"Violence Against Women and Girls and Men Experiencing Domestic Abuse"
Paper F Appendix Violence Against Women and Girls and 2011- Men 2014 Experiencing Domestic Violence A Partnership Strategy for Suffolk Table of Contents Foreword 3 Section 1 Strategic Vision 5 Executive Summary 6 Section 2 National Research 8 Local Context / Background 9 - 11 Section 3 Priorities 13 1 Prevention 14 - 17 2 Provision 18 - 20 3 Partnership Working 21 - 22 4 Reducing Risk 23 - 24 Section 4 Responding to male victims of abuse 26 - 27 Section 5 Objectives 29 Annexe Glossary of Terms 30 Appendix 1 Delivery Action Plan 2 Foreword (Joanna Spicer, Chair County Forum) 3 Section 1 4 Strategic Vision The impact of any form of abuse, The strategy is allied to and builds on including physical violence and sexual the previous Domestic Abuse Strategy assault on victims and survivors is 2008 – 2011 and the many notable both devastating and traumatic. It is outcomes that have already been acknowledged that whatever the age achieved. or gender of the victim it can affect their mental, physical and sexual What is violence against women health throughout their lifetime. & girls? It is in this context and in recognition of The United Nations (UN) Declaration the local, national and international (1993) on the Elimination of Violence scale and impact of violence against Against Women defines such acts as: women and girls and the effect it has on families, including children that the “ ..any act of gender-based violence Suffolk Strategy 2011-2014 has been that results in, or is likely to result in, developed. We recognise that men physical, sexual psychological harm of can also be affected by domestic and suffering to women including threats of sexual violence (see section 4). such acts, coercion or arbitrary However, the gendered nature of deprivation of liberty, whether violence and the fear it evokes must occurring in public or private life.” be acknowledged and understood; we will seek to improve this recognition Such violence includes: across all communities in Suffolk. domestic violence The strategy aims to provide a clear direction for multi-agency working sexual violence and abuse involving both the statutory and stalking voluntary sector, an underpinning framework of support for victims and female genital mutilation survivors and one that holds so called “honour” based violence perpetrators fully accountable for their actions. We will send out a clear forced marriage message that violence and abuse is prostitution and sexual exploitation not acceptable, will be recognised and will be dealt with. We have a shared trafficking commitment to support our vision that Central Government is promoting women and girls in Suffolk should not collective action from local live in fear of violence or abuse. This government, statutory agencies, will be achieved through strategic voluntary groups and local planning, direct service provision and communities. Violence against women commissioning and greater community and girls is a gender based crime that involvement based on these four goes beyond the criminal justice priorities: system to encompass health, children’s services, education, housing Prevention – preventing violence and local authorities. These crimes and abuse happening transcend community borders and Provision – providing support racial, religious, ethnic and Partnership working - to achieve socioeconomic lines. It is now widely best outcomes for victims recognised that violence against Reducing risk - to victims and women and girls is a cause and holding perpetrators to account consequence of gender inequalities. 5 Executive Summary We are pleased to present Suffolk’s strategy for tackling violence against women and girls. Our response to male victims is outlined in Section 4. The strategy has been developed in partnership with statutory and voluntary agencies directly involved in addressing all forms of violence through direct service provision, strategic planning and commissioning services. Since the implementation of the We recognise that solutions to the previous strategy Domestic Abuse – A criminal and abusive behaviours Partnership Strategy for Suffolk 2008 – associated with violence against 2011, responses to those at highest women and girls are not just the risk has improved, victims are being responsibility of the police or the identified and offered support at an criminal justice system. Most are earlier stage and national and local achievable through prevention, early campaigns have been aimed to raise intervention, education and training public awareness. A key aim of our which can be delivered locally. Our previous strategy was to encourage approach aligns with Central more reporting while reducing repeat Government’s perspective that for too victimisation. The number of long violence against women and incidents reported to Suffolk girls has been dealt with primarily as Constabulary has increased year on a criminal justice issue year but as the chart indicates the percentage of repeat victims from Collaborative working between local 2008 – 2011 have fallen in proportion domestic abuse forums, statutory to the overall yearly totals. agencies and Community Safety …………………………………………… Partnerships is already supporting the Year Total 2008/09 2009/10 2010/11 development of multi-agency services number of coordinated at local level. These DV Cases 6085 6951 7399 services include those aimed to change perpetrators attitudes and Children behaviours outside criminal justice Ordinarily Resident 2496 3053 3064 responses. Repeat Victim 1650 1997 1916 Financial constraints present % with challenges, however this strategy aims children to continue these positive trends 41.0% 43.9% 41.4% ordinarily resident towards reducing incidents of abuse % repeat through setting priorities and driving 27.1% 28.7% 25.9% victim forward work to meet these following objectives: 1. Embed preventative measures within organisations and work to change public attitudes which perpetuate abuse. 2. Develop innovative and sustainable improvements to ensure quality services in every area of Suffolk. 3. Work in partnership to ensure the best outcome for victims and families 4. Deliver an effective justice system to protect and reduce risk to victims and bring offenders to justice 5. Encourage measures to support male victims of domestic abuse Section 2 7 National Research National surveys indicate that violence is still mostly thought of as physical assault or sexual abuse and that the impact of emotional and psychological abuse, financial abuse and the imposition of social isolation is often not considered or understood as part of violent pattern of behaviour. Similarly to domestic violence such crimes can remain ‘hidden’, mostly due to fear of retribution and/or reluctance to report because of a lack of confidence in the criminal justice system, or poor information about support that is available. National statistics available from HM Government indicate that in England and Wales: More than 1 in 4 women since aged 16 has experienced at least I incident of domestic abuse Every year I million women experience at least one incident of domestic abuse equating to 20,000 a week1 Every year over 300,000 women are sexually assaulted and … Every year over 60,000 are raped Women were the victims of 73% of all domestic incidents in 2009/102 34% of all rapes are