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									     School-wide Positive Behavioral
        Intervention & Supports:
             Getting Started
Presented by
Bridget Walker, Seattle University
walkerb@seattleu.edu &
Tricia Robles, Highline School District
roblesph@hsd401.org
                      Welcome
• Introductions & Acknowledgements
  –   University of WA, Seattle U, OSPI, OSEP, WEA
  –   National PBIS Technical Assistance Center
  –   NWPBIS Network & WA & OR Lead Teams
  –   WA’s Researchers, Educators, Students,
      Administrators, & Families
• Food, Breaks, and Restrooms
• Resource Materials
  – Acronym Sheet, BOQ, Start Up Guides
• Goals
• Agenda
          Goal of this Training
• Overview of school-wide Positive Behavior
  Support (SWPBIS)
• Establish Leadership Team
• Core Features
• Implementation Process
• Action Planning & Readiness
       Today’s Agenda:
• Welcome and Introductions
• Overview of school-wide Positive Behavior Support
• Define & Discuss Core Features of school-wide Positive
  Behavior Supports (SWPBIS).
   –   Leadership teams,
   –   school-wide expectations,
   –   Teach expectations,
   –   Acknowledge positive behavior,
   –   Data-based decision making
• Team Planning for Implementing SWPBIS Features
            Participant Expectations
• Be Responsible
   – Be an active participant
   – Return promptly from breaks
• Be Respectful
   – Use cell phone/laptop
     etiquette
   – Keep side bar conversations
     to a minimum
• Be Kind
   – Enter discussion with an open
     mind
   – Respond appropriately to
     others’ ideas
   – Be helpful
    WHAT DO WE KNOW ABOUT PREVENTING VIOLENCE?


• Positive, predictable school-wide climate   •   Surgeon General’s
                                                  Report on Youth
• High rates of academic & social success         Violence (2001)
• Formal social skills instruction            •   Coordinated Social
                                                  Emotional & Learning
• Positive active supervision &                   (Greenberg et al., 2003)
  reinforcement                               •   Center for Study &
                                                  Prevention of Violence
• Positive adult role models                      (2006)
• Multi-component, multi-year school-         •   White House
  family-community effort                         Conference on School
                                                  Violence (2006)
                                                10 Minutes

    Never change what working
• What is in place at your school to create a
  positive social environment and meet the
  social/behavioral needs of students?
• What works? What doesn’t?
• How do you know?
• Are you satisfied with the outcomes?
  ( Office referrals, suspensions, school
  safety, attendance, academic achievement)
                Problem Behaviors
Insubordination, noncompliance,
defiance, late to class, nonattendance,
truancy, fighting, aggression,
inappropriate language, social
withdrawal, excessive crying, stealing,      • Exist in every school
vandalism, property destruction, tobacco,
drugs, alcohol, unresponsive, not            • Vary in intensity
following directions, inappropriate use of
school materials, weapons, harassment        • Are associated w/
1, harassment 2, harassment 3,
unprepared to learn, parking lot               variety of contributing
violation, irresponsible, trespassing,
disrespectful, disrupting teaching,
                                               variables
uncooperative, violent behavior,
disruptive, verbal abuse, physical abuse,    • Are concern in every
dress code, other, etc., etc., etc.            community
                  School
                 (e.g., Mayer)


• Reactive/punishing discipline approach
• Lack of agreement about rules, expectations, &
  consequences
• Lack of staff support
• Failure to consider & accommodate individual differences
• Academic failure
                        The Challenge
• Exclusion and punishment are the most common responses to
  conduct disorders in schools.
           –   Lane & Murakami, (1987)
           –   Rose, (1988)
           –   Nieto, (1999)
           –   Sprick, Borgmeier, & Nolet, (2002)
• Punishing problem behaviors (without a proactive support
  system) is associated with increases in (a) aggression, (b)
  vandalism, (c) truancy, and (d) dropping out.
           – Mayer, 1995
           – Mayer & Sulzar-Azaroff, 1991
           – Skiba & Peterson, 1999
         What is the cost of reacting to
             problem behavior?
• Highline Elementary Schools processed 6284 Major
   ODRs = A cost of 1,571 hours or 262 days of
   instructional time
  (at 15 minutes per referral)

