ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR - PowerPoint by cFpU4xbV

VIEWS: 183 PAGES: 35

									ORGANIZATIONAL
  BEHAVIOR
  INTRODUCTION
           CLASSIFICATION
•   Classical.
•   Behavioral.
•   Quantitative.
•   Modern.
            CLASSICAL
• Scientific Management.
• Bureaucratic Management.
• Administrative Management.
     BEHAVIORAL APPROACH
•   Group Influences.
•   Hawthorne Studies.
•   Maslow’s Needs Hierarchy.
•   Theory X and Y.
•   Two Model Theory.
 QUANTATATIVE APPROACHES
• Management Science.
• Operations management.
• MIS.
   MODERN APPROACHES
• The Systems Theory.
• Contingency Theory.
• Theory Z and Quality Management.
  SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT
• Frederick Winslow Taylor – Father of
  Scientific Mgt; an engineer and inventor.
  Wrote the principles in 1911. Involved four
  steps:
  – Develop a science for each job element.
  – Select and train employees scientifically.
  – Continuous supervision to ensure compliance.
  – Continue to plan but use worker to do
    job/work- one best way------
                        contd
• Piecerate scheme; Time and Motion Study- jobs
  broken down, unnecessary motions eliminated.
• Criticism- Two blind spots:-
  – First is the belief that since work has to be divided
    into the simplest constituent motions, it should also be
    arranged as a series of individual motions- each
    motion being carried out by an individual worker.
    Human behavioral element ignored.
  – The second blind spot – As a worker is taught
    individual motions, he acquires a habit and
    experience not understanding and knowledge and
    therefore feels insecure.
              CONLUSION.
• Scientific management does not take into
  consideration the fact that change is inevitable
  and one of the major fns of an org is to bring
  about change.
• The two blind spots explain why its application is
  met with resistance by workers. The second
  blind spot is the divorce of planning from doing;
  it leads to complete disempowerment of the
  worker.
• It assumed people are rational which may not be
  so. It ignores job satisfaction.
         ADMINISTRATIVE
• Author FAYOL; rationale was- one best
  way to put an org together and focus was
  on the org rather than the job. The most
  prominent in this field was Henri Fayol. His
  contribution:-
  – The Six divisions of activities.
  – The fourteen principles of management.
              BUREAUCRATIC
• Max Weber- Rationale was rational and
  impersonal, focus was org level as in
  administrative, derived from ‘buro’ meaning
  office. Formal structure hierarchical in nature
  bound by rules and procedures. Other
  charateristics:-
   –   Work and duties defined clearly.
   –   Abstract rules and regulations.
   –   Impersonal.
   –   Hierarchical.
   –   Not popular, favoritism/nepotism.
         ADM MGT (Activities)
•   Tech activities.
•   Commercial activities.
•   Financial activities.
•   Security activities.
•   Accounting and ,
•   Management.
         ADM MGT (Principles)
•   Division of work.*
•   Authority and responsibility.
•   Discipline.
•   Unity of command.*
•   Unity of direction.
•   Subordination of individual interest.$
•   Scalar chain.
                    Contd.
•   Order.
•   Centralization.
•   Remuneration.
•   Equity.
•   Stability.
•   Initiative.$
•   Espirit de corps.
      GROUP INFLUENCES
• Author – Mary parker follet.
  – Group Behavior.
  – Power with rather than power over.
      HAWTHORNE STUDIES
          (Elton Mayo)
• Introduction.
• The experiments;-
  – Illumination Studies.
  – Relay assembly room experiment.
  – Interview phase.
  – Bank wiring observation room experiments.
        BELIEFS/ FINDINGS
• Beliefs:
  – Job performance depends on individual
    worker.
  – Fatigue is the main factor affecting output.
  – Management sets production standards.
  – contd.
                    contd
• Findings:-
  – The group is the key factor regarding
    performance.
  – Perceived meaning and importance of the
    work determine output.
  – Work place culture sets its own production
    standards.
               CRITICISM
• Procedures, analysis of findings and
  conclusions are questionable.
• Relationship between satisfaction of
  worker and their productivity was too
  simplistic.
• Failed to focus attention on the attitudes of
  employees at workplace.
        Some Observations
• A complaint is not necessarily an objective
  recital of facts it can be a symptom of---
• Objects, persons and events carry a social
  meaning -----
• Personal reference social reference----
• Position or status in the org------
• System of values ----
• Influence of working in a group -----
