Fall 2011 Assignment # 1 Due Date: November, 04, 2011 Total Marks: 10 Objectives: To asses students’ knowledge of the subject and to motivate them towards conceptual knowledge and practical application of the subject. Instructions 1. Late assignments will not be accepted. 2. If the file is corrupt or problematic, it will be marked zero. 3. Plagiarism will never be tolerated. Plagiarism occurs when a student uses work done by someone else as if it was his or her own; however, taking the ideas from different sources and to express it in your own words will be encouraged. 4. If any assignment is found copied work, no marks will be awarded and the case may be referred to the head of the academics for disciplinary action. 5. No assignment will be accepted via e-mail. 6. The file should be in Word doc form; the font color should be preferably black and font size can be 12 Times New Roman. Guideline: Try to be genuine and impressive in your approach. Assignment: Elaborate the Khilafat Movement and causes of its failure. What did the Muslims of the Sub-Continent gain from this religio-political Movement? Khilafat Movement was a religio-political Movement launched by the Muslims of the British India for the retention of the Ottoman Caliphate or khilafat-e-usmania and for not letting for the Muslim holy places go under the control of the Non-Muslims. During the 1st World War Turkey sided with Germany and as Germany started to loose Turkey also started loosing its territory. By the time 1st World War came to an end in 1918 Turkey had lost most of its territory. Therefore the issue at that time was how the allied powers would treat Turkey, the Ottoman Empire or the Khilafat-e-usmania and most of its territory had been occupied and this Movement was on its peak from 1919 to 1922, although it went on during the later years. Being brothers, the Indian Muslims realized their religious duty to help the Muslim country. It was the extra territorial attachments based on Islam. Another factor same to the first was that the Indian Muslims considered Ottoman Caliphate a symbol of unity of the Muslim world as Ummah. Goals: These were the goals of this Movement. Ottoman Khilafat should be kept intact. This was the 1st demand of the Khilafat Movement that we are going to discuss very shortly Territorial solidarity of Turkey should be preserved. Control of holy the places of the Muslims should not be given to non-Muslims that were Non-Muslim powers. This was the first major political Movement launched by the Muslims in India which involved the common man. Since the inception of the Muslim League in 1906, the Muslims had started demanding certain safeguards from the British. They were also interacting with the other communities and the Congress party. However politics during that time from 1906 to 1919 was the elitist politics. That is politics of educated people and also people who are well off who could spare time who could spare money were involved in politics. Khilafat Movement was the 1st movement where ordinary people were involved, or the ordinary Muslims were involved, people in the streets were involved and therefore politics at that time came down to the ordinary masses. Another important aspect of this Movement was that it showed the mobilization capacity of Islam amongst the Muslims. It showed the extent to which the Muslims of the British India held Islam and how much Islamic institutions are dear to them. So it clearly showed that Islam had a lot of mobilizational capacity and appeal for the ordinary people. Another aspect emphasizes the extra-territorial attachments of the Muslims of India based on Islam. Extra-territorial means that people feel attached to certain institutions and ideological framework that may be beyond the territorial boundaries of their own countries that is extra-territorial attachment. Amongst the Muslims extra-territorial attachments are always been very strong and these extra- territorial attachments are based on Islam. Two concepts of Islam are very strong force for the Muslims of British India. Causes of failure of this Movement: The Khilafat Movement that was started by the Muslims of the British India for the retention of the institution of the Ottoman Empire and for retaining the control of the Muslims holy places, that movement gradually fizzled out. How that did happen a number of developments from 1921 to onward contributed to that. The 1st important development that adversely affected the movement was the Mopla Revolt on the Malabar area in the Calicut. The 2nd incident that affected this Movement was the increase in violence when in 1920 Non Cooperation Movement was launched by Gandhi. 3rd and most significant development relates to Turkey itself, things began to change in Turkey. He abolished the institution of Khilafat. Gandhi’s betrayal to the Muslims was another factor that led to failure of this movement. Consequences for the Muslims: Turkey became Republic and in March 1924 the Grand National Assembly the parliament of Turkey abolished the institution of Khilafat.In March 1924, Khilafat was abolished. So in a way the very institution for which the Muslims were fighting had been replaced by Turkey’s new leadership that emerged, the present day Turkey that emerged in 1922.This caused a widespread resentment among the Indian Muslims. They sent delegations to Turkey but failed to achieve their objectives. As the institution of Khilafat was abolished the movement became weak and disappeared gradually and this is how Khilafat Movement ended. These were the consequences for the Muslims after the end of this Movement. 1. It was re-affirmation of the reality that religion is a mobilizing force and especially Islam has mobilization capacity to organize masses. 2. It was the movement launched on the basis of extra-territorialism. Later, no such movement but Pan-Islamic sentiments continued. 3. It resulted in the sufferings of the Muslims 4. Hindu-Muslim unity proved short-lived. 5. Reactivation of the Muslim League and other Muslims organizations to restart their activities as a separate nation. The Khilafat Movement ended without achieving its goals. The sacrifices of the Indian Muslims were doomed and appeared to have been in vain. The Indian politics had entered into a new era and was presenting a shabby scene. The Hindu-Muslim unity and brotherhood were the things of the past and people, once again, were moving within their traditionally narrow mindedness. Some Hindu leaders had started a movement for converting Muslims to Hinduism which provided a new cause of bitterness. Over the next few years Hindu Muslims riots erupted at a number of places. The political climate in the country was that of a general apathy.
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