Biology Final by HC120912114715


									                               Biology Final
                              FALL 2000-2001
  1.    A hypothesis is
        a. a definite answer to a given problem
        b. a testable possible explanation of an observation
        c. a proven statement
        d. a concluding statement

  2.    A scientific theory
        a. is absolutely certain
        b. is unchangeable
        c. may be revised as new evidence is presented
        d. is a controlled experiment

  3.    Which of the following steps in a scientific investigation is usually taken first?
        a. experimenting
        b. hypothesizing
        c. theorizing
        d. observing

(1 a)

  4.    The structure that regulates what enters and leaves the cell is called
        a. the nucleus
        b. the cell wall
        c. the nuclear membrane
        d. the cell membrane

  5.    Particles moving from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration
        is called
        a. homeostasis
        b. osmosis
        c. active transport
        d. diffusion

  6.    The diffusion of water through a semi permeable membrane is
        a. osmosis
        b. endocytosis
        c. transportation
        d. pinocytosis
7.     A membrane that lets some things through while keeping others out, is referred to as
       a.    porous
       b.   diffusible
       c.   semi permeable
       d.   impermeable


8.     Factors that may affect the ability of an enzyme to work efficiently include
       a.    temperature
       b.    pH
       c.    concentration of substrate
       d.    all of the above

9.     Each enzyme:
       a.    catalyzes only one type of reaction
       b.    is the same
       c.    works only once
       d.    a & c correct

10.    To denature a enzyme means:
       a. Its shape changes
       b. It can no longer work correctly
       c. It works better than before
       d. Both a & b are correct

11.    The molecule on which an enzyme acts is called a (n)
       a.   active site
       b.   inactive site
       c.   organic molecule
       d.   substrate

12.    Enzymes are
       a.   proteins
       b.   carbohydrates
       c.   lipids
       d.   starches


13.    In eukaryotic cells, chromosomes are found in?
       a.    the chlorplasts
       b.    the nucleus
       c.    the Golgi body
       d.    the lysosomes
14.    Only eukaryotic cells have
       a.    DNA
       b.    membrane-bound organelles
       c.    a cell membrane
       d.    cytoplasm

15.    The DNA “code” is determined by
       a.   hydrogen bonding
       b.   phosphate bonding
       c.   order of bases
       d.   order of sugars and phosphates

16.    A gene is a section of DNA that determines
       a.    one nucleotide
       b.    one protein
       c.    one t-RNA
       d.    all of the above

17.    Messenger RNA is:
       a.   a single strand
       b.   a double strand
       c.   an anticodon
       d.   a double helix

18.    The purpose of DNA replication is:
       a.    to make a copy of DNA to get ready for cell division
       b.    to make a copy of DNA in the form of RNA
       c.    to make a protein molecule
       d.    necessary to repair mistakes
       e.    all of the above

For questions 19-24, use the following choices.
      a.    nucleus
      b.    mitochondria
      c.    Golgi apparatus
      d.    chloroplast
      e.    endoplasmic reticulum

19.    Main Sites of ATP (energy) production

20.    Control center of all cell activity

21.    Found in plants, site of photosynthesis

22.    Network of tubes for transporting materials

23.    Contains the hereditary material, chromosomes

24.    Packages & ships proteins

25.     Ribosomes are attached to
        A.     nucleus
        B.     cell membrane
        C.     chloroplasts
        D.     endoplasmic reticulum (ER)

26.    Plants have large membrane-bound spaces in which water, waste products and nutrients
       are stored. These places are known as
       a.     mitochondria
       b.     chloroplasts
       c.     Golgi bodies
       d.     vacuoles


27.    Humans need plants because:
       a.   they provide us with chemical energy in glucose
       b.   they provide us with oxygen
       c.   they make ATP for us
       d.   answers a & b
       e.   answers a, b & c
28.    The correct equation for photosynthesis in plants is?
       a.    6CO2 + 6H2O + Sunlight  C6H12O6 + 6O2
       b.    C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + 38ATP energy
       c.    6CO2 + 6O2  C6H12O6 + H2O + 38ATP energy
       d.    C6H12O6 + 6H2O + 38 ATP energy  6CO2 + 6O2

29.    Photosynthesis is the process by which sunlight & green plants
       a.    make carbon dioxide and water
       b.    use food to make energy
       c.    make glucose and oxygen
       d.    make amino acids

30.    The process of photosynthesis takes place in
       a.    Mitochondria
       b.    Ribosomes
       c.    Nuclei
       d.    Chloroplasts

