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					Lighting for a Sustainable

 Better light with less CO2 and mercury
            Living Green Expo
                 May 2008
Phil Smith
Who we are…
• Providing energy expertise
  for 30 years
  – Promoting energy conservation, energy
    efficiency and renewable energy to Minnesota
    consumers, businesses and policymakers
    through educational outreach and technical
    assistance, targeted financial incentives, and
    demonstrations of market-ready new
    • Publications, presentations, website, training,
      energy fairs, CIP
        We use a lot of Energy!
 • Annual statewide energy use:
     – 1.852 quadrillion btus

                                Residential – 22%
Transportation – 29%

                                  Commercial – 19%

       Industrial – 30%
Sources of Minnesota Electricity

                               Coal – 61%
  Natural Gas/Petroleum – 7%

  Renewables/Hydro – 7%

          Nuclear – 25%
   Typical MN house uses…
• Nearly
  215 million
  btus of         Heating/AC – 55%
  – Electricity
                  Lights, electronics – 20%
  – Natural gas
  – Propane
                      Appliances – 15%
  – Heating oil
                      Water Heating – 10%
    Energy Use
• This includes…
  – Enough natural gas to fill
    nearly 6000 Metrodomes
  – Enough coal to fill a train stretching from
    Duluth to New Orleans—and back again
  – Enough petroleum to make
    a layer 15 feet thick over
    Interstate 94 from Hudson
    to Moorhead—all four lanes
 Energy Use
• And all this energy use generates over
  105 million tons of CO2…
  – Enough to fill the Mall of America
    over 24,000 times
 Carbon Dioxide – CO2 – Related to
• State wide average
  – 1.6 pounds of CO2 per kwh
  – Differs from one Utility to another based upon
    fuel source mix
    •   Coal
    •   Hydro
    •   Nuclear
    •   Wind
The scenario shows what Minnesota might look like if average temperatures rise 10ºF and precipitation increases
13 percent at double historical CO2 levels. This is one of
several scenarios created by bioclimatologist Ronald P. Neilson of the U.S.D.A. Forest Service.
Minnesota & Climate Change
• Neurotoxin
  – Hatters
  – Minamata Japan

• See Resources
      Mercury & Coal
• Coal-fired utility boilers are the
  largest point source of
  unregulated mercury emissions
  in the United States.
        Mercury and CFL’s
• CFL lamps
  – contain 5mg
  – New Energy Star criteria – dropping to 1.5 mg
• Net Mercury reduction increases to about
  7mg per lamp
• Sustainable design and Sustainability
  calls for systems thinking, everything has
  – Macro: Economy, Environment and
  – Micro: Building, Environment, Occupant
    uses, and needs
Vision is a Partnership of Brain and Eye

Colors of light have non-visual effects on our
   brain, …but also our whole physiology.
   The color Blue Lights up the Brain!
    Blue increases levels of alertness
We respond to shapes and Contrast
We have been Hardwired to use that
      partnership for survival

  Contrast helps define shape - Shape defines reaction
        Partnership of Brain and Eye

•   Color
•   Brightness
•   Contrast
•   Visual Ability
    – Optical - Post 40
    – Post 60 - Neurological and Optical
  Sustainable Lighting?
It’s not just about Bulbs.
• Every lamp can use a CFL
  – But should it?
            Design is Critical
• Poor lighting design means:
  – Greater energy consumption
     • More CO2, Mercury, particulates …
• Lower productivity
• Discomfort
              Good Lighting Needs
• Effective – Design
   – Color
   – Quantity
   – Distribution
• Effective – Fixture
   – Efficient Delivery of Light – Efficacy
   – Distribution
• Effective - Lamp Choice
   –   Color
   –   Quantity
   –   Energy – or Lumens per watt
   –   Distribution
Color Temperature
Color Temperature
   Incandescent –
      spectrum is
      continuous with
      emphasis at red

   Fluorescent –
      phosphors (3 or 4)
      coating the tube
      generates different
         Color Temperature

2800 K         4000 K    3000 K
                   Human Factor
• Light
   – main stimulus to our circadian

• Need for sufficient amount
  of light
   – Sufficient Time
   – Right Spectrum

• Lighting effective to the
  circadian system differs
  from that effective for the
  visual system.
          Good Lighting Design
• Arrange and Distribute
  Light to have the desired

  – A kitchen with one central
    Ceiling mounted light
    source will have poor light
    on any counter.