committed against children under 16 years of age3 Of the 88% of young people in an intimate partner relationship, 33 % of girls reported some form of sexual partner violence4 70% of teenage mothers are in a violent relationship5 In 2008/09 94% of defendants in domestic abuse cases were men; over the same period 86% of victims were women6 From January – September 2010 the Forced Marriage Unit received 1241 reports of forced marriage, and 37% of cases dealt with by the Forced Marriage Unit involved children with 16.5% of those being under 16 years old7 66,000 women are estimated to be living with the consequences of female genital mutilation in England and Wales8 An estimated 80,000 people are involved in prostitution. As well as being at risk of exploitation they are particularly likely to be victims of violent and sexual crime9 1 Domestic Violence and Sexual Violence: Povey, D. (ed) Homicides, Firearms & intimate Violence. Home Office statistical bulletin 02/09 2 Figures derived from 2009/10 British Crime Survey data 3 Walker, A., Kershaw, C. & Nicholas, S Crime in England & Wales 2008/09 4 Domestic Violence and Sexual Violence: Povey, D. (ed) Homicides, Firearms & intimate Violence. Home Office statistical bulletin 02/09 5 Harrykisson et al, (2008) Prevalence and patterns of intimate partner violence among adolescent mothers during the postpartum period 6 Crown Prosecution Service Report (CPS) 2009 7 Forced Marriage Unit 2009/10; HM Government Call to End Violence Against Women & Girls; published November 2010 8 HM Government Call to End Violence Against Women & Girls; published November 2010 9 Coordinated Prostitution Strategy & Summary of Responses to Paying the Price; Home Office 2006 8 Overview /local context 2008 - 2011 Progress has been made towards has assisted the successful conviction tackling domestic and other forms of of perpetrators for serious crimes at abuse affecting women and girls Crown Court. The chart illustrates during 2008 – 2011; specific materials high risk referrals received in 2010-11 for male victims have also been within the defined categories of: developed. There are many examples of good practice in the delivery of HBV – Honour Based Violence services in Suffolk and multi agency FM – Forced Marriage working has improved. This has been FGM – Female Genital Mutilation supported by strategic planning and FMPO – Forced Marriage Protection establishing tackling domestic abuse Orders as a priority within Community Safety, NRPF - No Recourse to Public Funds all District and Borough Councils and ILR – Indefinite Leave to Remain Suffolk Constabulary. Quarter Quarter Quarter Quarter In line with nationally led priorities and 1 2011 4 2010 3 2010 2 2010 with support from Government funding HBV 10 23 19 11 services for victims at high risk have FM 7 10 12 8 been set up within Suffolk FGM 0 1 0 0 Constabulary and the Sexual Assault FMPO 0 0 1 1 Referral Centre (SARC) opened in NRPF 4 4 1* 5 1* 2 2* ILR ILR ILR April 2011. The Independent Domestic Granted Granted Granted Violence Advocacy service (IDVA) is supporting victims to achieve We have continued to respond to the successful outcomes through the need to improve practices in a multi- justice system with additional support agency environment by providing and expertise available from Victim training to underpin effective Care Officers based in Police Victim collaborative working across agency Care Centres. boundaries. Specialist Domestic Violence Courts have become operational in Ipswich, Training has been expanded to include Bury St Edmunds and Lowestoft, male victims of domestic abuse and multi-agency risk assessment other issues such as forced marriage, conferencing (MARAC) has become honour based abuse, and Knowledge integrated into procedures within key and Information = Choice (KIC) based agencies. on working with small groups of women from diverse communities and MARAC Cases 2008* – 2011 hard-to-reach groups. In partnership Apr 2010 - Mar 2011 198 cases with the Safeguarding Children Board Apr 2009 - Mar 2010 175 cases joint training to raise awareness of Apr 2008 - Mar 2009 154 cases domestic abuse, forced marriage, * Northern MARAC began Nov 08, honour based abuse and female Western MARAC began Dec 08 genital mutilation has been jointly delivered to Teachers Forums across Honour based abuse, forced marriage the County. Training for Trainers has and female genital mutilation is a been completed with mental health serious issue for women and girls services and a new programme living in Suffolk. A specialist service developed to enable health trainers to is now in place within the Constabulary deliver mandatory training. to support those affected. The service Prostitution and sexual exploitation procedures which have been has been brought together within implemented to protect and reduce the Suffolk County Council through the harm to children living with domestic inter- agency Make a Change team. and other forms of abuse. Working The team’s wide brief includes off with other specialist services new street premises, trafficking, supporting guidance has been introduced for adults to develop routes out of those working with children, including prostitution and work to prevent schools, covering honour based children being abused through sexual abuse, forced marriage and sexual exploitation exploitation. Preventative work takes place, whilst The detrimental impact on children still intensively supporting those whose and young people living with parental lifestyles continue to be chaotic substance misuse and/or domestic through violence, coercion and violence is well documented and can substance misuse. The team has include child abuse and neglect, poor achieved national recognition through metal health, lower levels of school its pioneering work and with service attendance and achievement and users has contributed to national antisocial behaviour. It is essential that research studies. Achievements substance misuse treatment agencies include: and organisations working to reduce domestic abuse and support victims Identifying perpetrators or alleged work together to address the perpetrators of abuse through contributory factors and ensure the sexual exploitation increasing health and welfare of any children and understanding of their networks young people that are involved. and internal trafficking. Successful prosecutions relating to In Suffolk we are fortunate to have a brothels and external trafficking. strong and active voluntary sector Improving services available to dedicated to reducing domestic service users and professionals, violence and supporting those who are including a tailor-made course suffering or have suffered abuse, provided by Community Education, through direct service provision or access to specialist drop-in through Suffolk’s network of local services, and the development of domestic abuse forums. Some of the an emergency/short-term bed Forums have charity status and all through ‘Somebody’s Daughter’ have a lead role in delivering local and Community Safety funding. publicity campaigns, events and Supporting and advising activities to raise awareness with staff, professionals to work with children local organisations and in their and young people at risk of sexual communities. Developments exploitation or being sexually supported by Forums and Community exploited Safety Partnerships working together Providing