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Managing Change

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					The Development of The Hospital of the Future


     Managing Change
 Lessons From Workplace Design
                 Oslo, 28th March 2003

              Professor John Worthington
                  Founder DEGW plc
                   Visiting Professor
                 University of Sheffield
     Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg
Change Is the Norm not the Exception


 Change both organisational
 (process) and physical                                                Business
 (product)                                    Organisational           Process
                                              Effectiveness            Redesign
 Change can be managed
 and moderated
 Building design reflective of
 time and process                                         New Build
 Balance between fixed and                             & Refurbishment
 fluid


                                                    Construction Change

         ‘Speed of change is happening at an exponential pace’


          London, Amersfoort, Glasgow, Milan, Madrid, Paris, Sydney, New York
Strategies for Designing for Change


 Short Life – Precise Fit
  Building and use tightly coupled
  ‘Manufactured Container’



  Long Life – Loose Fit
  Activities and settings disengaged from
  building shell
  ‘Duffle Coat’ principle



 Virtual Organisation
  Short lease
  Space on demand                                                 SYMBOLIC ADAPTABLE SERVICE
                                                                    ‘fixed’   ‘flexi’ ‘on demand’




             London, Amersfoort, Glasgow, Milan, Madrid, Paris, Sydney, New York
Architectural Responses




Le Corbusier                Mies Van Der Rohe          Lious Kahn              Herman Hertzberger



• Frame for Change          • Undifferentiated space   • Served and Servant    •   Structuralist
• Machine for Living        • Minimum intervention     • Spaces with no name   •   Repetitive units
• Fits urban context                                   • Spaces of character   •   Generic dimensions
                                                         initiate response     •   People process




                London, Amersfoort, Glasgow, Milan, Madrid, Paris, Sydney, New York
Conceptual Definitions


ADAPTABILITY                   Strategic
                               Large scale over long periods
                               Allows for change while leaving options open
                               Change of function


FLEXIBILITY
                               Tactical
                               Short term, quick with little effort
                               Change components, move equipment


AGILITY
                               The ability to allow for continuous change
                               Rapid response
                               Reversibility




          London, Amersfoort, Glasgow, Milan, Madrid, Paris, Sydney, New York
The Traditional Working Environment is Changing



 Current work supports:
  Hierarchy over
  functionality
  Fixed attitudes
  ‘Silo’ thinking
  Barriers to ‘joined up’
  working
  Wastage of investment
  capital
  Capital intensive




          London, Amersfoort, Glasgow, Milan, Madrid, Paris, Sydney, New York
New ‘Flexible’ Ways of Working Provide:


  Openness
  Flexibility
  Adaptability
           Function
           Service
           Amenity
  Collaboration
  Communication
  Socialisation
  Revenue Focussed
                                           Boots the Chemist, HQ Nottingham. DEGW Architects, Interiors,
                                           Workplace, Change Management




          London, Amersfoort, Glasgow, Milan, Madrid, Paris, Sydney, New York
New Paradigm for Real Estate




Boots the Chemist                                              Shell Learning Centre - Amersfoort, Netherlands
DEGW                                                           Twynstra: Management DEGW: Design




                    Accommodation = Space + Tenure + Amenity + Services
                                            Financial Flexibility
                                           Functional Flexibility
                                            Physical Flexibility

                                    New Offer = Total Experience



                    London, Amersfoort, Glasgow, Milan, Madrid, Paris, Sydney, New York
Hospitals have become Barriers within the Urban Fabric




                                            10%
                                            0%
                                                                13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00 18:00




         London, Amersfoort, Glasgow, Milan, Madrid, Paris, Sydney, New York
Within the Networked City – Airports have become New Nodes




                                                  10%
                                                  0%
                                                                    13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00 18:00




 • 39 million Passengers per annum
 • 54,000 jobs
 • Rail and road connections
 • Shift from “waiting room” to “shopping mall”
 • Diversified and complex economy



             London, Amersfoort, Glasgow, Milan, Madrid, Paris, Sydney, New York
Flexible Ways of Working – DEGW Offices, London

