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Natural and Experimental Enteric Pathogen Contamination of Insects (last updated 9/21/2011) Two tables are included within this file: 1) a table detailing studies where insects captured under natural conditions were assayed for the presence of pathogens; and 2) a table detailing studies where insects were experimentally exposed to enteric pathogens and examination of the fate of those pathogens Reviews Graczyk T,K., R. Knight, and L. Tamang. 2005. Mechanical transmission of human protozoan parasites by insects. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 18:128-132. Wales, A.D., J.J. Carrique-Mas, M. Rankin, B. Bell, B.B. Thind, and R.H. Davies. 2010. Review of the carriage of zoonotic bacteria by arthropods, with special reference to Salmonella in mites, flies and litter beetles. Zoonoses and Public Health 57:299-314. Natural contamination Alam, M.J. and L. Zurek. 2004. Association of Escherichia coli O157:H7 with houseflies on a cattle farm. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70:7578-7580. House flies (Musca domestica L.) were collected from two sites on a cattle farm over a 4-month period. The prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 was 2.9 and 1.4% in house flies collected from feed bunks and a cattle feed storage shed, respectively. E. coli O157:H7 counts ranged from 3.0 x 10 1 to 1.5 x 105 CFU among the positive house flies. Large populations of house flies on cattle farms may play a role in the dissemination of E. coli O157:H7 among animals and to the surrounding environment. The dispersal range of house flies is usually 0.5 to 2 miles, although distances as great as 10 to 20 miles have been reported. Caldwell, K.N., B.B. Adler, G.L. Anderson, P.L. Williams, and L.R. Beuchat. 2003. Ingestion of Salmonella enterica serotype Poona by a free-living nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, and protection against inactivation by produce sanitizers. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69:4103-4110. Protection of C. elegans-ingested Salmonella enterica serotype Poona occurred when sanitizers (20 ppm chlorine, 850 or 1200 ppm Sanova, 20 or 40 ppm Tsunami 200, or 2% acetic acid) were applied to lettuce. Graczyk, T.K., R. Fayer, R. Knight, B. Mhangami-Ruwende, J.M. Trout, A.J. Da Silva, and N.J. Pieniazek. 2000. Mechanical transport and transmission of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts by wild filth flies. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 63:178-183. Wild filth flies were collected from traps left for 7-10 days in a barn with or without a calf shedding Cryptosporidium parvum Genotype 2. The oocysts of C. parvum transported on the flies’ exoskeletons and eluted from their droplets left on visited surfaces and were infectious for mice. The mean number of oocysts carried by a fly varied from 4 to 131 and the total oocyst number per collection varied from 56 to approximately 4.56 x 10 3. Molecular data showed that the oocysts shed by infected calves were carried by flies for at least 3 weeks. Holt, P.S., C.J. Geden, R.W. Moore, and R.K. Gast. 2007. Isolation of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis from houseflies (Musca domestica) found in rooms containing Salmonella serovar Enteritidis-challenged hens. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 73:6030-6035. 48 h after houseflies released into rooms containing Salmonella-contaminated hens, 40 to 50% of flies were contaminated. At 4, 7 and 15 days postexposure, the % of flies positive for Salmonella were 50%, 70%, and 30%, respectively. An aqueous rinse failed to recover surface contamination, however, 0.5% detergent incorporated into the rinse, led to high recoveries of bacteria. Salmonella serovar Enteritidis was isolated routinely from the fly gut, on rare occasions from the crop, and never from the salivary gland. Force feeding hens contaminated flies resulted in gut colonization of a third of the birds; however, release of contaminated flies into a room of uncontaminated chickens failed to result in colonization of any of the subject birds. Kopanic, R.J., Jr., B.W. Sheldon, and C.G. Wright. 