The Presidents

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					The Presidents
Great Expectations

• The American people expect
  their chief executive to ensure
  peace, prosperity and security.
• Americans want a good life and
  they look to the President to
  provide it.
America’s two concepts
about the role of the
President.
• 1st- Most Americans want to
  believe in a strong powerful
  President.
• 2nd- Most Americans dislike a
  concentration of power in one
  person.
Article II (The Executive)
• Section 1-
   • How the President is elected and the qualifications.
   • Who takes over in an emergency.
   • Oath
• Section 2-
   • Commander and Chief
   • Make Treaties
   • Fill Vacancies- Grant Commissions
• Section 3-
   • State of the Union
• Section 4-
   • Removal
How Presidents get
elected.
• There are two routes to the Presidency.
   • 1st- Elections- Most Presidents are elected to office.
     They are guaranteed to two four year terms.
      • 22nd Amendment- passed in 1951, the amendment limits
        presidents to two terms of office.
   • 2nd- Succession and Impeachment
      • Some Presidents come to power through tragedy (John
        Tyler, Truman, and Johnson)
      • Impeachment- The political equivalent of an indictment in
        criminal law. “Treason, Bribery and other high Crimes or
        Misdemeanors”
      • Disabled- 25th Amendment- passed in 1967 this allows the
        vice president to become acting president if both the vice
        president and presidential cabinets determine that the
        president is disabled.
Presidential Powers

• Constitutional
  Powers- “The
  executive power
  shall be vested
  in a president of
  the United
  States of
  America.”
The Expansion of Power
• The role of the President has changed as
  America has increased in prominence on
  the world stage.
• How?
  •   Technology
  •   Thomas Jefferson- Political Parties
  •   Andrew Jackson- Represent. Of People
  •   Abraham Lincoln- Prepared Country for War
  •   Theodore Roosevelt-Mobilized the Public
  •   Woodrow Wilson- World Leader
  •   FDR- Manager of the Economy
Perspectives on
Presidential Power
• Powerful Presidency v. Weak
  Presidency
Running the Government:
The Chief Executive
• The most important role of the
  President is to preside over the
  administration of the
  government.
  • Challenge- Manage 4 million
    employees and a budget of 2.5
    trillion.
How does the President manage such
a large organization (a. k. a.
bureaucracy)?

• Presidential Appointments
  • Every new President have about 500
    high-level positions available for
    appointment.
    • Cabinet, Subcabinet jobs, Agency heads and
      non-civil service posts.
• Power of the Budget
  • Recommend agency budgets to
    Congress
  • Budget and Accounting Act of 1921
The Vice President

• The Vice President by all accounts is
  a symbolic official that is chosen for
  their geographical location and how
  many votes they can bring the
  President.
• Not all Presidents use their Vice
  Presidents the same way. Examples?
The Cabinet

• Cabinet- a group of presidential
  advisors not mentioned in the
  Constitution, although every
  president has had one.
• Today the Cabinet is composed
  of 14 secretaries and the
  attorney general.
Cabinet Departments
EEOB- Eisenhower
Executive Office Building
•    Founded in 1939
     by FDR
•    Three major
     bodies are
     housed in the
     EEOB.
    1.   National Security
         Council (NSC)
    2.   Council of
         Economic
         Advisers (CEA)
    3.   Office of
         Management and
         Budget (OMB)
National Security
Council (NSC)
•   Created in 1947               •   Members
•   Job                               •   President
    • Coordinate the                  •   Vice President
      president’s foreign and         •   Secretary of State
      military policy advisers.       •   Secretary of Defense
•   NSA-                          •   Manager
    • Provides the President          • National Security
      with information and              Assistant
      policy recommendations
      on national security, aid
      the president in national
      security crisis,
      coordinate agency and
      departmental activities
      on national security and
      monitor the
      implementation of
      national security policy.
Council of Economic
Advisers (CEA)
• Job                 • Members
  • Advise the         • Three members
    president on         appointed by the
    economic policy      president.
  • Prepare the
    annual Economic
    Report of the
    President.
Budget and Accounting
Act of 1921- (OMB)
• Created the following previously
• What is the Office of Management and Budget’s role
  in the federal budget? The Office of Management
  and Budget’s (OMB) predominant role is to assist
  the president in overseeing the preparation of the
  federal budget and to supervise its administration
  in executive branch agencies. In helping to
  formulate the president’s spending plans, the OMB
  evaluates the effectiveness of agency programs,
  policies, and procedures, assesses competing
  funding demands among agencies, and sets funding
  priori ties. The OMB ensures that agency reports,
  rules, testimony, and proposed legislation are
  consistent with the president’s budget and with
  administration policies.
Presidential Leadership of
Congress: The Politics of
Shared Powers
• The separation of powers listed
  in the Constitution in actuality
  is a shared power.
• Much of a president’s time is
  spent leading the legislature to
  support presidential initiatives.
Chief Legislator