Nomadic                         Out of Office over 40%       100%
                                                              90%
                                                              80%
                                                              70%
     Telephone 9%                                             60%
        conc. (i)                                             50%
                                    Interaction 6%            40%
                                                              30%
                                                              20%
  PC work 10%       Meeting 11%                               10%
  proc/conc. (c)
                     conc. (i)                                0%  09:00 10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00 18:00
                                     away from desk 20-30%   100%
                                                              90%                                                                   Empty
 Reading + writing 6%                      Formal meetings                                                                          Unoccupied
                                                              80%
       conc (i)                                                                                                                     Pausing
                                                              70%
                                                                                                                                    Paperwork
                                                              60%                                                                   Drawing
                                                              50%                                                                   Reading/Writing
                                                              40%
                                                                                                                                    Talking
                                                              30%
                             Out of Office over 30%           20%
                                                                                                                                    Telephone

Manager                                                       10%
                                                                                                                                    Computer
                                                                                                                                    Meeting
                                                               0%
                                                                     Nomads Managers IndependentsTeam      Secretaries CSU and
                                                                            of Multiple          Residents andAccounts Doc. Mgmt.
  Telephone 5%                                                                Teams
     conc. (i)
                                  Interaction 10%


                    PC Work
                      20%
                    conc. (c)
                                                                     Nomads
                                     away from desk 30%
                                         Team meetings
                                                                     Settings
                                                                     Overlapping Usage

                        London, Amersfoort, Glasgow, Milan, Madrid, Paris, Sydney, New York
Flexible Ways of Working – DEGW Offices, London




  Allocation of Space for Activities not for Individual Status



          London, Amersfoort, Glasgow, Milan, Madrid, Paris, Sydney, New York
DEGW Offices - Settings for Work




         London, Amersfoort, Glasgow, Milan, Madrid, Paris, Sydney, New York
MLC Sydney




 Leading financial Services Company
 who have achieved success by
 promoting innovation and creativity
 20,000m2 “vertical village” over nine
 floors
 Themed Interaction zones on each
 floor, linked by open staircase
 Themes represent “staff dreams”
 The Zen den, Cafe 6, The Forum



                                                          DEGW Strategic Briefing Workplace Change Management
                                                          Bligh Voller Nield - Interiors
                                                          Lend Lease - Project Management




          London, Amersfoort, Glasgow, Milan, Madrid, Paris, Sydney, New York
Emphasis is Shifting to Effectiveness


  EFFICIENCY
  making the most
  of space

                     technology                                  Using place to
         15% other    10%                                        support the
                            10% space                            people and the
                                                                 process
                                                                 Focus shifts
               65% people
                                                                 from property to
                                                                 total business
                                                                 process
                            EFFECTIVENESS
                            making the most
                            of people




           London, Amersfoort, Glasgow, Milan, Madrid, Paris, Sydney, New York
Increasing Value through the Messages the Environment Conveys




                                     adding value
             Effectiveness                                                   Efficiency
       Motivation and productivity                                       Drive down costs
        Concentration capacity                                        Space use intensification
         Accommodate change
           Support Interaction


                                                    minimising cost


        A branded environment integrates:
                - Expression - the messages that environments convey
                - Efficiency - how much can be achieved with less
                - Effectiveness - what value can be added by imagination



          London, Amersfoort, Glasgow, Milan, Madrid, Paris, Sydney, New York
Iterative Briefing – Managing a Continuous Briefing & Design Process


                                    Appoint design
                                    or construction
                                         team

                                                  BUILDING PROJECT




                                                                                                         Blyth, Worthington : Managing the Brief for Better Design 2001
               Conceive                               Design      Construct     Occupy & Review

                        Strategic
                          Brief
           Statement                    Project Brief
            of need                                        Detailed Briefs
                                                           • Fit-out brief
                                                           • Operations brief      Restatement of need




            PRE-PROJECT                               PROJECT                    POST-PROJECT
                                            BUSINESS PROJECT