1994. Cockroaches as vectors of Salmonella: Laboratory and field trials. J. Food Prot. 57:125-132. American cockroaches sampled at a commercial poultry feed mill and hatchery. 11.1% of 45 feed mill and 17.8% of 45 hatchery cockroach samples were positive for S. Typhimurium. Lacharme-Lora, L., S.E. Perkins, T.J. Humphrey, P.J. Hudson, and V. Salisbury. 2009. Use of bioluminescent bacterial biosensors to investigate the role of free-living helminthes as reservoirs and vectors of Salmonella. Environ. Microbiol. Rept. 1:198-207. Inside helminthes, Salmonella exhibited enhanced survival when exposed to UV irradiation. Olsen, A.R.and T.S. Hammack. 2000. Isolation of Salmonella spp. from the housefly Musca domestica L., and the dump fly, Hydrotaea aenescens (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Muscidae) at caged-layer houses. J. Food Prot. 63:958-960. Compiled by Marilyn Erickson, Center for Food Safety, University of Georgia Page 1 Downloaded from the website: A Systems Approach for Produce Safety: A Research Project Addressing Leafy Greens found at: http://www.ugacfs.org/producesafety/index.html. See http://www.ugacfs.org/producesafety/Pages/TermsofUse.html for disclaimers & terms for use of information in this document. Natural and Experimental Enteric Pathogen Contamination of Insects (last updated 9/21/2011) 18.2% of 22 samples positive for Salmonella. 75% of positive samples were from housefly pooled samples and the remainder from the dump fly pooled samples Skov, M.N., A.G. Spencer, B. Hald, L. Petersen, B. Nauerby, B. Carstensen, and M. Madsen. 2004. The role of litter beetles as potential reservoir for Salmonella enterica and thermophilic Campylobacter spp. between broiler flocks. Avian Dis. 48:9-18. Beetles in broiler houses infrequently are positive for Salmonella. However, transmission of S. Indiana between two consecutive broiler flocks can coincide with the presence of Salmonella-contaminated beetles in the empty period, indicating that the beetles were the reservoir of S. Indiana between the two flocks. Concerning Campylobacter, the results suggest that beetles do not play a significant role as a reservoir of Campylobacter from one rotation to the next. Skov, M.N., J.J. Madsen, C. Rahbek, J. Lodal, J.B. Jespersen, J.C. Jørgensen, H.H. Dietz, M. Chriél, and D.L. Baggesen. 2008. Transmission of Salmonella between wildlife and meat-production animals in Denmark. J. Appl. Microbiol. 105:1558-1568. 22.6% of 31 pooled insect samples were positive for Salmonella. Sproston, E.L., M. Macrae, I.D. Ogden, M.J. Wilson, and N.J.C. Strachan. 2006. Slugs: Potential novel vectors of Escherichia coli O157. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 72:144-149. 0.21% of 33 pooled field slug samples collected from an Aberdeenshire sheep farm were positive Williams, A.P., P. Roberts, L.M. Avery, K. Killham, and D.L. Jones. 2006. Earthworms as vectors of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in soil and vermicomposts. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 58:54-64. Anecic earthworms such as Lumbricus terrestris maintain deep vertical burrows whereas epigeic species such as Dendrobaena veneta inhabit surface organic layers. In this study, E. coli O157:H7 movement by L. terrestris was limited to a vertical plane, whereas movement by D. veneta was observed in the horizontal plane. Bacterial movement may be attributed to both worm excretion and to carriage on worm exterior; although the relative proportions attributable to each were not determined. The gut transit time in most earthworms is approximately 1-5 h and may prove sufficient to allow partial bacterial growth or for the resuscitation of VBNC bacteria. Thus, this study also suggested that earthworm digestion and presence may lead to temporarily higher numbers of E. coli O157:H7 in some substrates, especially soil. Despite this initial proliferation, long-term persistence of E. coli O157:H7 in soil and compost was unaffected by the presence of earthworms. Experimental contamination Reference Expt. Details Results Ahmad, A., T.G. Nagaraja, and L. Eight calves were individually exposed On day 1 after the exposure, fecal Zurek. 