multi-agency awareness in response to gaps in services include training for managers and staff commissioning: including the use of the Sexual Offences Act 2002, other Domestic Abuse Coordinators to legislation and ‘grooming’. work in all Districts/Boroughs Increased visiting to those who are Delivery of Freedom Programme hard-to–reach and in prison for victims and training for offering support and pastoral care facilitators through voluntary sector outreach. A DVD ‘Tainted Love’ made by young people for young people Suffolk’s Safeguarding Children Board focused on domestic abuse has produced protocols and 10 Research into the links between young people’s offending and Emergency accommodation has domestic abuse continued to be provided through the Violence against women & girls four women’s refuges located in Bury preventative work in schools with St. Edmunds, Lowestoft and Ipswich. young people Refuge staff engage with women and Support groups for survivors children to develop safety plans and support packages as well as advising Domestic Abuse Coordinators have on benefits, debt, housing and other successfully secured external funding related issues. Ipswich Women’s Aid to support local activities and work also supports a drop in centre and with their local forums and other regular legal surgeries. All refuges in partners to address local community Suffolk run Freedom Programme safety priorities. Despite positive courses. outcomes and recognition that key objectives have been achieved, A Children’s and Young People’s sustaining posts in every area of Outreach Service and Women’s Suffolk is unlikely, given the reduction Outreach Support Service is in place in Community Safety Partnership across the County. The service offers budgets from 2011 onwards. one to one support to women and Successful activities included: children affected by domestic abuse, drop in sessions in local areas of Securing funds from external Suffolk and a dedicated service for sources to support local initiatives male victims of domestic abuse. Coordinating local Freedom Programmes Piloting Caring Dads voluntary programme for men who may abuse Developing leaflets, posters & publicity material for local use Raising awareness with organisations and communities Delivering the annual White Ribbon campaign, events, and a county conference. 11 Section 3 12 Section 3 Priorities Violence against women and girls has far reaching consequences for families, children and society as a whole. It is widely recognised and evidence supports the impact it has on other social issues, including youth crime, poverty and health inequalities. It is both a form of discrimination and a violation of human rights. Local authorities are required by the Equality Act 2010 to promote gender equality and have a responsibility to address violence against women and girls under the linked agendas of equalities and human rights. All women and girls can be subjected to abuse however some groups are particularly vulnerable such as women from diverse and minority communities, lesbians, disabled women, those with mental ill health or substance misuse issues and those involved in prostitution. As Suffolk is largely a rural county women and girls living in rural areas also face discrimination if services are difficult to access or not available. The principle of non-discrimination requires targeted measures to ensure all women and girls have equal access to protection, justice and support. Four priorities have been adopted that link to and underpin, gender equality, human rights, non discrimination and relevant policy. These will be aligned with our objectives to form a delivery action plan. 1. Prevention 2. Provision Front line services Early intervention Specialist support Access to information Safe accommodation Education Training Safeguarding Work with perpetrators Public awareness Gender Equality Human Rights Non Discrimination Policy 3. Partnership Working 4. Reducing Risk Legislative powers Strategic Partnerships Procedural justice Local Commissioning Risk management/support County and Local Forums Protecting children Community Responses Holding perpetrators Engagement with victims accountable 1 Prevention Department of Health Guidance, there Effective prevention is at the core of are still pockets in Suffolk where this our strategy. Prevention can provide a best practice is not being followed. means for long term and sustainable reductions in violence. The Department of Health Action Plan 2010/2011 ‘Improving services for Objective 1 Embed preventative women and child victims of violence’ measures within organisations and highlighted the importance of work to change public attitudes which “improving health outcomes for victims perpetuate abuse. through early identification and referral to appropriate support and interventions”, this will reflected in our Early Intervention – preventing action plan abuse happening and escalating through early identification and Other agencies including voluntary timely interventions. organisations, advice services and particularly housing services have an The report from the Taskforce on the important role. Many victims will not Health Aspects of Violence Against want to take action through the Women and Children is clear that criminal justice system and will prefer “Violence and abuse are experienced to seek the support which is most by women and children from all appropriate for them. Simply being backgrounds, and for many their aware of the issue, being sensitive to experience remains undisclosed with the needs of a victim and signposting often devastating consequences for those at risk to a support agency can their long-term mental and physical make a difference. health”. For many victims seeking advice from The NHS in Suffolk has a lead role to housing services will be an initial or ensure that every health professional early action. If at that point who works face to face with patients information, advice and support is and/or are likely to be the first point of offered, whether that is direct support contact for women experiencing or from a specialist agency, it can domestic and other forms of abuse, prevent further abuse and enable the and, are able to develop a relationship victim and their family to move on with a women, should make use of this safely to a better life. as an opportunity to increase the chance of disclosure and support. The Housing Act 2006 provides a safety net for those fleeing their home It is essential to continue to reinforce because of violence or the risk of the importance of routine enquiry as a violence. The interpretation of the Act valued component in preventing by housing authorities has been domestic violence and responding to subject to question and as a result honour based violence, forced The Supreme Court ruled (January marriage, female genital mutilation 2011) that ‘domestic violence includes rape, sexual assault and other forms physical violence, threatening or of abuse to reduce the risks to women intimidating behaviour and any other and girls. Almost a third of domestic form of abuse which, directly or violence starts in pregnancy and indirectly, may give rise to the risk of existing violence can escalate to crisis harm’, the Housing Act section 177(1) levels. Despite making training now reflects their judgement. Local available to all health services, and housing conditions