                       ‘Continuous Evaluation and Feedback’


         London, Amersfoort, Glasgow, Milan, Madrid, Paris, Sydney, New York
Integrating Contrasting Expectations


                         TWO LANGUAGES                                                           TWO TEAMS - ONE PROJECT


                                                                                                         The Corporate
                                                                                                             Board
                      DEMAND         SUPPLY
                                                                                                           Project
                                                                                                           Sponsor


                               USE
•   Number of Staff                      •    Size of Building            Interests:                                     Interests:
•   Size of Working Groups               •    Configuration of Building   • Minimise Cost (efficiency)                   • Deliver at Cost on Time
•   Level of Technology                  •    Floor to Floor Height         Increase Productivity
•   Degree of Interaction                •    Size of Floor Plates          (effectiveness)                Design        • Establish Separate Project-
•   External Contact                     •    Access and Security                                           Brief          Clear Beginning and End
                                                                          • Reflect Continuous
•   Pattern of Work                      •    Quality                       Business Change
                                                                                                         Management      • Freeze requirement at
                                                                                                                           earliest possible
                                                                                                                                          moment
                                                                          • Keep option open to last
                                                                            responsible moment
                             ANALYSIS                                           USER TEAM                                    BUILDING TEAM




      ‘One Design Brief Manager - Interpreter understanding both languages’


                       London, Amersfoort, Glasgow, Milan, Madrid, Paris, Sydney, New York
Layered Decision Making



         Shell                                                   Seventy five years
                             Building Shell




       Services                                                      Fifteen years
                             Building Services




        Scenery                                                      Seven years

                             Fitting Out Elements



        Settings                                                      Day to day
                             Office Furnishings


                                                                               Frank Duffy DEGW 193




         London, Amersfoort, Glasgow, Milan, Madrid, Paris, Sydney, New York
Recognise Continuous Evaluation and Feedback


  •   Review the Product                 Briefing is Design - Design is Briefing
       Shell - keeping the weather out
       Services - energy utilisation
       Scenery – maintainability

  •   Review the Process
       Communication
       Teamwork
       User involvement

  •   Review the Performance
       Post Occupancy Evaluation
       User questionnaires
       Walk through




           Louis Kahn : “Know what to build when you have built it”


            London, Amersfoort, Glasgow, Milan, Madrid, Paris, Sydney, New York
Recognising the Resistance to Change



   “I need my office to
   concentrate,
   for confidential work, to
   hold tutorials and store my
   books”
   “Our research work is very
   private and it is impossible
   for us to share our space
   with anyone”
   “We’ve always done it like
   this.”



‘People are not resistant to change but they are resistant to being changed’



          London, Amersfoort, Glasgow, Milan, Madrid, Paris, Sydney, New York
Managing the Process of change


   Learn from previous experience –
   Seeing is believing
   Link the brief with outcomes
   Envision organisational opportunities
   (Work Processes)
        Match to physical outcomes (Work                                             Shell Workshop


   Settings)
   Establish expectations – continuously
   measure success
   Test ideas with pilots, adjust before
   move in
   Establish communication programme
                                                                ‘Rough Guide to Smooth Working’- BBC



 ‘Recognise, anticipate and respond to the human aspects of workplace
  change’


         London, Amersfoort, Glasgow, Milan, Madrid, Paris, Sydney, New York
Factors for Workplace Success – Pointers for Healthcare?



   Adaptable building shell
   Portfolio of fixed, flexible and on-
   demand space
   Selection of appropriate settings
   Total experience: Space, Service,
   Amenity
   Focus on the intangible – Culture &
   ‘Place’


   Providers collaborate to compete
   Research, development, application
   and feedback
   Pilot projects: Continuum of existing
   and new


          London, Amersfoort, Glasgow, Milan, Madrid, Paris, Sydney, New York
Changing the Paradigm – Accept Upside Down Thinking




Round the Equator                                                   Over the Pole




         London, Amersfoort, Glasgow, Milan, Madrid, Paris, Sydney, New York

				
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