2007. Transmission of to house flies that were orally inoculated samples of all 8 calves and drinking Escherichia coli O157:H7 to cattle by with a mixture of 4 strains of E. coli water samples of 5 of 8 calves exposed house flies. Prev. Vet. Med. 80:74-81. O157:H7 for 48 h. to inoculated flies tested positive for E. coli O157:H7. The concentration in feces ranged over time from detectable only by enrichment (<102) to up to 1.1 x 106 CFU/g. Feces of all calves remained positive for E. coli O157:H7 up to 11 days after the exposure and 62% were positive until the end of the experiment. Amaravadi, L., M.S. Bisesi, and R.F. 5 to 6 earthworms added to a dish which Reductions in the infectivity of both Bozarth. 1990. Vermial virucidal contained cellulose saturated with a cowpea mosaic virus and tobacco activity: Implications for virus-buffer suspension at pH 7.0 mosaic (model agents) occurred when management of pathogenic biological containing virus (0.025 to 0.5 mg). the earthworm (Eisenia fetida) were fed wastes on land. Biological Wastes Excreted castings were analyzed for virus suggesting that earthworms may 34:349-358. structurally intact virus protein using possess a virucidal enzyme system and, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay accordingly, may contribute to the (ELISA) and virus infectivity by local inactivation of pathogenic viruses lesion assays. potentially associated with land application of sewage sludges and livestock manures. Compiled by Marilyn Erickson, Center for Food Safety, University of Georgia Page 2 Downloaded from the website: A Systems Approach for Produce Safety: A Research Project Addressing Leafy Greens found at: http://www.ugacfs.org/producesafety/index.html. See http://www.ugacfs.org/producesafety/Pages/TermsofUse.html for disclaimers & terms for use of information in this document. Natural and Experimental Enteric Pathogen Contamination of Insects (last updated 9/21/2011) Reference Expt. Details Results Anderson, G.L., K.N. Caldwell, L.R. 3-day-old adult worms placed on an Over 90% of worms entered colonies Beuchat, and P.L. Williams. 2003. agar medium having discrete areas within 16 min after inoculation. Worms Interaction of a free-living soil containing cultures of E. coli, an survived and reproduced with the use of nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, avirulent strain of Salmonella nutrients derived from all test bacteria. with surrogates of foodborne Typhimurium, Listeria welshimeri, and Development was slightly slower for pathogenic bacteria. J. Food Prot. Bacillus cereus. worms fed gram-positive bacteria than 66:1543-1549. for worms fed gram-negative bacteria. Worms that fed for 24 h on bacterial lawns formed on tryptic soy agar dispersed bacteria over a 3-h period when they were transferred to a bacteria-free agar surface. Anderson, G.L., S.J. Kenney, P.D. Worms were fed on E. coli O157:H7 E. coli O157:H7 was detected at 4 and 6 Millner, L.R. Beuchat, and P.L. and then inoculated into soil and soil days post inoculation in compost- Williams. 2006. Shedding of amended with turkey manure compost amended and unamended soil. foodborne pathogens by Populations of C. elegans persisted in Caenorhabditis elegans in compost- compost-amended soil for at least 7 amended and unamended soil. Food days, but declined in unamended soil. Microbiol. 23:146-153. Populations of E. coli O157:H7 in soil amended with turkey manure compost were significantly higher than those in unamended soil. Caldwell, K.N., G.L. Anderson, P.L. 20 to 30 adult worms were placed on the The nematode was attracted to colonies Williams, and L.R. Beuchat. 