• 4 middle schools processed 3827 Major ODRs = A
  cost of 957 hours or 159 days of instructional and
  leadership time
• Total of 421 days lost of instructional time
• 6 elementary schools implementing PBIS
Positive Behavioral Interventions &
             Supports
  A systems approach for establishing the social
  culture and individualized behavioral supports
  needed for schools to be effective learning
  environments for all students
- Rob Horner, Ph.D.
Co-Director National Technical Assistance Center for Positive
  Behavior Support
         PBIS Defined
“The collective wisdom & ability of a
school staff to work together toward
  the prescribed end of managing
           school culture.”
             - Cory Dunn
      Evidence-based features of
              SW-PBIS
• Focus on Prevention
  –   Define and teach positive social expectations
  –   Acknowledge positive behavior
  –   Arrange consistent consequences for problem behavior
  –   Collection and use of data for decision-making
  –   Continuum of intensive, individual interventions.
  –   Administrative leadership – Team-based implementation
  SWPBIS (aka PBS/RtI) is
A framework for enhancing adoption & implementation of




 Continuum of evidence-based interventions to achieve




    Academic & behaviorally important outcomes for




                     All students
SWPBIS IMPLEMENTATION DRIVERS


Systems: To sustain   Data: For
the implementation    decision making




            Practices:
            Evidenced-based
            and doable

                 Social &
                Academic
                Outcomes
Practices - Evidenced-Based
Ex. Define, Teach & Reinforce Expectations,
Olweus, Skillstreaming

    Data - Office Referrals, Student
    Screening, Implementation
    Checklists, Student/Parent Survey

         Systems - Coaching, Professional
         Development, SWIS Data System
         Leadership Team Reviews Data

               Outcomes –Core
               Social & Academic
Why implement SWPBIS?
Create a positive school culture:
School environment is predictable
  1. common language
  2. common vision (understanding of
expectations)
  3. common experience (everyone knows)
School environment is positive
  regular recognition for positive behavior
School environment is safe
  violent and disruptive behavior is not tolerated
School environment is consistent
  adults use similar expectations.
PBIS Highlights from Individual
     Schools: Cedarhurst
                                         Cedarhurst Elementary SET Data
100



 90



 80



 70



 60


                                                                                                                           2008-2009
 50
                                                                                                                           2009-2010
                                                                                                                           2010-2011
 40



 30



 20



 10



  0
      Expectations   Expectations   On-Going   Response to   Data Monitoring Management   District Support   Total Score
        Defined         Taught       Reward     Violation
Cedarhurst Total Office Discipline
  Referrals from 1,228 to 352
Cedarhurst ODRs Below the National Rate
        for Elementary Schools
Cedarhurst Elementary Response to
        Intervention (RtI)
         19% = 73       2% = 12
         Students      Students
100%
                                     9% or 54
90%
                                     Students
80%
        21% = 80
70%     Students
60%                                               6+ ODR
                                     90% or 530   2-5 ODR
50%
                                      Students    0-1 ODR
40%
30%    60% = 233
        Students
20%
10%
 0%
           2005-2006     2010-2011
      Overall Decrease in Suspensions
180


160


140


120


100

                                                      2005-2006
80                                                    2010-2011


60


40


20


  0
       Events   Suspensions   Students   Expulsions
Randomized Control Trial Results of 18
Schools Receiving Tier 1 & 2 Supports
                  How is my
                                           15-20 Minutes
                school doing?

• Next, using Florida’s PBIS Project’s Initial
  School-wide Benchmarks of Quality
  assessment
• Self-assess what critical components are in
  place at your school?
• This tool is deigned to guide your
  implementation of PBIS and prioritize next
  steps.
                         Break
You’ve been
responsible,
respectful, and
kind.

