Projekt og Kommunikation by HC12091214037

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									        IT Universitetet i København
        IT University of Copenhagen




    Præsentation
      MED
    POWERPOINT
Claus Brabrand
((( brabrand@itu.dk )))
((( http://www.itu.dk/people/brabrand/ )))
Associate Professor (Lektor)
Programmering, Logik og Semantik
   IT Universitetet i København
  Outline

   1     Introduction & History
   2     Content & Structure                                 [~Inventio/Dispositio]

   3     Semantics & Consistency                                       [~Elucutio]

   4     Form (tips’n’tricks)                                          [~Elucutio]
              Images
              Text                     abc
              F onts                  Fnt
              Colors
                Themes                <T>
                Animations
   5     Presentation                                            [~Memoria/Actio]

Claus Brabrand, ITU           COMMUNICATION via PowerPoint             [2]   Nov 10, 2008
  History




                                             Robert Gaskins


  PowerPoint was invented by Robert Gaskins in early 1987
      under the name “Presenter” for company Forethought, Inc.

     Purchased by Microsoft for $14,000,000 ('87)
                Now used by 500,000,000+ people (Microsoft estimate)

Claus Brabrand, ITU            COMMUNICATION via PowerPoint   [3]   Nov 10, 2008
  Version History (archaeology)

     PowerPoint 1.0
                (Mac: ’87)
                         Black’n’White only! (for ”Overhead projector”)


     PowerPoint 2.0
                (Mac: ’88; Win: ’90)
                         Now also in color (for work with ”color 35mm slides”)


     PowerPoint 3.0
                (Mac+Win: ’92)
                         Added video-out (for use with ”video projectors”)
Claus Brabrand, ITU                 COMMUNICATION via PowerPoint           [4]   Nov 10, 2008
  (Popular) Related Tools

     OpenOffice.org (aka. ”OO.o”):
                Free Software (LGPL) based on ”StarOffice” by Sun




     Beamer (for use with LaTeX):
                i.e. good for mathematics:




Claus Brabrand, ITU             COMMUNICATION via PowerPoint   [5]   Nov 10, 2008
  Outline

   1     Introduction & History
   2     Content & Structure                                 [~Inventio/Dispositio]

   3     Semantics & Consistency                                       [~Elucutio]

   4     Form (tips’n’tricks)                                          [~Elucutio]
              Images
              Text                     abc
              F onts                  Fnt
              Colors
                Themes                <T>
                Animations
   5     Presentation                                            [~Memoria/Actio]

Claus Brabrand, ITU           COMMUNICATION via PowerPoint             [6]   Nov 10, 2008
  Appropriateness

     Which ”kind” of talk?:
              Research talk                           "conservative"
              Debriefing

              Lecture

              Project presentation

              …

              Advertizing talk (aka. ’sales pitch’)   "fancy"
              (different ”conventions” and ”appropriateness”-’es)




                                                   MESSAGE
Claus Brabrand, ITU           COMMUNICATION via PowerPoint   [7]   Nov 10, 2008
  Note on ”Fancy Effects”

  ”The fancy effects offered by today’s presentation software
       should be used only when they contribute more to the
       message than they distract from it.”
                                                             -- Robert Gaskins
                                           ”Powerpoint at 20: Back to Basics”
                                      Communications of the ACM, 50(12), 2007




                        MESSAGE

Claus Brabrand, ITU       COMMUNICATION via PowerPoint            [8]   Nov 10, 2008
  Know your Audience

     Prerequisites:
              Educational level
              Technical skills (terminology, abbreviations, …)




     Essentially: ”know what your audience knows”
                i.e., ”empathy”




Claus Brabrand, ITU                COMMUNICATION via PowerPoint   [9]   Nov 10, 2008
  Quote from Kierkegaard, 1859
     "At man, når det i sandhed skal lykkes en at føre et menneske hen til
      et bestemt sted, først og fremmest må passe på at finde ham der,
      hvor han er, og begynde der.