31.    A end product of photosynthesis is
       a.    CO2
       b.    H2
       c.    O2
       d.    H2O

32.    The correct equation for cellular (aerobic) respiration is
       a.    6CO2 + 6H2O  C6H12O6 + 6O2
       b.    C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + 38ATP energy
       c.    6CO2 + 6O2  C6H12O6 + H2O + 38ATP energy
       d.    C6H12O6 + 6H2O + 38 ATP energy  6CO2 + 6O2

33.    The net number of ATP formed during anaerobic respiration (fermentation) is
       a.    2 ATP
       b.    8 ATP
       c.    24 ATP
       d.    38 ATP

34.    Which of the following is not an end product of cellular respiration?
       a.    CO2
       b.    ATP
       c.    O2
       d.    H2O
35.    Cellular respiration occurs in the
       a.     mitochondria
       b.     Golgi bodies
       c.     nucleus
       d.     stomach

36.    The process of converting chemical energy of glucose into chemical bonds of ATP is
       a.     glycolysis
       b.     conversion
       c.     cellular respiration
       d.     energy synthesis


For questions 37-46, use the following choices.
      a.    proteins
      b.    carbohydrates
      c.    lipids
      d.    nucleic acids

37.    Building blocks are fatty acids & glycerol

38.    Carries the hereditary materials of life

39.    Provides energy for living things

40.    DNA & RNA

41.    Building blocks are amino acids

42.    Structures and enzymes

43.    Controls chemical reactions

44.    Long term energy storage

45.    Starches, cellulose & glycogen

46.    Building blocks are simple sugars (glucose)
(2a, b)
For questions 47-58, use the following choices.
        a.  Mitosis only
        b.  Meiosis
        c.  Both mitosis & meiosis
        d.  Neither mitosis nor meiosis

47.    Produces cells with 2N (diploid) number of chromosomes.

48.    Produces cells with N (haploid) number of chromosomes.

49.    Crossing over occurs

50.    Produces eggs or sperm.

51.    Replicates DNA during interphase.

52.    Homologous (matching) pairs separate.

53.    Produces human cells with 25 chromosomes.

54.    Occurs in the sex organs.

55.    Involves two cell divisions.

56.    Responsible for growth in organisms.

57.    Results in two identical cells.

58.    Chromatids separate.


59.    A cross is made between two parents, both with genotype Aa.
       What is the probability that an offspring will have the genotype aa?
       a.    1/16
       b.    1/8
       c.    1/4
       d.    1/2
       e.    3/4
60.    In Guinea pigs, black hair is dominant over white hair. If a homozygous black guinea pig
       is crossed with a white guinea pig, the offspring will be
       a.     All white
       b.     All black
       c.     Half white and half black
       d.     3/4 black and 1/4 white

61.    In the fruit fly, gray body (G) is dominant over black body (g). Two gray flies were mated.
       158 gray bodied flies and 49 black bodied flies were produced. The parents probably
       a.      GG x GG
       b.      Gg x Gg
       c.      GG x Gg
       d.      Gg x gg
       e.      gg x gg

       For questions 62-65, refer to the diagram showing the cross between two rabbits.
       In rabbits, black fur (B) is dominant to brown fur (b). Consider the following cross
       between two rabbits.
                                          Bb x Bb

                                            B        b

                                  B         1        2
                                  b         3        4

62.    The shape illustrated above, which is used to organized genetic outcomes, is called a
       a.    Mendelian box
       b.    Punnett square
       c.    Genetic graph
       d.    Phenotypic box

63.    Both of the parents are
       a.    black
       b.    brown
       c.    homozygous dominant
       d.    homozygous recessive

64.    The phenotype of the offspring in box 3 would be
       a.    brown
       b.    a mixture of brown and black
       c.    black
       d.    cannot be determined
65.    The genotypic ratio of the above cross would be
       a.    1:1
       b.    3:1
       c.    1:3
       d.    1:2:1

66.    A human egg or sperm cell contains
       a.   any 23 chromosomes
       b.   a set of 23 chromosomes
       c.   46 chromosomes
       d.   23 pairs of chromosomes

67.    If the 2N (diploid) number of an organism is 50, the number of chromosomes each parent
       contributes to an offspring is
       a.      20
       b.      25
       c.      50
       d.      100

68.    A human male has which of the following sex chromosomes?
       a.   XX
       b.   MM
       c.   FF
       d.   XY
       e.   YY

69.    A human female has which of the following sex chromosomes?
       a.   XX
       b.   MM
       c.   FF
       d.   XY
       e.   YY
70.    Genes that are located on the sex chromosomes are referred to as ______ traits.
       a.   sex-linked
       b.   co dominant
       c.   incompletely dominant
       d.    weird
71.   If a characteristic is sex (X)-linked, it
      a.     occurs most often in males
      b.     occurs only in females
      c.     never occurs in females
      d.     is always fatal.
Match the term with the correct definition.
     a.     genotype
     b.     recessive trait
     c.     dominant trait
     d.     heterozygous
     e.     phenotype

72.    Is masked by the dominant gene
73.    Members of a gene pair that are different
74.    Expressed if present
75.    Physical appearance
76.    The letters used to indicate the presence of a gene
77.    This individual carries the recessive trait but it is not expressed.