Take a 15 minute break
       PBIS Video

Creating the Culture of Change
           pbis.org
Establishing the PBIS Lead Team
 Who should comprise the leadership
              team?

• Active administrator
• Representative building staff members,
  family members & students
• Members should be respected
• Members understand behavioral
  principles
• Members should be collaborative, critical
  examiners who are also supportive.
    What are the duties of the leadership
                  team?
•   Examine school climate and behavior
•   Create an action plan based on data
•   Obtain staff commitment to the plan
•   Evaluate progress through data
•   Plan for professional development
•   Meet regularly (Bi-weekly or Monthly)
                                         Team


GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION
        PROCESS
                                      Agreements




                                      Data-based
                                      Action Plan




                         Evaluation                 Implementation
                                       Sample Teaming Matrix

   Initiative,         Purpose                 Outcome                  Target          Staff        SIP/SID
  Committee                                                             Group         Involved

Attendance         Increase             Increase % of students       All students   Eric, Ellen,    Goal #2
Committee          attendance           attending daily                             Marlee

Character          Improve character    Improve character            All students   Marlee, J.S.,   Goal #3
Education                                                                           Ellen

Safety Committee   Improve safety       Predictable response to      Dangerous      Has not met     Goal #3
                                        threat/crisis                students

School Spirit      Enhance school       Improve morale               All students   Has not met
Committee          spirit

Discipline         Improve behavior     Decrease office referrals    Bullies,       Ellen, Eric,    Goal #3
Committee                                                            antisocial     Marlee, Otis
                                                                     students,
                                                                     repeat
                                                                     offenders
DARE Committee     Prevent drug use                                  High/at-risk   Don
                                                                     drug users

SAT Student        Implement 3-tier     Decrease office referrals,   All students   Eric, Ellen,    Goal #2
Assistance Team    model                increase attendance,                        Marlee, Otis,   Goal #3
                                        enhance academic                            Emma
                                        engagement, improve
                                        grades
                                                      Take 5-10



ACTIVITY: The PBIS Leadership Team

• Identify any Redundant Teams/Committees
• Consider Membership for your PBIS Leadership Team
• Review Agreements for Getting Started
• Review the team membership form on your activities handout
  on page 5 & 6.
• Identify Actions Needed for Establishing a Team
Defining School Social Expectations
• Purpose
   – Means of communication
   – Consistent communication
• Guidelines
   –   Identify 3-5 Expectations
   –   Short, Positive Statements (what to do!)
   –   Easy to remember
   –   Culturally Relevant
• For all students, staff, and settings
   – Matrix
                          Kuleana: Be Responsible
                          Have lunch card ready
                          Be orderly in all lines

                          Ho’ihi: Be Respectful
 Cafeteria                Use proper table manners
                          Eat your own food

                          Laulima: Be Cooperative
                          Wait patiently/ quietly

                          Malama: Be Safe
                          Walk at all times
                          Wash hands
                          Chew food well; don’t rush




King Kaumualii on Kauai
                                                  10 Minutes


 ACTIVITY: Identifying Positive School-wide
            SOCIAL Expectations

• Review Guidelines for Identifying Positive School
  Wide Expectations
• Consider 3-5 Potential School-wide Expectations
• Share out with the larger group
• Identify actions as needed for expectations
 Constructing the Behavior Matrix
• Identifies specific student behavior to meet
  school-wide expectations across various
  school settings
• Establishes universal expectations to guide
  all students and staff
• Provides teachers the language for giving
  behavioral feedback to students on school-
  wide expectations
• Uses positive statements
        Translate Expectations into
            Specific Behaviors
• Translate global school-wide expectations for
  various all school settings
• Identify the settings to be considered
• Place expectations and settings on the matrix
• Specific at least two, positively stated behaviors
  for each expectation in each setting
                                School-wide Behavior Matrix

                Location 1   Location 2   Location 3   Location 4   Location 5   Location 6
                Lunch                     Classroom

Expectation 1
                Sit with                  Listen to
Respect
                your class                speaker