 MASLOW’S NEEDS THEORY
• Assumptions;-
  – Needs that are never fulfilled completely.
  – Try to fulfill our needs through our actions.
  – They occur in an heirarchy.
  – They are in an ascending order.
  – contd
    THE NEEDS IN ORDER ARE?
•   Physiological.
•   Safety and security.
•   Belongingness or social needs.
•   Esteem or status.
•   Self actualization.
           THEORY X AND Y
          (Douglas McGregor)
• Theory X :-
  – Most people dislike work and avoid doing it.
  – Most people must be coerced or threatened
    with punishment before the work.
  – Most people prefer to be directed.
                    contd
• Theory Y :-
  – Work is natural activity like play or rest.
  – People are capable of self direction and self
    control.
  – People become committed to organizational
    objectives if they are rewarded in doing so.
   MODEL I Vs II (ARGYRIS)
• Model I
  – Manipulative.
  – Pitted against each other.
  – No risks.
  – As opposed to this
  – Open.
  – Trusting.
  – Good communication represents model II.
        SYSTEMS THEORY
• Systems Viewpoint:-
  – Individual.
  – Group.
  – Organization.
  – Environment.
       SYSTEMS PROCESS
• Resources – labor, Materials, capital,
  Machinery and Information (Inputs).
• Transformation – Planning, Organization,
  staffing, Leading, Controlling, Technology
  (Managerial and technological abilities.)
• Outputs – Goods, Services, Profits/
  losses, Employee satisfaction.
• The feedback loop.
   CONTINGENCY THEORY
• Integration of Systems viewpoint,
  behavioral Viewpoint, and the Traditional
  viewpoint.
• Managers use of other viewpoints to solve
  problems involving :-
  – External environment.
  – Technology and
  – Individuaals.
 THEORY Z AND QUALITY MGT.
• Author – William Ouchi. It is a combination of
  both American and Japanese styles of
  management.
• Many researchers have studied Japanese
  companies and have tried to analyze the
  reasons for their high productivity levels and
  loyalty of the workforce.
• They found it depended on the employees
  socialization into the company’s culture.
• The type Z org refers to those organizations that
  blend that blend the american and Japanese
  styles of management.
       SPECIAL FEATURES OF
        JAPANESE CULTURE.
• Lifetime employment.
• No firing unless a criminal offence is committed.
• Promotions are slow.
• Collective decisions and collective responsibility.
• Implicit control mechanism based on trust and
  goodwill.
• Corporate social structure.
• Loyalty and commitment to the org.
        SPECIAL FEATURES OF
          AMERICAN STYLE
•   Short term view.
•   Fast track and awards and promotions.
•   Explicit control mechanism.
•   Specialization.
•   Focus on the individual.
•   Only concerned with the individual.
              SUMMING UP
• Managers – Individuals who achieve goals
  through other people.
• Organization – a consciously coordinated social
  unit, composed of two or more people, that
  functions on a relatively continuous basis to to
  achieve a common goal or a set of goals.
• Organizational behavior – A field of study that
  investigates the impact that individuals, groups,
  and structure have on behavior within
  organizations, for the purpose of applying such
  knowledge toward improving an organizations
  effectiveness.
                    Contd.
• To sum up our definition, OB is concerned with
  the study of what people do in an organization
  and how that behavior affects the performance
  of the organization. And because OB is
  concerned specifically with employment related
  situations, you should not be surprised to find
  that it emphasizes behavior as related to
  concerns such as jobs, work, absenteeism,
  employment turnover, productivity, human
  performance and management.
                 Contd.
• Contents – It is generally agreed that it
  consists of topics such as – motivation,
  leader behavior and power, interpersonal
  communication, Change processes,
  conflict, group structure and processes,
  learning, attitude development and
  perception, stress etc, etc.
      CLOSING STATEMENT
• Replacing Intuition with systematic study.
  – “Behavior generally is predictable if we know the
    person perceived the situation the situation and what
    is important to him or her. While people’s behavior
    may not appear to be rational to an outsider, there is
    reason to believe it usually is intended to be rational
    and it is seen as rational by them. An observer often
    sees behavior as non rational because the observer
    does not have access to the same information or
    does not perceive the environment in the same way.”

								
To top