and shortages are many professionals observing disregarded. This wider ruling is likely 14 to have implications for housing It is also important that schools, authorities in Suffolk. recognising their duty to promote wellbeing in pupils (Education and Inspection Act 2006), ensure that Access to Information domestic violence is an aspect of a quality, planned Personal, Social, Easy access to information is a vital Health and Economics Education part of a support framework for those programme (PSHEe) affected or at risk of violence and . abuse and for those supporting victims The current emphasise towards including family and friends. localism and community involvement gives the opportunity for local groups Suffolk already produces a and specialist agencies to work comprehensive Resource Guide and alongside schools to support PHSEe Directory of Services which is and other curriculum activities aimed available on line and in hard copy. to address the underlying causes of This will be reviewed during 2011. violence and abuse between young Local forums are working with people in close and intimate statutory agencies to produce targeted relationships. However, this must information that can be available in always be within the policies dictated local shops as well GP surgeries, by the school and recognising that all hospitals, district and borough council curricular activities must support the offices and other outlets. attainment agenda. Schools also have an existing statutory duty to develop and Education – educating children implement behaviour, anti bullying and and young people gender equality policies. This gives schools a strong framework to Schools, colleges and other youth promote the development of positive establishments in Suffolk have a relationships based on mutual respect crucial role to promote healthy which do not resort to violence. relationships, gender equality and non Children and young people in Suffolk violence. School may be the one schools need to receive appropriate place that children affected by abuse teaching that supports the at home, including honour based development of self-esteem and self- abuse, forced marriage and female worth whilst imbuing each of them with genital mutilation, feel safe to disclose a sense of personal and social responsibility Research conducted by the NSPCC ‘Partner Exploitation and Violence in All professionals working with children Teenage Intimate Relationships’ and young people, including school (2009) found that girls experienced staff, must be aware that children and violence more frequently and young people can be victims of sexual described greater levels of negative exploitation, coercion and trafficking. impacts on their welfare. Boys All must know how to utilise minimised their own use of violence as safeguarding procedures to respond to ‘messing around’ and used individuals identified as being disproportionate force compared to vulnerable or affected. their female partners. It is also known that a sizeable minority of young people hold views condoning violence Education – educating women against women and girls, particularly coercive sex. The Freedom Programme has become an established and essential part of 15 prevention and support in Suffolk. Better use of safeguarding protocols to Programmes operate in every district prevent abuse escalating will increase and borough council area in the the protection offered to children and County. Programmes are often being young people across the County and facilitated by the statutory and will support front line workers to voluntary sector working together and protect those most at risk. The delivering in Children’s Centre’s as Common Assessment Framework well as Women’s Aid and Refuge (CAF) can be used to identify children premises. Many programmes have early enough to intervene effectively. been supported with funding from Community Safety Partnerships. Similarly Suffolk’s Adult Safeguarding Board has strong and effective Knowledge and Information = Choice protocols for dealing with violence and (KIC) is an innovative concept abuse perpetrated against older and developed in Suffolk, based on vulnerable adults; local statistics women’s interest in finding out about indicate mostly these incidents are domestic and other types of abuse recorded as domestic abuse. which may affect women in their community. It is particularly relevant for those women from diverse Public Awareness – raising communities who may experience awareness to change attitudes. barriers or perceive there are barriers to communicating. The programme is People are now beginning to be more aimed to break down the myths aware of domestic abuse due to surrounding religion and culture and national and local publicity including provide the opportunity to share Suffolk’s annual White Ribbon commonalities. Campaign which is supported by numerous local events run by Workshops have been run with women domestic abuse forums. However from the Asian, African, Polish and there remains a lack of public Eastern European communities in awareness about other forms of abuse Suffolk. The need for these including sexual abuse, rape, honour programmes to continue has been based violence, forced marriage, demonstrated and will be reflected in female genital mutilation and how our action plan. these issues affect many women and girls in Suffolk. Safeguarding – the protection of Violence against women is rooted in children and young people is negative attitudes that have been everyone’s business. perpetuated over time to allow for inflicting violence against women and Suffolk’s Safeguarding Children’s girls without consequences. The Board has protocols and procedures perceptions of both men and women which outline actions to be taken when who hold such views must be any child or young person under the challenged through raising awareness age of 18 is suspected of experiencing in communities across Suffolk. Men violence or abuse. have a vital role in promoting non violence and abuse and providing Safeguarding practice can be healthy role models for other men and focussed on early intervention as a boys. way of diverting children from situations that compromise their Local organisations, particularly media development and require complex and advertising, have a role to prevent interventions later in their lives gender stereotyping that promotes 16 acceptance of violence against women Policy Perspective and girls. Violence against women and girls It is acknowledged that changing impacts upon other social issues, attitudes and perceptions is a long including youth crime, poverty, term goal which needs to be supported unemployment and health inequalities. nationally as well as locally and will involve a range of public facing We recognise that tackling violence organisations as well as local against women and girls more community groups. effectively will help to achieve other priorities and, by integrating this into Through our strategy action plan we other policy priorities, will enhance will identify and support activities that violence prevention. promote greater public awareness. 