Expectation 2
                Clean up                  Be on
Responsible
                your area                 task

Expectation 3
                Walking                   Chair legs
Safe
                Feet                      on ground

Expectation 4




Expectation 5
              RAH – at Adams City High School
                                (Respect – Achievement – Honor)


     RAH      Classroom                  Hallway/                  Cafeteria                 Bathrooms
                                         Commons

Respect       Be on time; attend         Keep location neat,       Put trash in cans, push   Keep area clean, put
              regularly; follow class    keep to the right, use    in your chair, be         trash in cans, be mindful
              rules                      appropriate lang.,        courteous to all staff    of others’ personal
                                         monitor noise level,      and students              space, flush toilet
                                         allow others to pass



Achievement   Do your best on all        Keep track of your        Check space before you    Be a good example to
              assignments and            belongings, monitor       leave, keep track of      other students, leave the
              assessments, take notes,   time to get to class      personal belongings       room better than you
              ask questions                                                                  found it




Honor         Do your own work; tell     Be considerate of yours   Keep your own place in    Report any graffiti or
              the truth                  and others’ personal      line, maintain personal   vandalism
                                         space                     boundaries




                                                                                                                      46
                                            15 minutes
  ACTIVITY: Construct a
  Universal Behavior Matrix

• Identify the settings (Locations) in your
  schools (hall, cafeteria, parking lot, library,
  etc)
• Create behavior matrix by working
  Settings/Locations
• Define behaviors in positive terms that
  exemplify your school-wide expectations in
  these settings
     Enjoy your lunch!
We will start back up at 12:45.
Teaching Expectations
     Why Develop a System for
       Teaching Behavior?
• Behaviors are prerequisites for academics
• Procedures and routines create structure
• Repetition is key to learning new skills:
   • For a child to learn something new, it
     needs to be repeated on average of 8
     times
   • For a child to unlearn an old behavior
     and replace with a new behavior, the
     new behavior must be repeated on
     average 28 times (Harry Wong)
        Behavioral Errors
• More often occur because:
   Students do not have appropriate skills- “Skill
    Deficits”
   Students do not know when to use skills
   Students have not been taught specific
   classroom procedures and routines
   Skills are not taught in context
             A Comparison of Approaches
                         to
             Academic and Social Problems
                                          We Assume:
We Assume:
                                          • Student refuses to cooperate
• Student learned it wrong
                                          • Student knows what is right and
• Student was (inadvertently) taught it      has been told often
   the wrong way
                                          Next We:
Next We:
                                          • Provide a “punishment”
• Diagnose the problem
                                          • Withdraw student from normal
• Identify the misrule/ reteach              social context
• Adjust presentation. Focus on the       • Maintain student removal from
   rule. Provide feedback. Provide           normal context
   practice and review
                                          Finally We Assume:
Finally We Assume:
                                          • Student has “learned” lesson and
• Student has been taught skill              will behave in future
• Will perform correctly in future                               • Colvin, 1988
       Teaching Expectations
• Teach at the start of the year and review when needed
• Define and offer a rationale for each expectation
• Describe what the behavior looks like
• Actively involve students in discriminating between non-
  examples and examples of the expectations
• Have students role play the expected behaviors
• Re-teach the expectations often
• Reinforce desired behavior

Source: Washbrun S., Burrello L., & Buckman S. (2001).
  school-wide behavioral support. Indiana University.
    Creative Ideas: “Putting it into Practice”
• Provide lesson format for teachers to teach behavior
• Expand lesson plan ideas throughout the year
• Provide students with a script (actions and words)
• Teach behaviors in settings where behaviors occur
• Have classes compete to come up with unique ideas
  (student projects, bulletin boards, skits, songs, etc…)
• Recognize staff for creative activities
• Video students role-playing to teach expectations and
  rules and show during morning show –
   – High School Example
  Embedding Expectations into
    Current Daily Curriculum

•Social Studies
•Have students research different cultures to
find out how they define “Respectful”
•Talk about how different historical events
occurred because of conflict and come up
with solutions on how the conflict could have
been resolved
     Using Data to Make Decisions
about Teaching & Reviewing Expectations
What expectation should your school focus on
teaching next month?
Examples of Teaching Expectations

• Video Clip from Indiana PBIS Training
• See sample lesson plans
• IMMA BEE & North Star Way Vidoes
         Teaching Expectations              10-15 Minutes



• Discuss the lesson plan format in your group
  using the template provided.

