively breastfed and only 34% of                        Introduction of complementary foods is
children age 6-9 months receive the                      markedly delayed and the foods lack the
recommended combination of breast milk and               consistency, energy density and fed in
solid or mushy food. The median duration of              inadequate amounts and in unhygienic ways.
exclusive breastfeeding was 0.9 months in                In most studies, almost one third of the urban
urban areas as compared to 2.2 months in rural           slum children were not receiving the solid
areas(1).                                                mushy foods even by the age of one year.
    Unlike in the rural setting, women in urban          In a study from South Delhi resettlement
slums work outside their homes; in factories,            colony(26), the average age for introduction of
shops , or as unskilled labourers and domestic           semisolid foods was 10.3 months and 34% of
servants. These categories are not protected by          the children were not weaned until after they
labour laws regarding maternity or sick leave,           reached their 1st birthday. The children are at
hours of work, etc. This occupation pattern of           substantial risk of malnutrition because of the
working women in urban slums has a                       tendency to introduce semisolid foods later
propensity to erode breastfeeding and child-             than the recommended age.
rearing practices(2). Infants are often taken            General Dietary Intake
care of by the older siblings. Studies by the
Nutrition Foundation of India (NFI) in urban                 Most of the countrywide data on this
slums of three major cities (Mumbai, Calcutta            aspect is available from surveys which cater
and Chennai) nearly two decades ago revealed             predominantly to rural areas. The median
serious erosion of breastfeeding practices and           intakes of food and nutrients, in general, were
unhygienic and improper use of commercial                below the recommended dietary intakes
baby foods for infant feeding(19). Thereafter,           (RDI). This is expected considering that the
data from urban slums and resettlement                   main source of calories and of protein in the
colonies repeatedly documented that although             habitual diets of the poor is nearly the same -
the breastfeeding was very common,                       consisting of a single staple cereal with
exclusive breastfeeding was practiced only in            insignificant amount of fat (calorie-rich) and

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protein-rich food like pulses or meat. Wide              for ensuring food hygiene and wholesomeness
variations in nutrient intake were apparent              of foods in public catering establishments and
with the region and socio-economic status.               in retail shops selling food ingredients for the
The urban poor had the least intake followed             poor are woefully inadequate.
by rural and urban better off population,
                                                             In conclusion, malnutrition is a significant
respectively(16). A small scale study from
                                                         problem in urban poor children and there does
National lnstitute of Nutrition showed that the
                                                         not appear to be a positive nutritional
dietary intake of pre-school children in urban
                                                         transition in this population.
slums was no better than those of rural pre-
schoolers. The study showed that 81% of rural            Iron Deficiency Anemia
children and 92% of slum dwellers in
                                                             Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is the most
Hyderabad suffered from current long
                                                         widespread micronutrient deficiency in the
duration malnutrition. NNMB study from 15
                                                         world affecting more than a billion people.
cities all over India documented a lower
                                                         Anemia is a serious concern for young
consumption of energy and nutrients in urban
                                                         children, because it can result in impaired
slums which was comparable to rural landless
                                                         cognitive performance, behavioral and
poor(28). The intake by children was not
                                                         motor development, coordination, language
separately assessed by this survey. However,
                                                         development and scholastic achievement, as
the discrimination against pre-schoolers in
                                                         well as association with increased morbidity
intra-familial food distribution pattern as
                                                         from infectious diseases(30-32).
documented by the rural surveys gives the idea
of the grave status of dietary intake of urban               In NFHS-2, allover the country, about
slum children. Recent data from an urban slum            70.8% of children up to the age of three in
ICDS project in Delhi indicated that the                 urban areas and 75.3% in rural areas had
intake of cereals, pulses, roots, green leafy            anemia and in a considerable proportion the
vegetables (GLVs), other vegetables, fruits,             anemia was of a moderate to severe degree(1).
sugar and fats was grossly inadequate,                   Data from urban slums is available only from
meeting only 43%, 33%, 48%, 13%, 39%                     individual studies. A study from urban
28%, 56% and 40%, respectively of the                    slums of Meerut, Uttar Pradesh reported a
recommendations of balanced diet of                      prevalence of 60% with 24% having severe
children(29). The deficit in the case of GLVs            anemia (Hb <7.0 g/dL)(33). In a recent
was as high as 87%.                                      population-based study from an urban slum
    The consumption of ready-to-eat                      Integrated Child Development Services
‘convenience’ foods is increasing among slum             (ICDS) project in Delhi(29), the prevalence of
dwellers as both the man and the woman of the            anemia (using WHO cut-off values of Hb
household have to observe rigorous working               < 11.0 g/dL) among children, 9-36 months of
hours(1). At the price in which such foods               age, was 64%. Of these 7.8% had severe
have to be sold to the relatively poor, there is         anemia (Hb < 7.0 g/dL). On a sub-sample
the danger that they may be of poor quality              study, 88% children were estimated to be iron
from the nutritional and hygienic points of              deficient, with serum ferritin concentration
view. Inexpensive imitations of fashionable              less than 12 micro g/L. In the same study, the
non-traditional ‘fast foods’ could pose                  mean iron intake from a subgroup of
problem of contamination in such cheap fast              population was 45% of the RDA. Such high
foods. Unfortunately, present arrangements               prevalence of iron deficiency in an ICDS