17 The links between sexual violence and 2. Provision abuse and domestic abuse are closely allied, sexual exploitation, human Ensuring effective provision of trafficking and other forms of violence protective services, support and directed at women and girls do occur advice, safe accommodation as well in Suffolk as elsewhere. In response as training for front line staff is a Suffolk Constabulary has implemented priority. Our strategy and action plan national domestic abuse guidance and will outline steps to provide protection Domestic Abuse, Stalking/sexual and support to those suffering abuse. assault, Harassment/honour based violence (DASH) Risk Identification Objective 2 Develop innovative and sustainable improvements to ensure Despite increased reporting it is quality services in every area of recognised nationally and locally that Suffolk. many victims do not call the police and may present at A & E for treatment for their injuries. Medical and nursing Front Line Services– protective staff often suspect domestic violence services responding to immediate as the cause of injury but are faced and longer term high risk. with denial from a victim while providing acute care in the aftermath In Suffolk we are responding to of violence. incidents of abuse and high risk cases of domestic and other forms of abuse Women and children also regularly through measures focused to protect engage with services such as GPs, victims and reduce risk. The midwives, health visitors and school overriding aim is to use protective nurses. These services have a key powers, available resources and role in identifying victims of violence, collective responses from the police, and providing effective support social care services, health and the through appropriate care pathways. voluntary sector to ensure the safety of victims, including children. The Department of Health Action Plan 2010/2011 ‘Improving services for The Government has committed women and child victims of violence’, funding to support Independent aims to ‘lay the foundations for Domestic Abuse Advocates (IDVA), embedding evidence based practice Independent Sexual Abuse Advocates within the NHS in response to violence (ISVA), multi-agency risk assessment and abuse.’ Activities to support this conferencing (MARAC) and a Sexual aim locally will be outlined in our action Assault Referral Centre in Suffolk. plan. This commitment will enable these services to continue for the immediate future. Specialist Support - Independent Women and girls at risk of honour community and locally based based abuse, (HBA) forced marriage support services (FM) and female genital mutilation (FGM) can be at high risk; men and While the aim throughout this strategy boys can also be at risk of HBA and is to encourage violence against FM. The service offered through women and girls to be mainstreamed Suffolk Constabulary both responds to into the work of all statutory agencies immediate needs and offers on-going in Suffolk, there will always be a support. requirement for more specialist services to meet the needs of those suffering abuse. We recognise the 18 voluntary sector has a valuable role in specific violence and/or gender providing these specialist services and specific persecution in their country of working with vulnerable women and origin also need specialist support. girls, many of who face multiple barriers to rebuilding their lives. Women involved in prostitution are at particular risk of violence and need Most specialist services are based in intensive specialist support to enable the major towns in Suffolk. Services them to safely exit the sex industry are accessible and there is a greater and recover from their experiences. choice (particularly in Ipswich), to respond to the varied needs of those The links between substance misuse requiring help and support living in and violence are recognised as an urban areas. issue which compounds both problems. Drugs and alcohol can be In response to both urban and rural used by victims as a means of coping needs, outreach services have been with their experiences of abuse or can developed jointly commissioned by used by abusers as a means of Children’s Services and Supporting control. Substance misuse agencies People. Services include dedicated have an important role particularly in support for women, children and a relation to domestic abuse. specialist service for male victims. Floating support provided through Empowering those who have suffered housing authorities and the voluntary abuse to rebuild their lives is an scheme Home-Start also contribute to integral part of specialist support. The the support offered to those suffering understanding and knowledge women abuse. These services make a gain from group programmes like valuable contribution to meet the Knowledge & Information = Choice needs of those affected by abuse, (KIC) and the Freedom Programme however there are areas of Suffolk can be built on and many women are where services are still not easily expressing interest in continuing accessed. learning and accessing training. This may present opportunities for third As Suffolk is a large and mainly rural sector organisations in Suffolk, who county there are particular challenges work with women, to widen their range to provide services in rural and more of services. remote areas due to the dispersed nature of rural communities. It is vital Sustaining and further developing that those suffering abuse in rural voluntary sector and other provision is areas have access to the same essential if violence against women services (and choices) as those in and girls is to be addressed. major towns and are not Specialist provisions specifically for disadvantaged by police and minority communities, are a vital part community safety resources focused of our responses. These points will be in higher density areas, or by a failure reflected in our action plan. of local decision makers to recognise violence against women and girls as an issue. Poor public transport and Safe Accommodation reliance on private vehicles, (which can be used as a means of control by Most women and girls do not report perpetrators), compound the problem violence and abuse to the police and and can result in geographic isolation may rely on friends and family initially for victims. and then the women’s voluntary sector for support. The women’s voluntary Women in Suffolk who are seeking sector in Suffolk is dedicated to asylum may have experienced gender 19 protecting women and children from The Working Together Learning violence and abuse by providing safe Together programme brings together and secure accommodation in refuges issues relating to women and girls in Ipswich, Lowestoft and Bury St subject to abuse which is less Edmunds and supporting them understood such as forced marriage, through crisis and beyond. However ‘honour’ based violence and female bed spaces remain well below the genital mutilation. Women with recommended national levels and learning difficulties may also be victims insufficient for need. of forced marriage. The programme now incorporates Multi-agency Risk The outcome of a formal review of Assessment Conferencing (MARAC), refuge services conducted by and training for facilitators setting up Supporting People in 2011, which group programmes. Training will be surveyed service users as well as expanded to cover all aspects of other key agencies using services, violence against women and girls indicated good levels of satisfaction during 2011 to enable agencies to with the services as well as each meet statutory and non statutory refuge providing good value for requirements outlined by national