• See example plans as a resource.
• How will your expectations be taught?
• How will lesson plans be further developed?
• How will you know when a re-teaching is
  needed?
• Discuss & write down needed action items for
  teaching expectations.
“Celebrate what you want
    to see more of."
  --Thomas J. Peters,
Reinforcement Systems: Rationale
  • Focuses attention on desired behaviors
  • Increases the repetition of desired
    behaviors
  • Fosters a positive school climate
  • Reduces amount of time spent on
    discipline
  • Increases instructional hours
Reinforcement System: Definition
 A plan to increase the likelihood that
 adults will respond positively to student
 demonstration of school wide
 expectations.
 - Too often we miss what’s going right!
 Reinforcement Systems:
    Typical Concerns
• “Aren’t we bribing them to do what they
  should do anyway?”
• “Where are we going to get the money to
  buy all that stuff?”
• “We are reinforcing materialism.”
• “It keeps them from learning intrinsic
  motivation.”
        Reinforcement Systems:
              Responses
• We all need external motivators.
• Not every child knows what they should do
  to be successful in school.
• Motivators can be free or donated.
• Reinforcers do not have to be tangible.
• Intrinsic motivation is not automatic. Some
  students need help learning to feel good
  when they do the right thing.
Starbucks PBIS Example
     Reinforcement Systems: Planning
• Get input on possible reinforcements.
• Consider menus to accommodate different
  needs.
• Determine how students will earn
  reinforcement (group/individual).
• Decide how reinforcers will be distributed and
  managed.
• Align school wide system with classroom
  systems.
• Keep it simple
Desired Behaviors Reinforced


         Washington High
   Franklin Pierce School District
Tomcat
Tickets
TICKET BOX
Reinforcement Systems:
Types of Reinforcement
  • Social (lunch with friends, principal,
    teacher)
  • Activity (dance, assembly, picnic)
  • Sensory (music, books/magazines)
  • Token Economies (school store)
  • Tangibles (treasure box)
How to Budget for Reinforcement
           Systems
        •   Instructional dollars
        •   PTA/PTSA
        •   Local business partnerships
        •   Fund raisers
Donation Round-Up
       Reinforcement Systems:
     Guidelines for Implementing
• Encourage every staff member to
  reinforcement positive student behavior
  and review often
• Reward frequently in the beginning (4 to 1
  minimum)
• Ensure that earned = kept
• Provide equal access to reinforcement for
  all students
• Collect data on frequency of
  reinforcement
Dolphin Pride Awards
                             “Bus Bucks”

• Procedures
     –    Review bus citations
     –    On-going driver meetings
     –    Teaching expectations
     –    Link bus bucks w/ schools
     –    Acknowledging bus drivers

•   Springfield P.S., OR
                        “Super Sub Slips”

• Procedures
     – Give 5 slips in
       subfolder for each
       class
     – Subs gives 2 out
       immediately for
       students who start
       class correctly

•   Cottage Grove, OR
                                  10 Minutes
ACTIVITY


What methods do you or will you use to
recognize & acknowledge students?