     Dette er hemmeligheden i al hjælpekunst. Enhver der ikke kan det, han er
      selv i indbildning, når han mener at kunne hjælpe en anden.

     For i sandhed at kunne hjælpe en anden, må jeg forstå mere end han
      - men dog vel først og fremmest forstå det, han forstår.

     Når jeg ikke gør det, så hjælper min mere-forståen ham slet ikke. Vil jeg
      alligevel gøre min mere-forståen gældende, så er det fordi jeg er
      forfærdelig stolt, så jeg i grunden i stedet for at gavne ham egentlig vil
      beundres af ham.”

                      -- “Brudstykker af en ligefrem meddelelse”, Kierkegaard, 1859

Claus Brabrand, ITU                COMMUNICATION via PowerPoint       [ 10 ]   Nov 10, 2008
  Know your Audience

     Prerequisites:
              Educational level
              Technical skills (terminology, abbreviations, …)




     Essentially: ”know what your audience knows”
                i.e., ”empathy”

    Mediators of Change (if applicable):
              Who’s opinions are you trying to change?
              …and will they react to your message?

Claus Brabrand, ITU                COMMUNICATION via PowerPoint   [ 11 ]   Nov 10, 2008
  On simplicity

  ”Entia non sunt multiplicanda praeter necessitatem”
   "All other things being equal, the simplest solution is the best”
                                            -- ”Occam’s Razor”, 14th century
                                                    (Paraphrased from Latin)

  ”La semplicità è l'ultima delle sofisticazioni”
   "Simplicity is the ultimate sophistication”
                                                          -- Leonardo da Vinci,
                                                       (Translated from Italian)

  "La perfection est atteinte non quand il ne reste rien
        à ajouter, mais quand il ne reste rien à enlever"
       "Perfection is achieved: not when there is nothing more to add,
        but when there is nothing more to remove”
                                                  -- Antoine de Saint-Exupéry
                                                      (Translated from French)
Claus Brabrand, ITU             COMMUNICATION via PowerPoint                 [ 12 ]   Nov 10, 2008
  Avoid
  over-simplification!

  ”Everything should be made as simple as possible,
        but not simpler than that”
                                                           -- Albert Einstein

  “We are to admit no more causes of natural things
        than such as are both true and sufficient to explain
        their appearances”
                                                       -- Sir. Isaac Newton




       Level of abstraction !
Claus Brabrand, ITU         COMMUNICATION via PowerPoint                 [ 13 ]   Nov 10, 2008
  1 Point:




      One point per slide


Claus Brabrand, ITU   COMMUNICATION via PowerPoint   [ 14 ]   Nov 10, 2008
  Structure

 Structure:

                  Introduction


                                               Aka.:
                                                 ”say what you are gonna say;
                        Body
                                                  say it; then
                                                  say what you’ve said”.


                      Conclusion

Claus Brabrand, ITU                COMMUNICATION via PowerPoint    [ 15 ]   Nov 10, 2008
  Structure (Project Presentations)

 Chronological:                                 Retrospective:
     First, we did …;                             The Problem is …;
     Then, we tried … (didn’t work);              The Solution is …;
     Hereafter, we ‘backtracked’ …;               Problem  Solution …;
     …
                      Problem                                   Problem




                      Solution                                  Solution




Claus Brabrand, ITU              COMMUNICATION via PowerPoint              [ 16 ]   Nov 10, 2008
  Other ways of Structuring

 Deductive Structure:                             Inductive Structure:

                  Introduction                                    Introduction


                        Whole                                        Parts


                        Parts                                       Whole


                      Conclusion                                  Conclusion

Claus Brabrand, ITU                COMMUNICATION via PowerPoint              [ 17 ]   Nov 10, 2008
  Deduction vs. Induction

     Deduction:                                          Induction:
          whole  parts:                                      parts  whole:

                       whole                                                whole

                  A      B        C                                    A      B       C
          aka. “top-down reasoning”                           aka. “bottom-up reasoning”
                 abstract  concrete                                 concrete  abstract
                 general  specific                                  specific  general