In Martians, green eyes (G) is dominant to purple (g) eyes. A purple-eyed Martian mates
with a heterozygous green-eyed Martian. Use the following choices to answer questions
       a.    GG
       b.    Gg
       c.    gg
       d.    GP

78.    What is the genotype of the heterozygous green-eyed Martian?

79.    What is the genotype of the purple-eyed Martian?

80.    Looking at the phenotypes of the offspring, what percent (%) will have purple eyes?
       a.    100%
       b.     75%
       c.     50%
       d.     25%

81.    Looking at the phenotypes of the offspring, what percent (%) will have green eyes?
       a.    100%
       b.     75%
       c.     50%
       d.     25%


82.    The Law of Segregation states
       a.    Pairs of chromosomes separate during gamete formation
       b.    Pairs of chromosomes always stay together
       c.    Only dominant characteristics are separated.
       d.    All of the above.
(4a, b)
83.     The genetic message is carried from the chromosomes to the ribosome in a process
        a.     Replication
        b.     Transcription
        c.     Translation
        d.     Mitosis

The following events occur in protein synthesis.
      a.    Transfer RNA picks up individual amino acids and carries them to the ribosomes.
      b.    Transfer RNA decodes the message by matching the correct codon with its
      c.    DNA unzips and serves as a template for messenger RNA.
      d.    Messenger RNA carries the sequence of nucleotides to the ribosomes.
      e.    A protein is synthesized.

84.   Which event is the first step in protein synthesis?
85.   Which event is the second step in protein synthesis?
86.   Which event is the third step?
87    Which event is the fourth step?
88.   Which event is the fifth step?

89.   An anticodon is a three-base sequence in
      a.    t-RNA
      b.    m-RNA
      c.    DNA
      d.    Amino acids

90.   If the m-RNA codon is A-U-G, the t-RNA anticodon will be
      a.      T-A-C
      b.      U-A-C
      c.      T-A-U
      d.      G-T-C

91.   If a DNA sequence is A-T-G-G-C-T-A-T-C, which of the following would represent the m-
      RNA sequence?
      a.     T-U-C-C-G-U-T-U-G
      b.     U-A-C-C-G-A-U-A-G
      c.     T-A-C-C-G-A-T-A-G
      d.     A-T-C-C-G-T-A-T-G
92.    Translation, in protein synthesis, takes place in
       a.    the nucleus
       b.    the mitochondria
       c.    the ribosome
       d.    the endoplasmic reticulum

93.    Transcription involves
       a.    DNA, m-RNA, t-RNA
       b.    DNA, m-RNA
       c.    m-RNA, t-RNA
       d.    m-RNA, t-RNA, amino acids


94.    A change in a gene that may cause the gene to produce a different effect is called
       a.    a mutation
       b.    genetics
       c.    fertilization
       d.    heredity


95.    Gene expression (regulation) is best illustrated by the following:
       a.   Each cell produces all possible enzymes.
       b.   Each cell produces only the enzymes it needs.
       c.   Cells trade enzymes with each other.
       d.   In any organism, the DNA in each cell is different.


96.    Proteins differ from one another by
       a.     the number of amino acids
       b.     the sequence of amino acids
       c.     the kinds of amino acids
       d.     all of the above
       e.     all proteins are the same


97.    If one side of a DNA strand has the following sequence, T-G-A-C-G-C, what is the
       sequence of the other side?
       a.     A-C-U-G-C-G
       b.     A-C-T-G-C-G
       c.     A-C-U-C-G-C
       d.     A-G-T-G-C-G

98.    A gene can be cut from a chromosome of one organism and inserted into the DNA of
       another organism by a process called
       a.    recombinant DNA
       b.    replication
       c.    crossing over
       d.    translation

99.    Genetic engineers are developing methods for improving life by
       a.    making plants resistant to insects
       b.    curing genetic disorders
       c.    making new medicines
       d.    solving criminal cases
       d.    all of the above

100.   The basic unit of life is
       a.    amino acid
       b.    cell
       c.    fat
       d.    chocolate

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