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									Substance dependence, commonly called drug addiction is defined as a drug
user's compulsive need to use controlled substances in order to function normally.
When such substances are unobtainable, the user suffers from substance

                                                 Submitted to:- Ms. Pratibha
                                                 Submitted By:- Rahul Verma
                                                 Roll No:-261
Drug Addiction
• Drugs known to cause addiction include both legal and illegal drugs as well as prescription
  or over-the-counter drugs, according to the definition of the American Society of Addiction
  Medicine[citation needed].
• Stimulants (psychic addiction, moderate to severe; withdrawal is purely psychological and
   •   Amphetamine and methamphetamine
   •   Cocaine
   •   Caffeine
   •   Nicotine
• Sedatives and hypnotics (psychic addiction, mild to severe, and physiological addiction,
  severe; abrupt withdrawal may be fatal):
   • Alcohol
   • Barbiturates
   • Benzodiazepines, particularly alprazolam, flunitrazepam, triazolam, temazepam, and
     nimetazepam Z- drugs like Zimovane have a similar effect in the body to Benzodiazepines.
   • Methaqualone and the related quinazolinone sedative-hypnotics
• Opiate and opioid analgesics (psychic addiction, mild to severe, physiological addiction,
  mild to severe; abrupt withdrawal is unlikely to be fatal):
   • Morphine and codeine, the two naturally occurring opiate analgesics
   • Semi-synthetic opiates, such as heroin (diacetylmorphine; morphine diacetate), oxycodone,
     buprenorphine, and hydromorphone
   • Fully synthetic opioids, such as fentanyl, meperidine/pethidine, and methadone
Addictive Potential
 • The addictive potential of a drug varies from substance to
   substance, and from individual to individual. Dose, frequency,
   pharmacokinetics of a particular substance, route of
   administration, and time are critical factors for developing a
   drug addiction.
Say No To Drugs
Behavior Of a Addictive Person
• Understanding how learning and behavior work in the reward circuit
  can help understand the action of addictive drugs. Drug addiction is
  characterized by strong, drug seeking behaviors in which the addict
  persistently craves and seeks out drugs, despite the knowledge of
  harmful consequences. Addictive drugs produce a reward, which is
  the euphoric feeling resulting from sustained dopamine
  concentrations in the synaptic cleft of neurons in the brain. Operant
  conditioning is exhibited in drug addicts as well as laboratory mice,
  rats, and primates; they are able to associate an action or behavior,
  in this case seeking out the drug, with a reward, which is the effect
  of the drug. Evidence shows that this behavior is most likely a result
  of the synaptic changes which have occurred due to repeated drug
  exposure. The drug seeking behavior is induced by glutamatergic
  projections from the prefrontal cortex to the NAc. This idea is
  supported with data from experiments showing the drug seeking
  behavior can be prevented following the inhibition of AMPA
  glutamate receptors and glutamate release in the NAc.

• Addiction is a complex but treatable condition. It is characterized by compulsive drug
  craving, seeking, and use that persist even if the user is aware of severe adverse
  consequences. For some people, addiction becomes chronic, with relapses possible even
  after long periods of abstinence. As a chronic condition addiction may require continued
  treatments to increase the intervals between relapses and diminish their intensity. Most
  people with substance misuse issues recover and lead fulfilling lives however a small
  minority need additional support, usually in the form of drug counselling delivered in the
  community. For a very small percentage of very complex users this is insufficient and they
  require intensive inpatient or a series of long term treatments. The ultimate goal of
  addiction treatment is to enable an individual to manage their substance misuse for some
  this may mean abstinence. Immediate goals are often to reduce substance abuse, improve
  the patient's ability to function, and minimize the medical and social complications of
  substance abuse and their addiction this is called Harm Reduction. People in treatment for
  addiction may need to change behavior to adopt a more healthful lifestyle.
• Treatments for addiction vary widely according to the types of drugs involved, amount of
  drugs used, duration of the drug addiction, medical complications and the social needs of
  the individual. Determining the best type of recovery program for an addicted person
  depends on a number of factors, including: personality, drug(s) of choice, concept of
  spirituality or religion, mental or physical illness, and local availability and affordability of
• Many different ideas circulate regarding what is considered a "successful" outcome in the
  recovery from addiction. Programs that emphasize controlled drinking exist for alcohol
  addiction. Opiate replacement therapy has been a medical standard of treatment for opioid
  addiction for many years.
Comprehensive Drug Abuse
Prevention and Control Act of
• The Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970, Pub. L. No.
   91-513, 84 Stat. 1236 (Oct. 27, 1970), is a United States federal law that, with
   subsequent modifications, requires the pharmaceutical industry to maintain
   physical security and strict record keeping for certain types of drugs. Controlled
   substances are divided into five schedules (or classes) on the basis of their
   potential for abuse, accepted medical use, and accepted safety under medical
   supervision. Substances in Schedule I have a high potential for abuse, no
   accredited medical use, and a lack of accepted safety. From Schedules II to V,
   substances decrease in potential for abuse. The schedule a substance is placed in
   determines how it must be controlled. Prescriptions for drugs in all schedules
   must bear the physician's federal Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) license
   number, but some drugs in Schedule V do not require a prescription. State
   schedules may vary from federal schedules.
 • The Controlled Substances Act (CSA), Title II of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse
   Prevention and Control Act of 1970, is the legal foundation of the government's
   fight against the abuse of drugs and other substances. This law is a consolidation
   of numerous laws regulating the manufacture and distribution of narcotics,
   stimulants, depressants, hallucinogens, anabolic steroids, and chemicals used in
   the illicit production of controlled substances. The act also provides a
   mechanism for substances to be controlled, added to a schedule, decontrolled,
   removed from control, rescheduled, or transferred from one schedule to

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