     Just two different ways of reasoning:
                 Deduction  Induction (just swap directions of arrows)
Claus Brabrand, ITU                     COMMUNICATION via PowerPoint                  [ 18 ]   Nov 10, 2008
  Nomination of CIA Director
 LEVIN: U.S. SENATOR CARL LEVIN (D-MI)
 HAYDEN: GENERAL MICHAEL B. HAYDEN (USAF),
          NOMINEE TO BE DIRECTOR OF CIA
                                                                                        CQ Transcriptions
                                                                         Thursday, May 18, 2006; 11:41 AM



  "DEDUCTIVE vs. INDUCTIVE REASONING"
 LEVIN:
   "You in my office discussed, I think, a very interesting approach, which is the difference
   between starting with a conclusion and trying to prove it and instead starting with
   digging into all the facts and seeing where they take you.

   Would you just describe for us that difference and why [...]?"

 HAYDEN:
   "Yes, sir. And I actually think I prefaced that with both of these are legitimate forms of
   reasoning,

        that you've got deductive [...] in which you begin with, first, [general]
        principles and then you work your way down the specifics.
        And then there's an inductive approach to the world in which you start
        out there with all the data and work yourself up to general principles.

   They are both legitimate."

Claus Brabrand, ITU                               COMMUNICATION via PowerPoint                              [ 19 ]   Nov 10, 2008
  Make Structure Explicit

     Explicit structure:



        self evident to presenter [ teacher ]
        not to audience           [ student ]
        (esp. during “learning process”)


     Use outline:
      (aka. roadmap)                                            a
                                                                ”progress indicator”
                                                                may help even further



Claus Brabrand, ITU              COMMUNICATION via PowerPoint            [ 20 ]   Nov 10, 2008
  Structuring your Talk

     Recall the 5 canons (from classical rhetorics):
              Inventio
              Disposito

              Elucutio

              Memoria

              Actio




Claus Brabrand, ITU        COMMUNICATION via PowerPoint   [ 21 ]   Nov 10, 2008
  Outline

   1     Introduction & History
   2     Content & Structure                                 [~Inventio/Dispositio]

   3     Semantics & Consistency                                        [~Elucutio]

   4     Form (tips’n’tricks)                                           [~Elucutio]
              Images
              Text                     abc
              F onts                  Fnt
              Colors
                Themes                <T>
                Animations
   5     Presentation                                            [~Memoria/Actio]

Claus Brabrand, ITU           COMMUNICATION via PowerPoint            [ 22 ]   Nov 10, 2008
  Form vs. Content

     Form and Content are not independent:
                                           usually
                      Form                                       Content
                                         but also!




                  ”A good ’encoded’ form guide ’decoding’ of the content”

Claus Brabrand, ITU               COMMUNICATION via PowerPoint        [ 23 ]   Nov 10, 2008
  Semantic Coloring

     Use colors to ”encode” content information:
              Blue       for some concept                  (e.g., server)
              Green      for some other concept            (e.g., client)
              Purple     for some third concept            (e.g., application)
                                       class Application {
                                         Client user;
                                         Server db;
                                          Application(Client c, Server s) {
                                            this.user = s;
                                            this.db = c;
                                            db.addClient(user);

     You can do this…:                     register(db, user);
                                            ...
              Globally   for entire presentation
              Locally    for one slide/section (caution of ”mix-ups”)
Claus Brabrand, ITU          COMMUNICATION via PowerPoint          [ 24 ]   Nov 10, 2008
  ’Distribution of Focus’

     In order to emphasize something effectively…:




                                vs.