     • Your shadow will block the
       delivery of light to surface
Light the Work Surface Not the
Light the Sink   Light the Face
      Bath & Vanity Strip Lights
     More heat than anything else

Note the Glare from the bare bulb
• Difficulty seeing in the presence of very
  bright light
• A form of light pollution or over-illumination
Cove / Valance Lighting
         Recommended Lighting Levels
                                 Horizontal FC              Vertical FC

General lighting                               5                     -

Conversation, entertainment                    3                     3

Circulation                                    3                     3

Dining                                         5                     -

          Table 1. IESNA Lighting Design Guidelines for Residences
                    General Lighting Levels

                                             30                 5
•Reading, casual

                                             50                 10
•Reading, serious

                                             30                 3
•Desk, casual

                                             50                 10
•Desk, serious

     Table 1. IESNA Lighting Design Guidelines for Residences
                          Kitchen Lighting Levels
                                      Horizontal FC           Vertical FC

                                                 30                   5
•Counter, general

                                                 50                   10
•Counter, difficult seeing

                                                 30                   5
•Sink, general

                                                 50                   10
•Sink, difficult seeing

           Table 1. IESNA Lighting Design Guidelines for Residences
                       Hours of Operation
 Home Office
Family Room
 Utility Room
Dining Room
Living Room
                  0   0.5   1   1.5   2     2.5   3   3.5
   We average 50 light bulbs per

• Lit 1 to 3 hours a day
  – Lots of savings available
         Bathroom Lighting

  400 watts            26 watts
  1360 BTU’s           88 BTU’s
470 Lbs/Yr CO2       102 Lbs/Yr CO2
Living Room / Family Room / Basement

                         22 Fixtures, .572 kW
  22 Fixtures, 1.65 kW
                               369 kwh
       1200 kwh
   1900 Lbs/Yr CO2
                           591 Lbs/Yr CO2
         Kitchen / Laundry
        Two-light 4’ wrap fixtures
Could have T8 lamps and Electronic Ballasts

 EXISTING                   RECOMMENDED
   74 Watts                     58Watts
    162 kwh                     127 kwh
529 Lbs/Yr CO2               203 Lbs/Yr CO2
Which chandelier uses compact
   Lumens Per Watt
• Incandescent = 14

• LED = < 50

• Compact Fluorescent = 70
       CREE LED Recessed Light

Nominal delivered light output =
650 lumens
Nominal input power = 12 Watts
CRI = 92
CCT = 2700k or 3500k
Dimmable to 20%
Finelite PLS
Light the Object not the Viewer
• Vacancy Switch
  – when room becomes
    vacant automatically turn
    lighting off after preset
    time delay
  – Manual on/off
  – Bedroom, Bath …
  – Only Some work with
Energy & Light Pollution
   Light the Steps Not the Sky
• This is a 5 watt LED fixture
Light the Surface, Not the Sky
Energy Star
• International Dark-Sky Association (IDA)
  – Provides a listing of Member Manufacturers
  – direct links to fixture web pages
It’s not just about Bulbs
• Every lamp can use a CFL
  – But should it?
Fluorescent Lamp Performance
   Lamp Lumen Depreciation
Fluorescent Lamp Performance
     Effect of Temperature
Fluorescent Lamp Performance
        Lamp Position
     Our Physiological Response to Light
Is the Internet Keeping You Awake at Night?

  It should come as no surprise that staring at a computer screen and
    enthusiastically typing or surfing not only can steal precious time you
    should be banking in deep sleep, but the actual light emanating from
     the screen can also disrupt your body’s ability to prepare for sleep
                            and literally wind down.

 As we move to LCD TV / Flat screen television watchers whose late-
      night shows can be stimulating and sleep-depriving. Numerous
       survey findings have shown that people who spend more pre-
     bedtime hours using the Internet or watching television are more
    likely to report that they don’t get enough sleep, even though they
  sleep almost as long as people who spend fewer pre-bedtime hours
                 in front of a computer or television screen.

A paper in Sleep and Biological Rhythms confirmed this taking it a step
   further - electronic media use before sleep triggers a self-perception
                            of insufficient sleep.
• Lighting for Tomorrow
• Lighting Resource Center
• California Lighting Technology Center
• Watt Stopper
• International Dark-Sky Association (IDA)
• Energy Star
• Safe Fish Eating Guidelines

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