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block in operation for 20 years is of major                   Low intake of leafy vegetables, milk, egg,
concern.                                                  meat, fish, and fruits in poor children results in
                                                          insufficient intake of dietary vitamin A.
    ln another recent study from school
                                                          Evidence from Delhi urban slums(40) showed
children (5 to 10.9 yr old) of East Delhi slums,
                                                          that nearly 73% of children in the age group
the prevalence of anemia was found to
                                                          12-71 months consumed vitamin A rich foods
be 42%. Iron deficiency anemia was the
                                                          less than three times per week – a level
commonest cause followed by vitamin B12 and
                                                          suggestive of public health problem,
folic acid deficiency(34).
                                                          according to WHO criteria. The frequency of
    The causative factors identified from these           consumption of vitamin A rich food by the
small scale studies were poor dietary iron                families was significantly higher during
intake, delayed introduction and poor quality             winters as compared to summers and rainy
of weaning food and over-reliance on milk.                season and this could be due to comparatively
Exclusive breastfeeding for at least 4 months             high cost of dark green leafy vegetables in
was found to have a protective role. Limited              summers and rainy season.
data indicate that although the prevalence of
intestinal parasitic infestation is high in urban         Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD)
slum children, it had limited or no role in the               Iodine deficiency is one of the widespread
causation of anemia(29,35).                               nutritional deficiencies prevalent in the
Vitamin A Deficiency                                      developing world and it continues to be
                                                          significant public health problem. In India, not
    There is evidence of appreciable secular              even a single state or Union Territory is free
decline in clinical vitamin A deficiency in               from the problem of iodine deficiency
under five children in the country(36,37). Data           disorders(41). However, most of the data on
from urban slum children is scant. ln a cross-            this aspect is available from rural areas.
sectional study from 1000 slum children in                Information from urban areas particularly
Bhopal, the prevalence of clinical vitamin A              urban slums is scarce. In Delhi, the goiter
deficiency was 23%(12). In a recent cross-                prevalence rate in school children declined
sectional study in 1094 children (6 years) from           from 55.2% in 1980 to 8.6% in 1996 after
2 randomly selected urban slums of Nagpur,                universal salt iodization(42,43). A recent
9% of the children had xerophthalmia(38).                 study conducted on 6-12 years school going
However, the result of dietary intake                     children from urban areas of Udaipur revealed
assessment revealed that 91% study subjects               a goiter prevalence of 8.4% and biochemical
consumed dietary vitamin A at below                       deficiency of nearly 8%( 44).
recommended levels. Conjunctival impression
cytology studies from a subgroup of children                  The limited data available from urban
suggested that 36% of those not having                    slums documents a high prevalence of iodine
clinical vitamin A deficiency had evidence of             deficiency. Recent report from pregnant
subclinical vitamin A deficiency(39). This                women residing in Delhi slums revealed a
problem of subclinical vitamin A deficiency in            IDD prevalence of 23%(45). In a report on
apparently healthy subjects may assume                    866 adolescents from Mumbai slums, the
significance as any intercurrent infection is             prevalence of goiter was 56% in both boys and
likely to worsen the vitamin A status and result          girls with a visible goiter rate of 10-11%(46).
in known consequences of xerophthalmia.                   The scholastic performance of the adolescents