      …you have to ”de-emphasize” (other things)!
Claus Brabrand, ITU   COMMUNICATION via PowerPoint   [ 25 ]   Nov 10, 2008
  Differentiated Importance

     Use ”differential levels of importance” to
      emphasize and de-emphasize; e.g.:
                ”This is really important”                         ”for emphasis”
High                     e.g., Bold, Italics, and emphasis color

                ”This is of ’standard’ importance”                 ”for ’the rest’ ”
Medium                   e.g., Standard Color (e.g, black)

                (This is not really as important)                  ”for de-emph.”
Low                      e.g., Gray and Parentheses




Claus Brabrand, ITU                 COMMUNICATION via PowerPoint            [ 26 ]   Nov 10, 2008
  Consistency

     Be (meticulously) consistent:                                Advantages of analysis:
                                                                   • better error messages.
                                                                   • find errors at compile-time
                                                                   • basis for optimization
We employ data-flow analyses                                       • safety guarantees.
to construct a graph […]
                                                                         [punctuation]
We instrument the compiler
with a data flow analysis […]
In Sec. 4 and 5, the two parts of
the data-flow-analysis […]
          [hyphenation]              [case/abbreviation]


     Pick a(ny) convention                                          [sequence/position]
                (and stick with it)!
Claus Brabrand, ITU                 COMMUNICATION via PowerPoint                  [ 27 ]   Nov 10, 2008
  Outline

   1     Introduction & History
   2     Content & Structure                                 [~Inventio/Dispositio]

   3     Semantics & Consistency                                        [~Elucutio]

   4     Form (tips’n’tricks)                                           [~Elucutio]
              Images
              Text                     abc
              F onts                  Fnt
              Colors
                Themes                <T>
                Animations
   5     Presentation                                            [~Memoria/Actio]

Claus Brabrand, ITU           COMMUNICATION via PowerPoint            [ 28 ]   Nov 10, 2008
  Images

     Use relevant images whenever possible:
              Improves appearance (if used appropriately)
              Makes a presentation ”less boring”

              Helps association (if used appropriately)




     May be used as (psychological-)anchors
                i.e., ”recall” of content/thoughts/discussions/emotions/...
                                                                                           content
                                                                                           thoughts
e.g., ”Red/black-tree”                  association
                                                                                           discussions
                                                         (Many people ”store”              emotions
                                                             lots of things
                                                         effectively /w images)
Claus Brabrand, ITU              COMMUNICATION via PowerPoint                     [ 29 ]    Nov 10, 2008
  Images                           (cont’d)

     Locating/creating images:
               Inspiration: [ images.google.com ]
               Use digital camera (or scanner):                                 e.g.:


     Incorporating Images:
 [PrtScr] ; Paint ; <paste> ; [select area] ; <copy> ; PPT ; <paste>
     PrtScr                 Ctrl   V                                  Ctrl   C                     Ctrl   V




     Set transparent color (in ”Picture Tool Bar”)
                                                                                        Unfortunately
                      vs.                                                                only one color


Claus Brabrand, ITU                    COMMUNICATION via PowerPoint                       [ 30 ]    Nov 10, 2008
  Images               (cont’d)

     Align Images !!!
             




     Constant space invariants
             




  (both makes slides look more solid and stable)
Claus Brabrand, ITU      COMMUNICATION via PowerPoint   [ 31 ]   Nov 10, 2008
  Images                       (cont’d)

     Set ”same height”
                (for horizontally aligned images)




     Set ”same width”
                (for vertically aligned images)




Claus Brabrand, ITU              COMMUNICATION via PowerPoint   [ 32 ]   Nov 10, 2008
  Images                    (cont’d)

     Moving images (more) precisely:
              …when using mouse:            [Alt] +
              …when using keys:             [Ctrl] +        




     Further precision:
                Use ”window zoom” (in PPT menu)




Claus Brabrand, ITU           COMMUNICATION via PowerPoint       [ 33 ]   Nov 10, 2008
  Images                                (cont’d)

     Use arrows to direct attention:
                (or crossreference)
               class Application {
                 Client user;
                 Server db;

                 Application(Client c, Server s) {
                   ...
                   db.addClient(user);
                   register(db, user);




     Use highlighting to emphasis relevance:




Claus Brabrand, ITU                        COMMUNICATION via PowerPoint   [ 34 ]   Nov 10, 2008
  Images              (cont’d)

     ”Compress images”:




     …saves space (in final presentation)!
Claus Brabrand, ITU    COMMUNICATION via PowerPoint   [ 35 ]   Nov 10, 2008
  Text abc

     Avoid / limit ”text-only-slides”:
                Uninspirational
                 (…and boooooring!)