money. guidance. Whenever possible, enabling victims Work with Perpetrators and families to remain in their own homes is a desirable option if safety The majority of perpetrators of measures can be put in place. violence against women and girls do Sanctuary schemes can provide a not come to the attention of the range of security options if the victim criminal justice system and are not wants to stay in their current involved in the Integrated Domestic accommodation and if the property is Abuse Programme operated by the suitable for adaption. Every district Probation Service. and borough council in Suffolk is required to offer a Sanctuary scheme, One of the ways we are trying to however a lack of adequate resourcing address this in Suffolk is through for schemes has resulted in poor take voluntary programmes based on up. building non abusive relationships. The Caring Dads programme has Training been developed to educate and support men using abusive behaviour Training is a key element in improving to change the way they respond in the responses to women and girls. Suffolk family unit and is aimed to reduce County Council mainstreamed multi- repeated violent and abusive agency domestic abuse training within incidents. Our action plan will support the County Community Safety Unit in delivery in Suffolk. 2005. It is an essential part of the County’s approach to tackle domestic Policy Perspective abuse by developing effective practice within agencies to underpin effective The public sector Equality Duty, part of collaboration and promote new ways the Equality Act 2010, can involve a of working across professional and public body delivering tailored services institutional boundaries. In this context which are specifically targeted at training builds skills and knowledge particular groups, where there is about preventative approaches, early evidence of a need in their area. intervention and reducing the long term impacts of abuse for both women and children. 20 been given additional responsibilities 3 Partnership Working in the implementation of section 9 of the Domestic Violence, Crime and The most effective way to confront and Victims Act (2004), which puts in place deal with violence and abuse is to statutory domestic violence homicide work together at strategic and reviews. (see 4) operational levels. The complexity of the problem and its far reaching Local Commissioning effects demands a broad cross-agency response. Many organisations in To meet domestic abuse priorities Suffolk have the power to transform Community Safety Partnerships have the cultures that perpetuate violence become one of the main sources of against women and girls, it is equally funding directly commissioning local important that partnership working is domestic abuse interventions, reflected at all levels. Partnership including the work of local domestic working underpins and reinforces all violence coordinators and forums, the priorities and objectives contained training and the Freedom programme in this strategy. for women. Any reduction in funding will directly impact on women and girls Objective 3 Work in partnership to being supported in communities by ensure the best outcomes for victims hard pressed voluntary groups that and families have limited resources. Strategic Partnerships HM Government has indicated ‘most of the funding for specialist services Making Suffolk safer for all individuals will continue to be provided at a local and communities in the county is the level’. It supports ‘intelligent key priority for the Safer Suffolk commissioning’ which takes account of Partnership Board. The Board is the local needs and opportunities as a way lead body for coordinating, directing all in which local areas can ensure they aspects of community safety and commission quality services that are steers local Community Safety appropriate and effective in preference Partnerships. to the lowest cost, which may not provide value for money overall. Community Safety Partnerships have an essential part in supporting This will present challenges to county domestic abuse services at a local and local commissioners who may be level. Setting domestic abuse as working in a different economic priority in the annual county strategic context. To enable sustainability the assessment and in local action plans provision of services at both local and has given direction to Community county level needs to be coordinated Safety Partnerships to develop local within commissioning and funding domestic abuse projects to support streams; this will be reflected in our victims. Despite these develops action plan. victims in rural communities remain disadvantaged. Community Safety County and Local Forums Partnerships role as decision-makers with local oversight to determine The County Domestic Abuse Forum priorities now needs to focus on all provides strong strategic leadership aspects of violence against women and direction for statutory and and girls particularly in rural areas. voluntary agencies, and the Districts and Boroughs in Suffolk to draw on. Community Safety Partnerships have 21 The County Forum will promote an to be more involved in setting local ambitious approach within which priorities. Violence against women Suffolk can continue to develop and girls is a hidden crime. We will innovative practice. Local forums and encourage it to be brought into the agencies will be encouraged to work spotlight as an issue that should be together to develop approaches that talked about and that must be address their local needs, the needs of addressed. Local forums have an the women and girls affected by essential role in raising awareness of abuse, and to optimise their existing the issue and improving community services. The Forum will support understanding. action by sharing information and expertise to tackle violence against There is a role for volunteers from women and girls in Suffolk. local communities to be involved in Under the umbrella of the Forum, supporting victims. Organisations community safety, safeguarding and such as Home- Start, Women’s Aid the police have worked in partnership and Leeway have a strong to improve procedures and working management ethos, provide training practices of operational staff by and support to ensure that volunteers developing and implementing multi- do not put themselves or others at risk. agency guidance. Local forums in Suffolk have an Engagement with Victims positive record in delivering projects, raising awareness and providing a This strategy will encourage greater strong voice for victims. The women’s engagement with victims /survivors not sector has always worked together only when responding to a crisis and with local forums to address violence through support services but in the and to provide practical solutions in longer term to help shape services that support of those who most need them. victims want. Victims themselves know what makes an effective response for There are capacity issues and some someone who has suffered violence forums are significantly better and abuse. supported by their member agencies and resourced by their local Our challenge is to encourage victims Community Safety Partnership, to speak out, and for services to listen enabling them to have a more positive and to respond effectively. impact on tackling domestic related crimes in their areas. Forums depend on a commitment from members who Policy Perspective themselves are practitioners and often specialists from services working with victims. The Equality Act 2010 has been implemented. As part of the Act, a new public sector Equality Duty has We will support local forums to been introduced which requires public continue their work with partners to bodies to consider how their policies help them create a stronger response meet the needs of all those who use for women and girls and influence the their services. Public bodies will be local decision-making process. required to publish data on the impact of their work. This will include relevant Community Responses data on how they are tackling violence against women and girls and will mean The Government’s drive towards that the public and women’s groups localism gives a role for communities are able to hold them to account. 