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with goiter was poor. Overall, IDD continues             of nutrients due to infections and parasites.
to be a nutritional problem for Indian children.         Underlying these factors are various
However, the situation has definitely                    inadequacies with respect to household and
improved after universal salt iodization.                community level access to food, health,
Others                                                   environmental and caring resources. High
                                                         prevalence of malnutrition among young
    Data from small scale individual studies             children is also due to lack of awareness and
indicate that the prevalence of various other            knowledge regarding their food requirements
nutritional deficiencies like vitamin B, vitamin         and absence of a responsible adult care giver.
C, vitamin D and micronutrients too is                   Malnutrition is found among children in
significant in urban slum populations. In the            households that have no shortage of food. The
Pune study, clinical vitamin D deficiency was            period of 6 months to 2 years when the child is
10% to 20% in different seasons among                    dependent on someone to feed him/her, has the
preschoold urban slum children(17). Lack of              maximum malnutrition. Also, there are many
exposure to sunlight because of the poorly               taboos and beliefs regarding foods suitable for
illuminated and closely spaced huts coupled              a child without any scientific basis. Absence of
with nutritional deprivation appears to be the           household food security, inadequate
main causative factor for rickets in urban slum          preventive and curative heatth services,
children. Younger children (< 2 years) are               insufficient knowledge of proper care and
particularly vulnerable as their mothers mostly          discriminatory practices regarding food
work as housemaids or labourers during day               distribution add to the problem.
time and the older siblings who are often given
                                                             Broadly, the factors contributing to the
the responsibility of their care go outside for
                                                         poor nutritional status of the urban slum
play leaving the younger ones confined in the
                                                         children could be divided into four categories
                                                         (Table II).
Key Issues
                                                         Addressing the Problem
    It is important to understand various                    Our health system has so far accorded
etiological determinants of malnutrition in              higher priority to rural population as rural
order to formulate meaningful strategies to              populations far outnumber the urban and
combat the problem. It is generally recognized           generally believed to have poorer access to
that the etiology of malnutrition is multi-              health facilities. The urban sector however,
factorial and the proportional contribution for          now needs increasing attention and organiza-
many such factors is unknown as many of the              tion. It is obvious that the interventions to
potential determinants are highly associated             combat malnutrition should be specific for
and their effects are thus mutually                      the targeted population and directed at the
confounded.                                              quantitatively important modifiable determi-
   Scant available data from urban slums                 nants of nutritional status. The quantitative
suggest that the most common causes of                   importance of a factor is dependent on its
malnutrition include poor maternal nutrition             individual effect, magnitude and prevalence;
at conception and in utero undernutrition                however, issues such as cost- effectiveness,
resulting in low birth weight, inadequate                cultural acceptability, and political feasibility
breastfeeding, delayed and insufficient                  are also important determinants of any
complementary feeding, impaired utilization              intervention program.

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                      TABLE II–Causes of Poor Nutritional Status in Urban Slum Children.

1.   Inadequate food intake
     • Improper infant feeding practices
          • Lack of exclusive breastfeeding
          • Late introduction of solid mushy foods
          • Dilution of milk
     • Poor caloric and nutritional content of food
     • Inequitable intra-familial distribution (Age and gender differences)
2.   Illness (Recurrent diarrheal and ARI morbidity)
     •    Poor environmental and housing conditions.
     •    Lack of hygiene and sanitation facilities
     •    Inadequate access and utilization of health care
     •    Poor food hygiene
3.   Deleterious caring practices
     •    Absence of responsible adult caregiver.
     •    Lack of knowledge regarding food requirements.
     •    Traditional beliefs
      •   Parental illiteracy
     •    Poverty
4.   Service issues
     •    Lack of reach and co-ordination of public sector services.
     •    Inadequate training and supervision of service providers in nutritional counseling.
     •    Missed opportunities for counseling.
     •    Compromised efficiency of services and programs (Urban ICDS, PDS and others).
     •    Inadequate targeting of the urban poor.