     Avoid ”full sentences”:                                 Modality duplication:

              many will read 100%                                        vs.
              i.e., not concentrate on you
                                                              not hear               not see



     Avoid ”orphans”:                                        In fact (generally):
                                                                      TEXT
                Lone word on a newline                       ”Less        is more”
Claus Brabrand, ITU            COMMUNICATION via PowerPoint                 [ 36 ]    Nov 10, 2008
  Bullets!              
                        
                        



  ”Bullets don’t kill people,
        people kill people”
                                             -- NRA (National Rifle Association, USA)

     Use with great caution!!!

                                             A list can either (be ordered)…:
                                              chronologically (e.g., earlylate);
                                              alphabetically (e.g. ’A’’Z’);
                                              logically (e.g. firstlast); xor
                                              priority-wise (e.g., highlow)
                                             i.e. one order only (at same time)!

Claus Brabrand, ITU           COMMUNICATION via PowerPoint              [ 37 ]   Nov 10, 2008
  F O nt s
  “No area is so small that you cannot spend
        your whole life researching it.”
                                                                     -- M. Schwartzbach
                                                                   (oral communication)


     Two (very different!) font design goals:
  Designed to be read on paper:                   Designed to be read on screen:



                                            vs.
  e.g.,:                                           e.g.,:
   Times Roman (Morison et al., 1931)              Tahoma (Carter, 1994)
   Helvetica (Miedinger, 1957)                     Verdana (Carter, 1996)
   Arial (Nicholas & Saunders, 1982)               Trebuchet (Connare, 1996)
Claus Brabrand, ITU               COMMUNICATION via PowerPoint             [ 38 ]   Nov 10, 2008
  Sans ou Avec Serifs?

     ”Serif” Fonts:
                Usually best on paper

     ”Sans Serif” Fonts:
                Usually best on screen

     Online font readability test:
                              my scores:        population avg.:




           [ http://edtechfm.sdsu.edu/bhoffman/type/font/intro.htm ]
Claus Brabrand, ITU            COMMUNICATION via PowerPoint        [ 39 ]   Nov 10, 2008
  Fonts (size)


This is 96 pt font
                 This is 66 pt font
                      This is 44 pt font                            PowerPoint
                        This is 32 pt font                          standard
                         This is 28 pt font                         range
                          This is 24 pt font
                           This is 20 pt font
                            This is 18 pt font
                             This is 16 pt font
                              This is 14 pt font
                               This is 12 pt font
                                This is 10 pt font
                                                         If smaller; use:
                                This is 8 pt font         bold
                                                          wide fonts

Claus Brabrand, ITU       COMMUNICATION via PowerPoint                 [ 40 ]   Nov 10, 2008
  Fonts (code)

     For code fragments…:
                Use monospace fonts (e.g., ”Courier New”):


  static int fact(int n) {         static int fact(int n) {
      if (n <= 1) {                   if (n <= 1) {
          return 1;                      return 1;
      } else {                  vs. } else {
          return n * fact(n-1);          return n * fact(n-1);
      }                               }
  }                                }




Claus Brabrand, ITU            COMMUNICATION via PowerPoint      [ 41 ]   Nov 10, 2008
  Colors

     Lots of ”bad combinations”:
  ”Red on Orange”        ”Blue on Green”       ”Black on Blue”   ”Yellow on White”

                Note: often poorly reproduced on projectors


     Maximize contrast:
                Maximize ”|RGB|-difference” (as an approximation):
                                                                 light-on-dark
                   R2 + G2 + B2                              dark-on-light




Claus Brabrand, ITU             COMMUNICATION via PowerPoint          [ 42 ]   Nov 10, 2008
  Colors                        (cont’d)

     Caution with color blindness!
                Red-Green colourblindness:
                 7–10% of (male) population
                 (i.e., statistically 3-4 of the ” s” among you in class)



                         ”Ishihara”
                 (color test plate):

                   Should say ”74”                                    Illustration by:
                  (”21” or nothing,                                   E. W. Scripture, 1895
                     if colourblind)                                  “Thinking, Feeling, Doing”


Claus Brabrand, ITU                    COMMUNICATION via PowerPoint                   [ 43 ]   Nov 10, 2008
  THEMES <T>

     Themes are convenient

     BUT: be careful
                Some are very very very frequently used!!!




