Sociology 134 Problems of American Racial and Ethnic Minorities by ert554898

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									Unemployment Rates 16+, 1950-2000 (Male & Female)

                      White(80%+)                                    Mixed
  20
  15




                                                                             1     1
  10




                                   1      1            1      1                           1
                                   2             1     2
                                                       3      2              2     2
         1       1                        2            4                     3
         2       2                 3                          3      1             3      2
                                                                             4
   5




         3       3        1        4      3      2     5      4
                                                              5      2
                                                                     3       5     4      3
         4       4        2
                          3        5      4      3
                                                 4                   4             5      4
                                                                                          5
         5       5        4
                          5               5      5                   5
   0




                                                     1950   1960   1970   1980   1990   2000

                      Black(80%+)
                                          1
  20




                                                 1
                                   1
  15




                                   2      2
                 1                               2
  10




                                   3
                                   4
         1
         2       2                        3
         3       3                               3
         4                1        5      4      4
                 4
                 5        2
                          3
   5




                                          5      5
                          4
                          5
   0




       1950   1960    1970       1980   1990   2000
                 Unemployment Rate, by Tract Income Quintile and Year
  Graphs by racial composition
Total Nonemployment 16-64, Male & Female Combined

                         White(80%+)                                    Mixed
    50


            1                                             1
            2                                             2
    40




            3       1                                            1      1       1
            4
            5                1        1                   3                                  1
                                                                                      1
                    2                        1            4
                    3        2                                          2
                    4        3        2             1            2
                             5
    30




                    5        4                            5      3              2
                                      3                                 3
                                                                        4       3            2
                                      4
                                      5      2      2            4      5             2
                                                                                4            3
                                             3      3            5                    3      4
    20




                                             4      5
                                                    4                           5            5
                                             5                                        4
                                                                                      5

                                                        1950   1960   1970   1980   1990   2000

                         Black(80%+)
    50




                                      1      1      1
            1
            2
    40




            3       1        1
                                      2             2
            4       2        2
    30




                                      3      2
                    3        3        4             3
                    4
                    5        4
                             5               3      4
                                             4
    20




                                      5             5
                                             5

         1950    1960    1970       1980   1990   2000
            Nonemployment Rate Ages 16-64, by Tract Income Quintile and Year
     Graphs by racial composition
Total Nonemployment (UE/out of LF): Female 16-64
                      White(80%+)                                    Mixed
 80




         1       1
         2
         3       2                                     1
         4       3
                 5
                 4                                     2      1
 60




         5                                             3
                          1                                   2
                                                              3
                          2
                          3                            4             1
                          5
                          4        1                          4              1
                                                              5      2             1
                                   2      1            5             3                    1
 40




                                   3                                 4       2
                                   5
                                   4             1                   5
                                          2                                  3
                                                 2                           4     2      2
                                          3
                                          5
                                          4      5
                                                 3                           5     3      3
                                                                                          5
                                                 4                                        4
                                                                                   4
 20




                                                                                   5


                                                     1950   1960   1970   1980   1990   2000

                      Black(80%+)
 80
 60




         1
         2       1
         3
                 2        1        1
         4       3                        1
                 4
                 5                               1
                          2
 40




                          3        2
                          5
                          4        3
                                   4             2
                                          2
                                          3      3
                                                 4
                                                 5
                                          4
 20




                                   5
                                          5

       1950   1960    1970       1980   1990   2000
      Female Nonemployment Rate Ages 16-64, by Tract Income Quintile and Year
  Graphs by racial composition
Total Nonemployment (UE or Out of LF): Male 16-64

                       White(80%+)                                    Mixed
   50
   40




                                                                                           1
                                                                              1
   30




                                                                                    1
                                           1      1            1
                                    1
                  1                                     1             1                    2
                                                                              2
   20




          1                                             2                           2
                           1        2      2      2     3
                                                        4             2       3            3
          2                                                    2
                                                               3              4     3      4
          3       2                 3      3      3     5             3
                                                                      4
          4       3        2        4             4            4      5       5     4      5
          5                3               4                                        5
   10




                  4
                  5        4
                           5        5      5      5            5

                                                      1950   1960   1970   1980   1990   2000

                       Black(80%+)
   50




                                                  1
                                           1
   40




                                    1

                                                  2
   30




                                    2
                  1                        2      3
          1                1        3
                                    4             4
          2                                3
   20




          3       2        2               4
                  3        3        5             5
          4
                           4               5
                  4
   10




                  5        5

        1950   1960    1970       1980   1990   2000
        Male Nonemployment Rate Ages 16-64, by Tract Income Quintile and Year
   Graphs by racial composition
    2006 Median Earnings (25-64)
100000

80000

60000

40000

20000

    0
            HS      BA/BS        MA/MS      Doctorate
 Hispanic Females   Black Females        Asian Females
 White Females      Hispanic Males       Black Males
 Asian Males        White Males
                                  Figure 1a. Positive responses by race and                      Figure 1b. Differences in positive responses
                                                   ethnicity                                                by race and ethnicity

                       36.00                                                                                                                                  28.00


                       32.00           31.0                                                                                                                   24.00


                       28.00                                                                                                                                  20.00
                                                            25.1




                                                                                                                                                                      Percentage point difference
                       24.00                                                                                                                                  16.00
Positive reponse (%)




                       20.00                                                                                                                                  12.00

                                                                                15.2
                       16.00                                                                                                                                  8.00


                       12.00                                                                                                                                  4.00


                        8.00                                                                                                                                  0.00


                        4.00                                                                                                                                  -4.00


                        0.00                                                                                                                                  -8.00
                                       White              Hispanic              Black              White - Hispanic     White - Black     Hispanic - Black



                               Note: Hollow circles in Figure 1b indicate point estimates of the difference. Solid circles indicate differences obtained by
                               sequentially dropping testers from the analysis. 95% confidence intervals were estimated from a logistic hierarchical regression
                               with employer and tester random effects. Number of employers = 171.
              A Retail Sales Job
     “She said the position was just filled and that she
    would be calling people in for an interview if the
     person doesn’t work out.”

     “She informed me that the position was already
    filled, but did not know if the hired employee
     would work out. She told me to leave my resume
     with her.”
    “….I asked what the hiring process was--if they’re
   taking applications now, interviewing, etc. She
    looked at my application. ‘You can start
    immediately?’ Yes. ‘Can you start tomorrow?’
    Yes. ‘10 a.m.’
    She was very friendly and introduced me to
    another woman (white, 28) at the cash register
    who will be training me.”
           Concerns over “Fitting-In”

    “He said he was looking for somebody that
   ‘spoke his language,’ in other words, someone
    that fit into the culture of the store and the
    position…. He said to come tomorrow at 9am.
    He said that this is only a trial period to see if I
    am ‘the right fit.’”

    “He read over my resume and asked if I am
    ready to start. I said “right now?” He said
   “Yes.”….He said he needed someone right
    now because they were having an exhibit
    Saturday. He said they will hire anyone that
    walks in.” As Kevin was leaving, he reports
    hearing the interviewer comment to another
    (white) employee, “I like him. He makes a
    good impression.”
         Racial Stereotypes at Work

    A white tester’s experience:
   “His only question was ‘Are you a
    friendly person?’”

    His Latino partner:
   “No one can be late more than two
    times or they will have to be fired.”

    Their black partner:
   “He asked if I thought I would be able
    to approach 14 to 18 year old girls
    without intimidating them.”

								
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