Promoting healthy infant feeding practices                    care system since infant feeding behaviors and
                                                              mothers’ perceptions of optimal feeding
      On the basis of currently available                     practices are influenced by their interactions
evidence, the promotion of optimal breast-                    with the health care system(47). Efforts in
feeding and infant feeding practices is clearly               health facilities need to be linked with
the need of the hour. It is thus important to                 outreach efforts so that interventions
provide optimal infant feeding services to                    effectively reach families and women.
mothers and other household family members                    Counseling and education should be made
by dedicated and skilled staff. Most inter-                   integral part of any breastfeeding support
ventions designed to improve optimal infant                   program. It is true that these interventions
feeding practices involve the health care                     require more organization, intensive training,
system. Even the interventions that are                       highly motivated staff and generation of
implemented outside the health care system                    additional resources but simultaneously for an
are affected by what happens within the heath                 intervention to be effective, it is important

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to know how well and by whom it is                      synthetic vitamins and micronutrients can
implemented rather than what specifically is            bring the improvement in nutritional status of
implemented. To effectively reach the target            population(50). The provision of nutrient
population, the promotional strategies should           bullets may appear simple and convenient but
preferably be community based. The concept              such pharmacological interventions have
of peer counseling (Local mothers who                   proved to be ineffective besides being
receive training in infant feeding counseling)          expensive. Valid scientific justification and
is encouraging(48). Peer counseling has been            practical need however exists for the use of
shown to significantly improve breastfeeding            synthetic nutrients in some situations like
and complementary feeding practices. In one             iodine and iron/folic acid deficiencies.
such project from urban slum populations
                                                            The relative cost effectiveness of
in Dhaka, Bangladesh, the prevalence of
                                                        providing nutritional supplementation to all
exclusive breastfeeding at 5 months was
                                                        children in preference to nutritional advice
70% for the intervention group and 6% for
                                                        should be scientifically explored in a true
the control group (difference = 64%; 95%
                                                        program setting and the results should
CI 57%-71%, p < 0.0001). Mothers in the
                                                        determine the need for investing a large
intervention group also initiated breastfeeding
                                                        proportion of the available health budget for
earlier than control mothers and were less
                                                        the former option on a routine basis. Limited
likely to give prelacteal and postlacteal
                                                        evidence from urban slums of Bangladesh
                                                        suggests that targeted food supplementation
    Fortunately, most of the needed inter-              programs have only a limited impact in
ventions can be delivered through existing              improving the nutritional status of children in
services like urban ICDS and RCH. However,              comparison to the nutrition education
specific infant feeding components need to be           alone(51).
integrated well into these services and their               The strategy for improvement of nutrition
overall quality needs improvement. The ICDS             of young children should include a balanced
operation may have to bestow at least as much           mix of palliative and preventive measures.
attention on urban slums as on rural areas in           There is a clear need to identify and treat
the future, and it will be necessary to set up          maternal and child undernutrition in urban
‘anganwadis’ to provide services for women              slums. This requires improved training and
and children. Mobile creches will need to be            supervision of service providers in nutritional
set up in increasing numbers in order that              counseling and growth monitoring. A
infants and children of poor working women              promising community based step in this
engaged in labour at construction sites or              direction is ‘Positive Deviance’ approach
factories, can be breastfed. Initiatives to             which is a methodology for finding out what
provide maternity leave for women in                    families of well-nourished are practicing in the
unorganized sector are worth considering.               community(52). Using this as the basis for the
Nutritional Advice and Supplementation                  nutrition education and demonstration, the
                                                        caregivers and children come together for
     Lessons from the past indicate that                rehabilitation and education sessions to learn
intervention programs consisting in improved            how to practice the behaviors that the positive
dietary practices and all-round socio-eco-              deviants practice. This methodology is based
nomic development rather than distribution of           on sustainable behavioral change to