How will you reinforce staff?
             Key features of data
             systems that work.
• The data are accurate

• The data are very easy to collect

• Data are used for decision-making
  – Difference between data needs at a school building versus
    data needs for a district
  – The people who collect the data must see the information
    used for decision-making
Using Office Discipline Referrals

           School-Wide Systems


      Non Classroom     Classroom
         Setting         Systems
         Systems


             Individual Student
              Support Systems
Organizing Discipline Data
•   Definitions of Problem Behavior
•   Process for Responding
•   Office Referral Form
•   Data Management System
    – esis, Skyward
    – school-wide Information System (SWIS)
      www.swis.org
• Ongoing Analysis
     SWIS – PBIS’s Data System
•   Maintained by University of Oregon
•   Web Site Based – www.swis.org
•   Allows easy Student Data Input
•   Creates Data Charts/Analysis
•   Assists Team in Discussing Data with Staff
•   Small yearly investment ($250.00)
                 SWIS & The Big 5
            Data-based Decision-making
• Referrals by month?
  -What months shows the most and least problem
  behavior?
• Referrals by problem behavior?
   – What are the most common behaviors?
• Referrals by location?
   – Are there specific problem locations?
• Referrals by student?
   – Are many students receiving referrals or only a small
     number of students with many referrals?
• Referrals by time of day?
   – Are there specific times when problems occur?
  SWIS Data by
Problem Behavior
SWIS Data by Location
SWIS Data by
 Time of Day
SWIS Data by Student
Students from culturally and linguistically
diverse backgrounds are disciplined more
often and receive more severe
consequences than their Caucasian peers for
similar discipline infractions. (Lo & Cartledge,
2003; Cartledge, 2003)
Using Data for Decision Making
                                                      Take 5

                The Data System
• What steps need to be taken in your school to better use data
  for decision-making?
   – Having a system to store/use the data?
   – When will data be assessed? By Whom?
   – How will data be shared with all staff?

• Add items to your action plan as needed
                                       Number of Referrals                                                                             Number of Referrals




                                                                                                                                 30
                                                                                                                                 40
                                                                                                                                 90
                                                                                                                                100




                                                                                                                                 10
                                                                                                                                 20
                                                                                                                                 50
                                                                                                                                 60
                                                                                                                                 70
                                                                                                                                 80
                                                                                                                                110
                                                                                                                                120
                                                                                                                                130
                                                                                                                                140




                                                                                                                                  0




                                20
                                     40
                                          60
                                               80
                                                     100
                                                           120
                                                                 140
                                                                       160
                                                                              180
                                                                                    200




                           0
                 Plygd                                                                                                     Minor
                                                                                                                           Tardy
               Park lot                                                                                                    Bomb
                                                                                                                           Arson
              Unknown                                                                                                  Weapons
                                                                                                                           Other
                 Office                                                                                                Unknown
                                                                                                                          Drugs
      Locker rm                                                                                                          M-Prpty…
                                                                                                                        M-Other
Off-Campus                                                                                                              M-Dress
                                                                                                                         M-Tech
              Stadium                                                                                                       Tech
                                                                                                                  Inapp affection
          Music rm                                                                                                   Out bounds
                                                                                                                     M-Unknown
                Library                                                                                             Gang display
                                                                                                                             Skip
               Bathrm                                                                                                      Truan
                                                                                                                           Lying
                    Gym                                                                                             M-Disruption
                                                                                                                           Dress




                                                                                          Referrals by Location
                                                                                                                        Tobacco
               Bus Zn
                                                                                                                         Alcohol
                                                                                                                        Combust
                                                                                                                                                                  Referrals by Problem Behavior




                    Bus
                                                                                                                     M-Inapp lan
                                                                                                                     Forge/Theft
  Special evt                                                                                                            Vandal
                                                                                                                      M-Contact
                 Other
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Trevor Test Middle School




                                                                                                                      M-Disrespt
                                                                                                                       Prop dam
                 Class                                                                                                 Agg/Fight
                                                                                                                        M-Tardy
              Common                                                                                                         Skip
                                                                                                                         Harass
                    Hall                                                                                                Disrespt
                                                                                                                       Inapp lan
                    Café                                                                                              Disruption



                                     Number of Referrals                                                                            Number of Referrals




                    0
                           10
                                 20
                                          30
                                                40
                                                           50
                                                                  60
                                                                             70
                                                                                    80
                                                                                                                               10
                                                                                                                               20
                                                                                                                               30
                                                                                                                               40
                                                                                                                               50
                                                                                                                               60
                                                                                                                               70
                                                                                                                               80
                                                                                                                               90
                                                                                                                              100
                                                                                                                              110
                                                                                                                              120
                                                                                                                              130