• The phrase “Chief Legislator” is
  strictly a phrase invented to
  bring attention to the executive
  branch and its connection to
  Congress.
How is the president
connected to Congress in
the Constitution?
• Article II Section 3
  • State of the Union Address


• Article I Section 7
  • Veto-
  • Pocket Veto-
Three Choices

• Three Choices when a bill
  comes to the president.
  • Sign it, make it law
  • Veto it, send it back to Congress
  • Let it become law after 10 working
    days by doing nothing.
Veto

• Definition: The constitutional
  power of the president to send a
  bill back to Congress with
  reasons for rejecting it.
  • Important: a 2/3rd vote in each
    house can override a veto.
Pocket Veto

• A veto taking place when
  Congress adjourns within 10
  days of submitting a bill to the
  president.
• Presidents simply let the bill die
  by neither signing nor vetoing
  the bill.
Line Item Veto

•   What is it?
•   How does it work?
•   Who has the power to use it?
•   Presidents do not have this
    right. They must accept or
    reject the bill in their entirety.
A Presidents’ three most
useful resources.
1. Party Leadership
2. Public Support
3. Legislative Skills
Party Leadership

• Party Leadership for the
  President is vital for a sound
  connection to Congress.
  • The Psychological Bond
    • Personal Loyalty
    • Emotional Commitment
    • Desire to please
    • Distrust of the oppostion
Party Leadership
• Slippage in Party Support- Not all
  members of a political party are
  unified.
  • Consensus- a group decision making
    process that seeks the
    consent, not necessarily the agreement,
    of participants.
• Consensus is very hard to get when
  Congressmen are constantly worried
  about getting reelected.
Leading the Party

• Carrot and Stick
  • Carrot-
    • Photos with President
    • Rides on Air Force One
    • Dinner Invitations
  • Stick
    • Withholding favors
Presidential Coattails

• These occur when voters cast
  their ballots for congressional
  candidates of the president’s
  party because they support the
  president.
The President and
National Security Policy
• Constitutionally, the president has the
  leading role in American defense and
  foreign policy (a.k.a. national security
  policy)
• The President is responsible for all of the
  following.
  • Negotiations with other nations (Chief Diplomat)
  • Commanding the armed forces (Commander in
    Chief)
  • Waging war (War Powers)
  • Managing crises (Crisis Manager)
  • Obtaining the necessary support in Congress
    (Chief Legislator)
Chief Diplomat

• The president alone can extend
  diplomatic recognition to
  foreign governments. These
  can come in many different
  forms.
 • Treaties
 • Executive Agreements
 • Termination of Organized
   Relations
What is the difference
between a Treaty and an
Executive Agreement?
•   Treaty- an agreement between the United States and a
    foreign country.
    • Treaties must be negotiated by the President and approved
      by 2/3rds of the Senate.
•   Executive Agreement- agreements on non-controversial
    subjects.
    • Examples:
        • Food deliveries
        • Custom enforcement
    • Exceptions
        • SALT I
        • Vietnam Peace Agreement
•   Important: Executive Agreements do not require Senate
    ratification.
•   Peace Keeper- Examples
    • Teddy Roosevelt
    • Jimmy Carter
Commander and Chief
•   Why is the President in charge of the armed forces?
    • Framers
•   Examples in history.
    • Clinton
    • Bush Jr.

