• The American people expect
their chief executive to ensure
peace, prosperity and security.
• Americans want a good life and
they look to the President to
America’s two concepts
about the role of the
• 1st- Most Americans want to
believe in a strong powerful
• 2nd- Most Americans dislike a
concentration of power in one
Article II (The Executive)
• Section 1-
• How the President is elected and the qualifications.
• Who takes over in an emergency.
• Section 2-
• Commander and Chief
• Make Treaties
• Fill Vacancies- Grant Commissions
• Section 3-
• State of the Union
• Section 4-
How Presidents get
• There are two routes to the Presidency.
• 1st- Elections- Most Presidents are elected to office.
They are guaranteed to two four year terms.
• 22nd Amendment- passed in 1951, the amendment limits
presidents to two terms of office.
• 2nd- Succession and Impeachment
• Some Presidents come to power through tragedy (John
Tyler, Truman, and Johnson)
• Impeachment- The political equivalent of an indictment in
criminal law. “Treason, Bribery and other high Crimes or
• Disabled- 25th Amendment- passed in 1967 this allows the
vice president to become acting president if both the vice
president and presidential cabinets determine that the
president is disabled.
shall be vested
in a president of
The Expansion of Power
• The role of the President has changed as
America has increased in prominence on
the world stage.
• Thomas Jefferson- Political Parties
• Andrew Jackson- Represent. Of People
• Abraham Lincoln- Prepared Country for War
• Theodore Roosevelt-Mobilized the Public
• Woodrow Wilson- World Leader
• FDR- Manager of the Economy
• Powerful Presidency v. Weak
Running the Government:
The Chief Executive
• The most important role of the
President is to preside over the
administration of the
• Challenge- Manage 4 million
employees and a budget of 2.5
How does the President manage such
a large organization (a. k. a.
• Presidential Appointments
• Every new President have about 500
high-level positions available for
• Cabinet, Subcabinet jobs, Agency heads and
non-civil service posts.
• Power of the Budget
• Recommend agency budgets to
• Budget and Accounting Act of 1921
The Vice President
• The Vice President by all accounts is
a symbolic official that is chosen for
their geographical location and how
many votes they can bring the
• Not all Presidents use their Vice
Presidents the same way. Examples?
• Cabinet- a group of presidential
advisors not mentioned in the
Constitution, although every
president has had one.
• Today the Cabinet is composed
of 14 secretaries and the
Executive Office Building
• Founded in 1939
• Three major
housed in the
1. National Security
2. Council of
3. Office of
• Created in 1947 • Members
• Job • President
• Coordinate the • Vice President
president’s foreign and • Secretary of State
military policy advisers. • Secretary of Defense
• NSA- • Manager
• Provides the President • National Security
with information and Assistant
on national security, aid
the president in national
coordinate agency and
on national security and
national security policy.
Council of Economic
• Job • Members
• Advise the • Three members
president on appointed by the
economic policy president.
• Prepare the
Report of the
Budget and Accounting
Act of 1921- (OMB)
• Created the following previously
• What is the Office of Management and Budget’s role
in the federal budget? The Office of Management
and Budget’s (OMB) predominant role is to assist
the president in overseeing the preparation of the
federal budget and to supervise its administration
in executive branch agencies. In helping to
formulate the president’s spending plans, the OMB
evaluates the effectiveness of agency programs,
policies, and procedures, assesses competing
funding demands among agencies, and sets funding
priori ties. The OMB ensures that agency reports,
rules, testimony, and proposed legislation are
consistent with the president’s budget and with
Presidential Leadership of
Congress: The Politics of
• The separation of powers listed
in the Constitution in actuality
is a shared power.
• Much of a president’s time is
spent leading the legislature to
support presidential initiatives.
• The phrase “Chief Legislator” is
strictly a phrase invented to
bring attention to the executive
branch and its connection to
How is the president
connected to Congress in
• Article II Section 3
• State of the Union Address
• Article I Section 7
• Pocket Veto-
• Three Choices when a bill
comes to the president.
• Sign it, make it law
• Veto it, send it back to Congress
• Let it become law after 10 working
days by doing nothing.
• Definition: The constitutional
power of the president to send a
bill back to Congress with
reasons for rejecting it.