                                                                                                                                0




                1
               13                                                                                                   7:00 AM
               16
               18                                                                                                   7:30 AM
                2
               20                                                                                                   8:00 AM
               24
               28                                                                                                   8:30 AM
               30
               33                                                                                                   9:00 AM
               38
                4                                                                                                   9:30 AM
                9
               17                                                                                                 10:00 AM
               21
               37                                                                                                 10:30 AM
               43
               23                                                                                                 11:00 AM
               31
               39                                                                                                 11:30 AM
               40
               41                                                                                                 12:00 PM
                5
                8
Student No.
                                                                                                                                                             Referrals by Time




                                                                                                                  12:30 PM
               11
                                                                                          Referrals by Student




               29                                                                                                   1:00 PM
               12
               22                                                                                                   1:30 PM
               25
               35
               42                                                                                                   2:00 PM
                6
                                                                                                                                                                                                  11/01/2007 through 01/31/2008 (last 3 mos.)




               14                                                                                                   2:30 PM
               34
               15                                                                                                   3:00 PM
               26
               36                                                                                                   3:30 PM
                7
                3                                                                                                   4:00 PM
92




               19
               32                                                                                                   4:30 PM
               27
               10                                                                                                   5:00 PM
Team Initiated
Problem Solving                                                  Identify
(TIPS) Model                                                     Problems




                           Evaluate and                                                              Develop
                              Revise                                                                Hypothesis
                            Action Plan

                                                                  Collect
                                                                  and Use
                                                                   Data




                                                                                          Discuss and
                                         Develop and
                                                                                             Select
                                          Implement
                                                                                           Solutions
                                         Action Plan

                                                        Problem Solving
                                                       Meeting Foundations
Newton, J.S., Todd, A.W., Algozzine, K, Horner, R.H. & Algozzine, B. (2009). The Team Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) Training Manual.
Educational and Community Supports, University of Oregon unpublished training manual.
          The Problem-Solving “Mantra”
• Do we have a problem?
  (identify)
• What is the precise nature of our problem?
  (define, clarify, confirm/disconfirm inferences)
• Why does the problem exist, & what can we do about
  it?
  (hypothesis & solution)
• What are the actual elements of our plan?
  (Action Plan)
• Is our plan being implemented, & is it working?
  (evaluate & revise plan)
• What is the goal?
  (What will it look like when there is not a problem?)

  Newton, J.S., Todd, A.W., Algozzine, K, Horner, R.H. & Algozzine, B. (2009). The Team Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) Training Manual.
  Educational and Community Supports, University of Oregon unpublished training manual.
    Data for Decision-making at the
           School-wide Level
• Identifying “problems” with “precision”
  – Well defined problems prompt functional
    solutions
  – Poorly defined problems prompt discussions in
    which the problem is admired, but not addressed
  – A difference between what you want and what
    you have
                Precision Questions
                (What are the data we need for a decision?)

• Solvable problem statements include information
  about the five core “W” questions.
   –   What is the problem, and how often is it happening
   –   Where is it happening
   –   Who is engaged in the behavior
   –   When is the problem most likely to occur
   –   Why the problem is sustaining
    Primary versus Precision Statements

• Primary Statements            • Precision Statements
  – Too many referrals            – There are more ODRs for
                                    aggression on the
  – September has more
                                    playground than last
    suspensions than last
                                    year. These are most
    year
                                    likely to occur during first
  – Gang behavior is                recess, with a large
    increasing                      number of students, and
  – The cafeteria is out of         the aggression is related
    control                         to getting access to the
  – Student disrespect is out       new playground
    of control                      equipment.
   Precise or Primary Statement?
• ODRs during December are higher than in any
  other month.