2003. surface of K agar midway between a 24- of all test pathogens and survived and Attraction of a free-living nematode, h bacterial colony (7 strains of E. coli reproduced within colonies for up to 7 Caenorhabditis elegans, to foodborne O157:H7; 8 serotypes of Salmonella, 6 days. C. elegans was not attracted to pathogenic bacteria and its potential strains of L. monocytogenes), cantaloupe juice. as a vector of Salmonella Poona for uninoculated tryptic soy broth, or preharvest contamination of cantaloupe juice. Numbers of worms The presence of Salmonella Poona was cantaloupe. J. Food Prot. 66:1964- migrating to the respective areas were evident more quickly on rinds 1971. counted. positioned on soil beneath which C. elegans inoculated with Salmonella Adult worms that had been immersed in Poona was initially deposited than on a suspension of Salmonella Poona were rinds deposited on soil beneath which deposited 1 or 3 cm below the surface of Salmonella Poona alone was deposited. soil on which a piece of cantaloupe rind was placed. De Jesús, A.J., A.R. Olsen, J.R. Bryce, 40-60 houseflies were transferred to a 43%, 53%, and 62% of the flies had and R.C. Whiting. 2004. Quantitative sterile cage containing E. coli- detectable E. coli (> 1.7 log CFU/fly) contamination and transfer of contaminated potato salad or sugar-milk with geometric mean carriage of 2.9, 3.8 Escherichia coli from foods by solution (8 log CFU/g) or surface- and 2.2 log CFU/fly following exposure houseflies, Musca domestica L. contaminated steak. After 30 min, E. to contaminated sugar/milk, steak, and (Diptera: Muscidae). Int. J. Food coli on the flies were enumerated. potato salad, respectively. Microbiol. 93:259-262. Contaminated flies were transferred to a Contaminated flies can cross sterile jar and transfer to the surfaces of contaminate other surfaces with that jar was determined. approximately 0.001% of the original numbers in the contaminated source. Compiled by Marilyn Erickson, Center for Food Safety, University of Georgia Page 3 Downloaded from the website: A Systems Approach for Produce Safety: A Research Project Addressing Leafy Greens found at: http://www.ugacfs.org/producesafety/index.html. See http://www.ugacfs.org/producesafety/Pages/TermsofUse.html for disclaimers & terms for use of information in this document. Natural and Experimental Enteric Pathogen Contamination of Insects (last updated 9/21/2011) Reference Expt. Details Results Fayer, R., J.M. Trout, E. Walsh, and 10-20 rotifers were placed into 11-mm Rotifers of all six genera (Philodina, R. Cole. 2000. Rotifers ingest oocysts diameter wells containing 2 x 104 Monostyla, Epiphanes, Euchlanis, of Cryptosporidium parvum. J. oocysts. Brachionus, and Asplanchna) were Eukaryot. Microbiol. 47:161-163. observed ingesting oocysts. Euchlanis and Epiphanes were observed excreting boluses containing up to 8 oocysts; however, it was not determined whether rotifers digested or otherwise rendered oocysts nonviable. Gibbs, D.S., G.L. Anderson, L.R. A suspension of Diploscapter sp. strain 85% of the worms had migrated to Beuchat, L.K. Carta, and P.L. LKC25, containing 25 to 50 worms, was bacterial colonies of E. coli O157:H7, Williams. 2005. Potential role of placed on the surface of a tryptic soy Salmonella enterica serotype Poona, Diploscapter sp. strain LKC25, a agar plate such that it was equidistant and Listeria monocytogenes that were bacterivorous nematode from soil, as from sites which had been inoculated initially placed 0.5 to 1 cm and within a vector of food-borne pathogenic with one of 4 bacteria: E. coli 24 h, more than 90% of the worms were bacteria to preharvest fruits and O157:H7, S. enterica, L. embedded in colonies. When these vegetables. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. monocytogenes, or E. coli. The plate exposed worms were added to soil or a 71:2433-2437. was incubated at 21°C for up to 24 h mixture of soil and composted turkey and location of the worms on the surface manure, the worms were capable of monitored by a computer-captured shedding the pathogenic bacteria into image technique. the soil. Gourabathini, P., M.T. Brandl, K.S. Initial # of protozoan cells/ml ranged Distribution of types of protozoa among Redding, J.H. Gunderson, and S.G. from 2.0 to 4.3 x 103 cells/ml and were produce samples was heterogeneous Berk. 2008. Interactions between suspended in Tris-buffered saline containing flagellates, amoebae, and food-borne pathogens and protozoa solution along with the pathogen that ciliates. Vesicles were produced by isolated from lettuce and spinach. had been grown for 24-h and Glaucoma sp. with Salmonella enterica, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 74:2518- centrifuged. Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria 2525. monocytogenes, although L. monocytogenes resulted in the smallest number per ciliate. Vesicle production was observed also during grazing of Tetrahymena on E. coli O157:H7 and S. enterica but not during grazing on L. monocytogenes, in vitro and on leaves. Such vesicles would only be produced when the surface of produce is wet in order to enable Tetrahymena to graze by filter feeding on bacteria that are free in the water film on the plant surface. These conditions may be met in the preharvest environment during dew, rain, or overhead irrigation. 4 h after addition of spinach extract, the bacteria multiplied and escaped the vesicles. In contrast, Colpoda steinii and the amoeba did not produce vesicles from any of the enteric pathogens, nor were pathogens trapped within their cysts. Compiled by Marilyn Erickson, Center for Food Safety, University of Georgia Page 4 Downloaded from the website: A Systems Approach for Produce Safety: A Research Project Addressing Leafy Greens found at: http://www.ugacfs.org/producesafety/index.html. See http://www.ugacfs.org/producesafety/Pages/TermsofUse.html for disclaimers & terms for use of information in this document. Natural and Experimental Enteric Pathogen Contamination of Insects (last updated 9/21/2011) Reference Expt. Details Results Huamanchay, O., L. Genzlinger, M. Between 100 and 200 adult nematodes 70 to 85% of worms ingested between 0 Iglesias, and Y.R. Ortega. 2004. were placed on K-agar plates with 2 x and 500 oocysts after 1 and 2 h Ingestion of Cryptosporidium oocysts 106 fluorescein isothiocyanate-tagged C. incubation with oocysts. Most of the by Caenorhabditis elegans. J. parvum oocysts. After specific nematodes ingested between 101 and Parasitol. 90:1176-1178. incubation times, worms were washed 200 oocysts after 2 h. Intact oocysts and and observed by UV and differential empty shells were excreted by interference contrast (DIC) microscopy. nematodes. Adult C. elegans containing C. parvum kept in water were infective for mice. Cyclospora oocysts were not ingested by C. elegans. Janisiewicz, W.J., W.S. Conway, Ten fruit flies were put in a chamber Fruit flies were easily contaminated M.W. Brown, G.M. Sapers, P. and allowed to feed on a filter paper externally and internally with E. coli Fratamico, and R.L. Buchanan. 1999. soaked in a suspension of E. coli after contact with the bacterium source. Fate of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on ATCCF-11775 at 8 x 108 CFU/ml in The flies transmitted this bacterium to fresh-cut apple tissue and its potential 20% apple juice. Fruit flies were uncontaminated apple wounds. for transmission by fruit flies. Appl. sampled after 2, 6, 24 and 48 h. Environ. Microbiol. 65:1-5. Kenney, S.J., G.L. Anderson, P.L. Worms were fed for 3 h at 20°C on a Initial populations within worms (2.8 to Williams, P.D. Millner, and L.R. lawn of E. coli O157:H7, S. Newport, or 3.2 log CFU/worm) significantly Beuchat. 2005. Persistence of S. Poona. Worms were incubated at 4, increased by up to 2.93 log CFU/worm Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella 20 or 37°C for up to 5 days. At within 1 day at 20°C on K agar and Newport, and Salmonella Poona in temperatures of 4 or 20°C, incubation remained constant for an additional 4 the gut of a free-living nematode, conditions also varied relative humidity days. When worms were placed on Caenorhabditis elegans, and (33%, 75%, or 98%). Bacto agar, populations of ingested transmission to progeny and pathogens remained constant at 4°C, uninfected nematodes. Int. J. Food decreased significantly at 20°C, and Microbiol. 