22 is taking place to improve the safety of 4 Reducing Risk victims of stalking and consider the effectiveness of restraining orders to Previously the national and local focus address harassment and stalking. has been on providing support linked The Code of Practice for Victims of to the criminal justice system, Crime and The Witness Charter particularly to meet national targets. outline legal rights and standards of Many women and girls who care for victims are already in place. experience violence have needs associated with health, housing employment and debt issues which go Procedural Justice for Victims far beyond criminal justice. These Specialist Domestic Violence Courts issues make survivors vulnerable to (SDVC) is now established across further abuse. Support linked to Suffolk operational in Ipswich, improving criminal justice outcomes Lowestoft and Bury St Edmunds. should be linked to a wider range of These represent a partnership options to enable risks to be reduced; approach to domestic violence by the this will be reflected in our action plan. criminal justice agencies, magistrates Objective 4 Deliver an effective and specialist support services for justice system to protect and reduce victims (IDVAS) to provide a risk to victims and bring offenders to specialised way of dealing with justice. domestic violence cases in magistrates’ courts. Legislative Powers The Crown Prosecution Service (CPS) in Suffolk has designated resources to There is a range of legislation in place support prosecutions and this together to tackle all aspects of violence with the SDVC’s has led to a against women and girls and provide significant rise in the conviction of protection to victims of these crimes. perpetrators particularly in Ipswich, where the court has operated the Section 9 of the Domestic Violence, longest. Crime and Victims Act 2004 was Women and girls at risk of ongoing implemented in April 2011. It brings violence from the same perpetrator into law a requirement on local also need access to protection through Community Safety Partnerships to the civil courts. They may need hold a multi-agency Domestic immediate protection from the Homicide Review (DHR) following a perpetrator while they consider their case of adult domestic homicide in options for longer term protection. their area. Such reviews are an Protection orders and injunctions may effective learning and prevention tool help them in this. Better understanding for local areas of civil procedures across support Domestic Violence Protection Notices agencies could improve outcomes for (DVPN’s) and Domestic Violence those affected; this will be reflected in Protection Orders (DVPO’s) are being our action plan. piloted to immediately protect victims and provide time for their longer term Suffolk Constabulary has made protection. DVPNs issued by the tackling domestic violence a priority police and DVPOs issued by the over several years. This has resulted courts will require a perpetrator to in a better approach to investigation vacate the residence of the victims for and prosecution of domestic violence up to a maximum of 28 days. cases. A review of the impact of The Progress is undermined by under Protection from Harassment Act 1997 reporting and low conviction rates for 23 rape and sexual assault. This is a offer a specialist service to support national problem recognised by a high risk victims of domestic violence cross government approach. Baroness and those who have suffered rape and Stern’s review in 2010 into how rape sexual assault, whether the case goes complaints are handled made a to court or not. number of recommendations including that “there is a greater chance of success when there is a strong Protecting Children partnership between the NHS, the Suffolk’s Safeguarding Children Board police and local government – we is committed to ensure that all recommend this commitment should agencies are clear about their be shared equally by the police, the responsibilities to protect all children NHS and local government”. whose development could be In response Sexual Assault Referral compromised by the parenting they Centre’s (SARC) offering specialist receive. This also applies when a and integrated care have been set up young person under the age of 18 is across the country. The Suffolk SARC identified as being at risk of violence or has been reviewed by the National abuse linked to substance misuse. Support Team; its recommendations The Board has published specific will be reflected in our action plan. guidelines on domestic abuse, honour The first response to a reported based violence, forced marriage, incident by the police is crucial to sexual exploitation and other issues setting the tone of a victim’s overall connected to abuse that overtly experience. Where the response is impacts on children. dismissive or disbelieving the impact In specific cases a multi-agency Child can be devastating. This leads to a Protection Case Conference is lack of confidence in the system and convened to consider the child/ compounds repeated incidents and children who are likely to suffer escalation of violence. significant harm due to domestic violence in the parental relationship. In these cases a multi-agency child Risk Management & Support protection plan may be put in place to ensure the child/children’s welfare is Multi-agency operational meetings safeguarded. such as Multi-Agency Risk Assessment Conferences (MARAC) and Multi-Agency Public Protection Holding Perpetrators Accountable Arrangements (MAPPA) provide an effective way to bring together different Bringing more offenders to justice and partners to engage in constructive effective offender management to information sharing and problem reduce re-offending and improve solving. MARAC’s are essential for victim confidence is a long held aim in protecting those victims at highest risk Suffolk. The most serious cases of of serious harm or death. Suffolk holds domestic violence will be dealt with by a MARAC every month in Ipswich, arrest by the police and involvement of Bury St Edmunds and Lowestoft the CPS. Norfolk & Suffolk Probation respectively. The aim is to work Service runs the Integrated Domestic together to identify; track and risk Abuse Programme (IDAP) and also assess domestic violence cases and provides safety support for victims support victims of domestic violence while the perpetrator is involved with through the justice process. the programme. Not all men attending will end their abuse but community Independent Domestic Violence based programmes