Chapter 5 Section 3 & 4:

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					Chapter 5 Section 3 & 4:

  The Protestant Reformation
  The Spread of Protestantism
   Section 3: The Protestant Reformation
  Renaissance values of humanism & secularism led to
  criticism of the Catholic Church’s extravagance
  In Germany, the movement for church reform led to a split in
  the Church (a new form of Christianity – Protestantism)

Martin Luther (1483 – 1546)
  German monk, taught at University of Wittenberg
  believed that a person could be saved simply by faith in
  God’s mercy & love (this idea became know as justification
  by faith)
  Luther’s beliefs brought him into conflict w/ the Catholic
  At the same time Pope Leo X was raising money by selling
  church positions & indulgences
   – indulgences – certificates issued by the Church that reduced or
     canceled punishments for a person’s sins
Luther began preaching against the sell of indulgences
& other practices that he considered corrupt
Oct. 31, 1517 - Luther nailed his “Ninety-Five Theses”
to the door of the Wittenberg church
 – theses - arguments arranged to support a particular
Many Germans agreed w/ Luther & broke from the
Church’s influence
1520 - a papal bull was issued against Luther, ordering
him to take back what he had written
 – papal bull - serious decree issued by the pope
   marked by his seal or “bulla”
1521 - Pope Leo X excommunicated Luther from the
 – Later that year, the Edict of Worms was issued,
   making Luther an outlaw in the Holy Roman Empire
Luther laid the foundation of the 1st Protestant faith:
        Section 4: The Spread of Protestantism
  As the Protestant Reformation swept through Europe, some
  countries took to Luther’s ideas and others still supported
  the Catholic Church
John Calvin (1509 – 1564)
  French theology student
  fled to Switzerland to escape religious persecution
  Calvinists rejected all rituals of the Catholic church
  Calvin ruled in Switzerland, leader of a theocracy
   – theocracy – government led by a church
  Under Calvin’s rule, luxury & games were seen as sinful
   – “Idle hands are the Devil’s playthings.”
  Calvinists were called Huguenots in France & Puritans in
  Quarrels between the pope & King Henry VIII started the
  Reformation in England.
  1527 - Henry VIII wanted a divorce & the pope would not
  grant it
  1534 - Church of England (Anglican Church) was
   – Anglicans had the same beliefs as Catholics, but the king of England
     was the head of the church, not the pope
  Henry’s son, Edward IV died in his teens & his sister Mary
  took over rule of England
  Mary became queen & tried to restore Catholicism, burning
  hundreds of Protestants at the stake
   – earned her the nickname “Bloody Mary”
  1558 – Mary died & her half sister, Elizabeth I, became
  Elizabeth made the Anglican Church protestant w/ some
  Catholic features, distancing its relationship to the old
  Church of Rome.

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