101:227-236. increased significantly at 37°C within 3 days. Fewer cells of the pathogens survived incubation at 33% relative humidity compared to higher relative humidities. S. Newport was isolated from C. elegans two generations removed from exposure to the pathogen. Kenney, S.J., G.L. Anderson, P.L. Bovine manure and bovine manure The pathogen was detected on lettuce, Williams, P.D. Millner, and L.R. compost inoculated with S. Newport strawberry, and carrot within 1, 7 and 1 Beuchat. 2006. Migration of (8.6 log CFU/g) were separately placed day, respectively, when initially present Caenorhabditis elegans to manure and in the bottom of a glass jar and covered in bovine manure compost (detection by manure compost and potential for with a layer of soil (5 cm) inoculated enrichment only, no attempts at transport of Salmonella newport to (50 worms/g) or not inoculated with C. enumeration) fruits and vegetables. Int. J. Food elegans. A piece of lettuce, strawberry, Microbiol. 106:61-68. or carrot was placed on top of the soil before jars were sealed and held at 20°C for up to 10 days. Kopanic, R.J., Jr., B.W. Sheldon, and 2 ml of a S. typhimurium culture (~ 7-8 American and Oriental cockroaches C.G. Wright. 1994. Cockroaches as log CFU/ml) was inoculated onto five were contaminated twice as often as vectors of Salmonella: Laboratory food pellets and then 20 cockroaches German cockroaches. Cross- and field trials. J. Food Prot. 57:125- placed with these pellets in an contamination between infected and 132. environmental chamber. After 24, 48, non-infected cockroaches was most 72, and 96 h, cockroaches were frequent within 24 h of contamination individually sampled. event. Compiled by Marilyn Erickson, Center for Food Safety, University of Georgia Page 5 Downloaded from the website: A Systems Approach for Produce Safety: A Research Project Addressing Leafy Greens found at: http://www.ugacfs.org/producesafety/index.html. See http://www.ugacfs.org/producesafety/Pages/TermsofUse.html for disclaimers & terms for use of information in this document. Natural and Experimental Enteric Pathogen Contamination of Insects (last updated 9/21/2011) Reference Expt. Details Results Mumcuoglu, K.Y., J. Miller, M. 15-25 sterile maggots were transferred Preliminary studies using a vital dye Mumcuoglu, M. Friger, and M. to a piece of gauze and fed for 2-15 h on showed that food ingested by the Tarshis. 2001. Destruction of bacteria 5 ml of brain heart broth containing 108 maggots passed through their intestine in the digestive tract of the maggot of – 1010 gfp-labeled E. coli/ml. The within 1-1.5 h. It was shown that 66.7% Lucilia sericata (Diptera: maggots were viewed with a laser of the crops, 52.8% of the midgets, Calliphoridae). J. Med. Entomol. scanning confocal microscope. 55.6% of the anterior hindguts, and 38:161-166. 17.8% of posterior hindguts harbored living bacteria. With passage through the digestive tract, the majority of bacteria are killed; however, small numbers of bacteria may remain in the feces. Petridis, M., M. Bagdasarian, M.K. House flies were immobilized and force Findings show that genes encoding Waldor, and E. Walker. 2006. fed suspensions of defined, donor antibiotic resistance or toxins will Horizontal transfer of Shiga toxin and strains of E. coli containing transfer horizontally among bacteria in antibiotic resistance genes among chloramphenicol resistance genes on a the house fly gut via plasmid transfer or Escherichia coli strains in house fly plasmid, or lysogenic bacteriophage- phage transduction. (Diptera: Muscidae) gut. J. Med. born Shiga toxin gene stx1. Recipient Entomol. 43:288-295. strains were E. coli lacking these mobile elements and genes but having rifampicin as a selectable marker. Sasaki, T., M. Kobayashi, and N. House flies (adult, 6-8 old) fed on The number of E. coli O157:H7 in an Agui. 2000. Epidemiological potential tryptic soy broth containing ~ 109 excreted droplet was ~ 104 1 h after of excretion and regurgitation by CFU/ml E. coli O157:H7 for 30 min. bacterial feeding, > 1.8 x 105 3 h after Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) feeding, and then drastically decreased in the dissemination of Escherichia after 24 h. E. coli O157:H7 persisted in coli O157:H7 to food. J. Med. the crop of house flies for at least 4 Entomol. 