Claus Brabrand, ITU             COMMUNICATION via PowerPoint   [ 44 ]   Nov 10, 2008
  Animations

     Animations can make presentation more alive



     However, use with caution!:
              Many different
              Inconsistent use                Chaotic / Amateur’ish
              Overly fancy




Claus Brabrand, ITU           COMMUNICATION via PowerPoint    [ 45 ]   Nov 10, 2008
  Animations                                 (cont’d)

     ”strip-tease effect”
                Content appears incrementally…:




                Good for ”controlling focus”:
                         (i.e., you + audience have attention same place)




Claus Brabrand, ITU                 COMMUNICATION via PowerPoint        [ 46 ]   Nov 10, 2008
  Outline

   1     Introduction & History
   2     Content & Structure                                 [~Inventio/Dispositio]

   3     Semantics & Consistency                                        [~Elucutio]

   4     Form (tips’n’tricks)                                           [~Elucutio]
              Images
              Text                     abc
              F onts                  Fnt
              Colors
                Themes                <T>
                Animations
   5     Presentation                                            [~Memoria/Actio]

Claus Brabrand, ITU           COMMUNICATION via PowerPoint            [ 47 ]   Nov 10, 2008
   Annoyances (audience poll)

     What annoys audiences about presentations?
                        Annoyance                          Percentage

      The speaker reads the slides to us                      62.0 %
      Text so small I couldn't read it                        46.9 %
      Slides hard to see because of color choice              42.6 %
      Full sentences instead of bullet points                 39.1 %
      Moving/flying text or graphics                          24.8 %
      Overly complex diagrams or charts                       22.2 %
[ http://www.thinkoutsidetheslide.com/pptresults2005.htm ]

Claus Brabrand, ITU         COMMUNICATION via PowerPoint      [ 48 ]   Nov 10, 2008
  Live Presentation

     Rehearsal (Memoria):                              Live presentation (Actio):
          Test equipment beforehand                         Use everything you have
          Get to know room                                   learned about rhetorics !
          Avoid CO2 drinks before talk                      Speak loud & clearly
                (Auken’s TV appearance)                     Use ”presenter”
          Rehearse slide transitions                        Use keys ”b” / ”w”
                Presentation flow                                  …for focus on you
          Plan skip points                                  # + <return>
                to skip during presentation                        …to jump to particular slide #
          Get to know personal pace                         Cultural conventions:
                #slides/minute                                     Denmark vs. Japan?
          Disable ”menu on right click”                     Subject conventions:
                (in Tools>Options>View)                            Science vs. Humanities?


Claus Brabrand, ITU                   COMMUNICATION via PowerPoint                   [ 49 ]   Nov 10, 2008
  Exercise (in groups)

     1) Find 3 real PPT slides that exhibit problems
                Google search tip: "... filetype:ppt"
     2) Explain the problems (...or the solution)
                Just annotate the PPT's like this
     3) Improve the PPT slides (using the advice)
     4) Email me your 3 before-&-after slides
                (Subject="PPT fra gruppe 15")

                      At 12:00 all groups demo their slides
                      (There is a prize for the best result !)
Claus Brabrand, ITU                COMMUNICATION via PowerPoint   [ 50 ]   Nov 10, 2008
  Audience Concentration

     Audience activity experiment:
                Fitted students with pulse readers (during lecture):
                      pulse readings:




Claus Brabrand, ITU                     COMMUNICATION via PowerPoint   [ 51 ]   Nov 10, 2008

								
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