can enable Advisors (IDVA’s) and Independent women to safely end relationships. Sexual Violence Advisors (ISVA’s) 24 Section 4 25 Section 4 Responding to Male Victims of Domestic Abuse Being a victim of domestic violence can and does devastate lives. Irrespective of gender the experiences of those affected and how services respond to intimate partner violence from providing basic information to specialist support can make a difference to how men and women recover. We cannot disregard the evidence about violence against women and girls; the Government’s perspective is that addressing this issue will in time have an impact on male victims. In Suffolk we recognise that failing to acknowledge and address the experiences of male victims has the potential to impact negatively on whole families; we will therefore promote action that raises awareness and improves services to males affected by domestic violence. Statutory organisations in Suffolk who awareness has been non gender provide services to victims of abuse specific. It is now an appropriate time are non gender specific. Men and to review this approach and to produce women are treated as equals under targeted publicity specifically aimed to law; legal provision is gender neutral. raise the issue of male victims. This will be reflected in our action plan. Although all aspects of the responses outlined in the previous sections of this strategy will also apply to male victims, Provision it is recognised that just as violence against women and girls requires The challenge we face in Suffolk (as specialist approaches, violence and elsewhere) is to recognise male abuse perpetrated against males also experiences of domestic abuse and needs to be addressed in a similar develop supportive interventions to way. This will be reflected in our meet the specific needs of male strategy action plan. victims. Objective5 Encourage measures to This is a complex area of work; based support male victims of domestic on the experiences of men calling the abuse. national Men’s Advice Line run by the national charity Respect, identifying those men who are being abused Prevention initially is not as simple as it may appear. Taken in isolation some of Raising awareness of the issues that those experiences would not affect male victims of domestic abuse necessarily mean the man concerned is the key to prevent violence was being abused. Male perceptions occurring or escalating. As with of abuse may then be brought into female victims recognising that you question. are being abused is the first step. Men often feel that they are expected to Some specific interventions have handle the situation themselves, and already been initiated in Suffolk. For that somehow they are ‘not men’ if example the Male Victim’s Help line their attempts to do this fail. and Advice Service set up by Leeway and the introduction of a safety In Suffolk the information previously planning booklet developed provided to raise public and victim specifically for men (provided by the Community Safety Unit). Working with male victims is also included as part of training. These initial 26 inventions including training can be In Suffolk we aim to encourage used to form the base for further services to make active efforts to developments. reach male victims and to learn how to respond to the risks they face appropriately; this will be reflected in Partnership Working our action plan. As with addressing violence against women and girls, so partnership work Policy Perspective to address the issue for male victims is of equal importance. The Government’s definition of and policy about domestic violence is In this context in Suffolk we will gender neutral. The definition includes encourage agencies to work together, victims of both genders, victims of any whether they are specialist services for sexuality and victims who are men or generic services, the transgendered and does not refer to framework of a partnership approach gender as a risk factor. The should apply. Government definition has been adopted in Suffolk: Reducing Risk ‘Any incident of threatening behaviour, violence or abuse (psychological, There are differences in the scale, physical, sexual, financial or incidence and effects of domestic emotional) between adults who are or violence related to whether the victim have been intimate partners or family is male or female. The needs of males members, regardless of gender or and females can be different; often sexuality’. men do not realise they have the same rights as female victims to protection Family members include mother, and support. father, son, daughter, brother, sister, and grandparents, whether directly In Suffolk information drawn from local related, in laws or stepfamily. sources suggests that male victims do not come to the attention of agencies The Gender Equality Duty imposes a until the abuse has escalated to such legal obligation on all public bodies to a point that the Police are involved. provide services that promote gender equality. Honour based violence and forced marriage affects men as well as This should not be interpreted as women; these issues mean that men providing equal levels and types of can be at high risk. Men can be at risk service for men and women. of violence from family and extended Promoting gender equality in the family members and from the context of domestic abuse means community, particularly within the planning services with an explicit context of enforced marriage, where understanding of the different ways neither party may want to marry or the men and women are affected, the where the man may refuse; or if for different services they need and the example their relationship with a differing levels of risk. women is deemed to be ‘dishonouring’ the family. Gay men can be particularly at risk; often marriage is viewed by the family and community as a way of addressing ‘his problem’. 27 Section 5 28 Section 5 Objectives 1 Embed preventative measures within organisations and work to change public attitudes which perpetuate abuse. 2 Develop innovative and sustainable improvements to ensure quality services in every area of Suffolk. 3 Work in partnership to ensure the best outcome for victims and families 4 Deliver an effective justice system to protect and reduce risk to victims and bring offenders to justice 5 Encourage measures to support male victims of domestic abuse 29 Glossary of Terms ACPO Association of Chief Police Officers BCS British Crime Survey CAF Common Assessment Framework CAADA Coordinated Action Against Domestic Abuse CPS Crown Prosecution Service DASH Domestic Abuse, Stalking/Sexual assault, Honour Based violence (Risk indicator checklist) DVA Domestic Violence and Abuse DVPN Domestic Violence Protection Notice DVPO Domestic Violence Protection Order HBV Honour Based Violence FM Forced Marriage FGM Female Genital Mutilation FMPO Forced Marriage Protection Orders NRPF No Recourse to Public Funds ILR Indefinite Leave to Remain IDVA Independent Domestic Abuse Advocate ISVA Independent Sexual Abuse Advocates KIC Knowledge and Information = Choice – group programme for women MARAC Multi-agency Risk Assessment Conference MAPPA Multi-Agency Public Protection Arrangements PSHEe Personal, Social, Health and Economics Education programme SARC Sexual Assault Referral Centre SDVC Specialist Domestic Violence Court VAWG Violence Against Women and Girls 30 31