• Minor disrespect and disruption are increasing
  over time, and are during the last 15 minutes of
  our block periods when students are engaged in
  independent seat work. This pattern is most
  common in 7th and 8th grades, involves many
  students, and appears to be maintained by escape
  from work (but may also be maintained by peer
  attention… we are not sure).
     Key Tools at the School-wide Level
• School-wide Information System (SWIS) for office discipline
  referrals (www.swis.org)
• School-wide Evaluation Tool (SET) to monitor status of school-
  wide level elements
• Benchmarks of Quality (BoQ) to monitor status of key elements
  of SWPBIS
• School Safety Survey to evaluate and monitor structures and
  procedures related to assuring a safe school
• Team Implementation Checklist (TIC) to evaluate
  implementation of PBIS from the leadership team perspective
• Effective Behavior Supports Survey (EBS) to assess and monitor
  elements of PBIS in school-wide discipline, non-classroom
  settings, classroom management, and individual students
   * www.PBISsurveys.org
  SWPBIS Promote Academic & Social
           Success for All
• Invest in Prevention:
   – more effective, cost-efficient and productive than
     responding after behavior patterns become
     ingrained
• Teach prosocial behaviors
• Acknowledge appropriate behaviors
• Gather & use data to guide behavior supports
• Invest in systems that support effective practices:
   – teams, policies, funding, administrative support
     and data structures
                                   Blonigen et. al. (2008)
                                                                                    2011-2012
                                                                                    2010-2011
                                                                                    2009-2010
                        2.0 FTE District Coordination
                        PBIS P-12 35 Different Sites




                                                                                    2008-2009
                                                                                    2007-2008
                        2011-2012




                                                                                    2006-2007
PBIS in Highline




                                                                                    2005-2006
                                                                                    2004-2005
                                                                                    2003-2004
                                                                                    2002-2003
                                                                                    2001-2002
                                                                                    2000-2001
                                                                                    1999-2000
                   35                                                               1998-1999



                                            30



                                                        25



                                                             20



                                                                  15



                                                                       10



                                                                            5



                                                                                0
             Highline Elementary Schools Office Discipline Referrals
7000




6000




5000




4000

                                                                        All ODR
                                                                        Major ODR
3000




2000




1000




   0
       2008-2009                  2009-2010                 2010-2011
                   HPS Elementary Suspension Data
1600




1400




1200




1000




800                                                             OSS
                                                                OSS & ISS


600




400




200




   0
       2007-2008    2008-2009        2009-2010      2010-2011
2010-2011 PBIS in Highline
• District PBIS Coordinator
• District PBIS Team – Representative
• Establishing PBIS Coaches Cadre – Service Area
• Monthly Meetings
• 25 Schools – Tier 1 School-wide PBIS
• 12 Schools – Tier 2 Screening & CC&E
• 7 ES Schools – Tier 3 Technical Assistance Teams
• PBIS Baseline offered for High Schools
                                            Tertiary Prevention:
CONTINUUM OF                                Specialized
SCHOOL-WIDE                                 Individualized
INSTRUCTIONAL &                FEW          Systems for Students with
POSITIVE BEHAVIOR               ~5%         High-Risk Behavior
SUPPORT
                                            Secondary Prevention:
                                ~15%
                                            Specialized Group
                             SOME           Systems for Students with
                                            At-Risk Behavior
   Primary Prevention:
   School-/Classroom-
   Wide Systems for
   All Students,
   Staff, & Settings




                               ALL
                         ~80% of Students

                                                                   105
        Prevention Logic for All
               (Walker et al., 1996)


• Decrease development of new problem
  behaviors
• Prevent worsening of existing problem
  behaviors
• Redesign learning/teaching environments
  to eliminate triggers & maintainers of
  problem behaviors
• Teach, monitor, & acknowledge prosocial
  behavior
Elements of Response to Intervention and
       Positive Behavior Support
                      EVIDENCE-BASED
                      INTERVENTIONS




   DATA-BASED
                                            STUDENT
DECISION MAKING &
                                          PERFORMANCE
 PROBLEM SOLVING




                        CONTINUOUS
                    PROGRESS MONITORING

								
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