37:945-949. days. Sela, S., D. Nestel, R. Pinto, E. Adult flies (ca. 2 d old) were exposed to Flies exposed to fecal material enriched Nemny-Lavy, and M. Bar-Joseph. a 20% sucrose solution containing 6-9 with GFP-tagged E. coli were 2005. Mediterranean fruit fly as a log CFU/ml of E. coli. contaminated and were capable of potential vector of bacterial transmitting E. coli to intact apples in a pathogens. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. cage model system. Flies inoculated 71:4052-4056. with E. coli harbored the bacteria for up to 7 days following contamination. Microscopic analysis suggested that the main organ involved in bacterial uptake is the fly's mouthparts. Sproston, E.L., M. Macrae, I.D. Slugs were inoculated by placement in a Viable E. coli was detected on the slug Ogden, M.J. Wilson, and N.J.C. petri dish with 5 ml of a nalidixic acid- surface for up to 14 days. Slugs that Strachan. 2006. Slugs: Potential novel resistant E. coli suspension (5.8-6.0 x had been fed E. coli shed viable bacteria vectors of Escherichia coli O157. 109 CFU/ml) and survival on slug in their feces with numbers showing a Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 72:144-149. surface and feces was measured. short but statistically significant linear log decline. Further, it was found that E. coli persisted for up to 3 weeks in excreted slug feces. Compiled by Marilyn Erickson, Center for Food Safety, University of Georgia Page 6 Downloaded from the website: A Systems Approach for Produce Safety: A Research Project Addressing Leafy Greens found at: http://www.ugacfs.org/producesafety/index.html. See http://www.ugacfs.org/producesafety/Pages/TermsofUse.html for disclaimers & terms for use of information in this document. Natural and Experimental Enteric Pathogen Contamination of Insects (last updated 9/21/2011) Reference Expt. Details Results Strother, K.O., C.Dayton Steelman, Adult and larval beetles were swabbed C. jejuni was detected on the exterior of and E.E. Gbur. 2005. Reservoir with C. jejuni (9 log CFU/ml) and larval beetles for up to 12 h. competence of lesser mealworm survival determined for up to 72 h. C. jejuni was detected in the interior of (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) for Adult and larval beetles drank from a larvae for 72 h and from the feces of Campylobacter jejuni solution containing C. jejuni (9 log larvae for 12 h after exposure. (Campylobacterales: CFU/ml) and duration of internal 90% of the birds that consumed a single Campylobacteraeae). J. Med. carriage and fecal shedding determined adult or larval beetle became Entomol. 42:42-47 for up to 144 h. Campylobacter-positive, whereas 100% 3-d-old chickens fed either 1 or 10 of the birds that consumed 10 adults or infected beetles and cloacal swabs tested larvae became positive. periodically for Campylobacter. Templeton, J.M., A.J. De Jong, P.J. Beetles were either sprayed with a 45% of 20 of spray-inoculated beetles Blackall, and J.K. Miflin. 2006. Campylobacter culture (2.6 x 108 were still positive after 72 h but only Survival of Campylobacter spp. in CFU/ml) or allowed to feed for 24 h on 5.6% of 18 beetles were positive after darkling beetles (Alphitobius an apple (soaked in the Campylobacter 96 h. diaperinus) and their larvae in culture for 20 min). Beetles were tested 14% of 20 feed-inoculated beetles were Australia. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. every 24 h for Campylobacter by direct positive after 48 h but were all negative 72:7909-7911. culture and enrichment. at later time points. Compiled by Marilyn Erickson, Center for Food Safety, University of Georgia Page 7 Downloaded from the website: A Systems Approach for Produce Safety: A Research Project Addressing Leafy Greens found at: http://www.ugacfs.org/producesafety/index.html. See http://www.ugacfs.org/producesafety/Pages/TermsofUse.html for disclaimers & terms for use of information in this document.
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