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rehabilitate malnourished children, sustaining           raised, thus ensuring their nutrition security.
health practices and preventing future                   City governments should also pay attention to
malnutrition. However, this approach needs a             urban agriculture.
lot of dedicated volunteer-power besides                 Improving health
intensive training and supervision.
                                                             Much of the malnutrition currently
Improving food security                                  prevalent in children of urban slums is
    In the past food and nutrition security has          attributable to conditioned malnutrition,
been largely interpreted to mean adequate                arising from infections like diarrhea, ARI and
availability of food for the country as a whole.         measles. The health of the urban poor is
Food production alone cannot ensure food                 threatened as a result of living amid filthy
security. The availability of adequate food at           conditions in flimsy, makeshift and
the household level does not necessarily imply           overcrowded housing. Improvement of
that the food is distributed to members                  environmental sanitation, provision of safe
according to their physiological needs. The              drinking water and modification of personal
worst sufferers in this regard are women of              hygiene and health seeking behaviors are
childbearing age and children. Faulty                    critical to improve health and nutritional status
intrafamilial distribution of food and faulty            of urban poor. Any nutritional program is
choice of food contribute to a considerable              likely to fail in the context of continuing poor
part of under-nutrition in children and women            sanitation, poor health care and poor personal
in poor urban households. A significant                  hygiene. This issue has been dealt in detail in
proportion of low birth weight deliveries and            an earlier article in this series(53).
infant malnutrition is directly attributable to          Operational issues
lack of awareness of the special nutrient needs
of pregnant women and children. In the                       Addressing urban malnutrition will
background of poverty, nutrition education               require a clear, comprehensive strategy that
can make a significant contribution in this              includes governments, nongovernmental and
area.                                                    community organizations, and the urban poor
    Improving urban food and nutrition
                                                             The above reviewed literature suggests
security requires a more direct, more focused,
                                                         that urban poor do not benefit much in terms of
and more integrated strategy. To increase
                                                         nutrition by migration from rural areas inspite
incomes of the poor, national governments
                                                         of better employment opportunities and
must establish macroeconomic policies that
                                                         healthcare facilities likely to be available in
encourage growth, and labor policies that do
                                                         urban areas. This suggests that these facilities
not discriminate against them. Improving
                                                         do not reach the urban poor in any significant
women’s educational levels and providing
                                                         manner. In the current scenario, welfare
mothers with information they need on
                                                         measures such as Public Distribution
childcare are also important components of a
                                                         System (PDS), ICDS and Slum improvement
strategy to improve nutrition. Mass media
                                                         programs do not seem to have much beneficial
such as radio and television can be used for
                                                         effects on the nutritional status of slum
communication of nutrition related messages.
                                                         children. ICDS being an integrated and
   By imparting vocational skills, the income            multisectoral program has great potential in
generating capacity of the urban poor can be             achieving the goals. Strengthening of ICDS

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                                          Key Messages
   • Nutritional status of urban slum children as assessed by nutritional anthropometry and
     vitamin/micronutrient deficiencies is far from being satisfactory and is worse than the
     urban or rural average.
   • There does not appear to be a positive nutritional transition in children from urban slums.
   • The major causes of childhood malnutrition in this population are inappropriate infant
     and young child feeding practices, infections, improper food security and suboptimal
     child care besides poor availability and inadequate utilization of health care services.
   • Improving nutritional status of urban poor requires direct, focused and integrated
     strategies that are preferably community based and involve the behavior modification
     by education in addition to providing comprehensive preventive and curative health
     and nutritional services.

in terms of delivery, quality and coordination           the government’s role should be limited to
is required to make them more focused and                provide the resources to facilitate community
tailored to the needs of urban slum dwellers.            action.
The emphasis should be on nutrition and heath
                                                         The Ultimate Solution
education activities for behavior change rather
than mere distribution of food. Supplementary                The slum improvement approaches should
food should be viewed and used only as a                 be preventive consisting of preventing the
magnet for providing other services under the            influx of rural migrants on the one hand and
ICDS scheme. Nutritional counseling and                  checking the indiscriminate expansion of
behavioral modification should be made a key             existing urban areas in the surrounding
component of the nutritional services rendered           agricultural regions on the other. In this
by ICDS program(54). The improved training               context, proper implementation of anti-
and supervision of workers with concentration            poverty income-generating programs all
on intersectoral coordination will substantially         designed to check migration of the rural work
improve the quality and impact. Involvement              force to urban areas, assumes great importance
of community leaders, non governmental and               and should be coordinated with other on-going
community based organizations should be                  health/nutrition/economic and education
encouraged.                                              programs primarily focused on urban slums
                                                         and their neighborhoods. The action plans
    Any program for the improvement of                   should be free from vote bank politics.
health and nutritional status of urban poor can          Relocation in neighboring agricultural regions
succeed only if the community itself is                  without providing infrastructural facilities as
actively involved and is prepared to play a              well as organizing demonstrations and
positive constructive role. It will be neces-            ‘dharnas’ to prevent relocations of slums is not
sary to promote the growth of motivated                  in the interest of the urban poor. It is desired
community organizations in urban slums.                  that the political leaders direct their energies in
Community should be mobilized and                        more constructive manner and organize the
empowered to assume the leadership role and              services for upliftment of the urban poor.
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