•   What does the Constitution say about a standing Army?

• “The Football” is a briefcase the President CARRIES
  AROUND, the contents of which are to be used by
  the President of the United States of America to
  authorize a nuclear attack while away from fixed
  command centers, such as the White House
  Situation Room.
War Powers
• According to the Constitution the
  President must have congressional
  approval to declare war, but Congress has
  come to accept that Presidents make short
  term military commitments.
• In 1973 Congress passed the War Power
  Resolution.
  • Requires presidents to consult with Congress
    whenever possible prior to using military force
    and to withdraw forces after 60 days unless
    Congress declares war or grants and extension.
• Important: Presidents view the resolution
  as unconstitutional
Legislative Veto

• The ability of Congress to
  override a presidential decision.

• Although the War Powers
  Resolution assert this authority,
  there is reason to believe they
  would rule it as unconstitutional
What makes the War
Power Resolution
impossible to enforce?
• 1st It is believed the Supreme Court would
  think a legislative veto is in violation of the
  doctrine of separation of power.
• 2nd There have been numerous precedents
  in the past that presidents have followed.
• 3rd There needs to be a rapid response due
  to modern technology.
• 4th The president should have the ability to
  meet the needs of their global
  expectations.
• 5th The nuclear weapon has changed
  everything.
Crisis Manager
• Crisis- sudden unpredictable and
  potentially dangerous event
  requiring the president to play the
  role of crisis manager.
• Why does the president need to be a
  crisis manager?
  • They can come to a quick and
    consistent decision, confine info. to a
    small group, oversee developments and
    call on experts.
Power from the People:
The Public Presidency
• Public support is the most
  important influence a president
  can use.
How does a president
get public support?
• Going Public- Presidents today
  generally use the television and
  media to get the public’s attention.
• Examples:
  • George Bush- Clean Air = Grand Tetons
  • George W. Bush- Iraq = Mission
    Accomplished
  • Chris Gregoire = Rogers
Public Relations and
Presidential Approval
• Most of the public relations that are
  used by the White House are used to
  increase presidential approval.
• The higher the president is in the
  polls the easier it is to persuade the
  public.
• The Gallup Polls
  • “Do you approve or disapprove of the
    way … is handling his job as president?”
Key Terms in Presidential
Approval Polls
• Predisposition- political party affiliation is the key
  factor in presidential approval ratings.
   • Those who identify with the president’s party vote
     40% points higher than those who identify with the
     opposing party. = Stable Base
• Honeymoon- a short grace period of time after a
  president take the White House.
• Rally Event- an event that directly involves the
  United States and particular the president and are
  specific, dramatic and focused.
   • Gulf War- George Bush
   • 911- George W. Bush
What really changes
presidential approval
levels?
• How the president certain
  policy areas.
  • Economy
  • War
  • Foreign Affairs
• Does the personality of a
  president matter as much as his
  efforts or stands on issues?
Bully Pulpit

• (T or F) President can influence
  the public especially if they are
  skilled communicators.
• Citizens in many cases have a
  predisposition about
  presidential policy.
• Examples- page 426
Ronald Reagan- The
“Great Communicator”
• Mobilization- getting the public
  to communicate their views
  directly to congress.
• 1981 Tax Cuts- anomaly or
  great example of mobilization.
The President and the
Press
• Presidents goals    • Press goals for
  for the press         the President
  • Control the         • Demand all the
    amount and            information
    timing of             about the
    information           President
    about their           without delay.
    administration.
Who controls information
given to the press?
• Press Secretary- serves as the
  conduit of information from the
  White House to the press.
• Job
  • Hold daily press briefings
  • Give prepared announcements
  • Answer questions
Controlled News: The
“Body Watch”
• Most of the reporters in the
  press focus on the most visible
  layer of the president’s personal
  and official activities.
Bias and the News
• Studies have concluded that the
  news media is not systematically
  bias toward a particular person,
  party, or ideology as measured in the
  amount of favorable coverage.
• Distortion is not something that the
  news is above.
• The news at best is fundamentally
  superficial, oversimplified and often
  overblown.
• The press loves negativity

				
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posted:9/12/2012
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