• Important: a 2/3rd vote in each
house can override a veto.
• A veto taking place when
Congress adjourns within 10
days of submitting a bill to the
• Presidents simply let the bill die
by neither signing nor vetoing
Line Item Veto
• What is it?
• How does it work?
• Who has the power to use it?
• Presidents do not have this
right. They must accept or
reject the bill in their entirety.
A Presidents’ three most
1. Party Leadership
2. Public Support
3. Legislative Skills
• Party Leadership for the
President is vital for a sound
connection to Congress.
• The Psychological Bond
• Personal Loyalty
• Emotional Commitment
• Desire to please
• Distrust of the oppostion
• Slippage in Party Support- Not all
members of a political party are
• Consensus- a group decision making
process that seeks the
consent, not necessarily the agreement,
• Consensus is very hard to get when
Congressmen are constantly worried
about getting reelected.
Leading the Party
• Carrot and Stick
• Photos with President
• Rides on Air Force One
• Dinner Invitations
• Withholding favors
• These occur when voters cast
their ballots for congressional
candidates of the president’s
party because they support the
The President and
National Security Policy
• Constitutionally, the president has the
leading role in American defense and
foreign policy (a.k.a. national security
• The President is responsible for all of the
• Negotiations with other nations (Chief Diplomat)
• Commanding the armed forces (Commander in
• Waging war (War Powers)
• Managing crises (Crisis Manager)
• Obtaining the necessary support in Congress
• The president alone can extend
diplomatic recognition to
foreign governments. These
can come in many different
• Executive Agreements
• Termination of Organized
What is the difference
between a Treaty and an
• Treaty- an agreement between the United States and a
• Treaties must be negotiated by the President and approved
by 2/3rds of the Senate.
• Executive Agreement- agreements on non-controversial
• Food deliveries
• Custom enforcement
• SALT I
• Vietnam Peace Agreement
• Important: Executive Agreements do not require Senate
• Peace Keeper- Examples
• Teddy Roosevelt
• Jimmy Carter
Commander and Chief
• Why is the President in charge of the armed forces?
• Examples in history.
• Bush Jr.
• What does the Constitution say about a standing Army?
• “The Football” is a briefcase the President CARRIES
AROUND, the contents of which are to be used by
the President of the United States of America to
authorize a nuclear attack while away from fixed
command centers, such as the White House
• According to the Constitution the
President must have congressional
approval to declare war, but Congress has
come to accept that Presidents make short
term military commitments.
• In 1973 Congress passed the War Power
• Requires presidents to consult with Congress
whenever possible prior to using military force
and to withdraw forces after 60 days unless
Congress declares war or grants and extension.
• Important: Presidents view the resolution
• The ability of Congress to
override a presidential decision.
• Although the War Powers
Resolution assert this authority,
there is reason to believe they
would rule it as unconstitutional
What makes the War
impossible to enforce?
• 1st It is believed the Supreme Court would
think a legislative veto is in violation of the
doctrine of separation of power.
• 2nd There have been numerous precedents
in the past that presidents have followed.
• 3rd There needs to be a rapid response due
to modern technology.
• 4th The president should have the ability to
meet the needs of their global
• 5th The nuclear weapon has changed
• Crisis- sudden unpredictable and
potentially dangerous event
requiring the president to play the
role of crisis manager.
• Why does the president need to be a
• They can come to a quick and
consistent decision, confine info. to a
small group, oversee developments and
call on experts.
Power from the People:
The Public Presidency
• Public support is the most
important influence a president
How does a president
get public support?
• Going Public- Presidents today
generally use the television and
media to get the public’s attention.
• George Bush- Clean Air = Grand Tetons
• George W. Bush- Iraq = Mission
• Chris Gregoire = Rogers
Public Relations and
• Most of the public relations that are
used by the White House are used to
increase presidential approval.
• The higher the president is in the
polls the easier it is to persuade the
• The Gallup Polls
• “Do you approve or disapprove of the
way … is handling his job as president?”
Key Terms in Presidential
• Predisposition- political party affiliation is the key
factor in presidential approval ratings.
• Those who identify with the president’s party vote
40% points higher than those who identify with the
opposing party. = Stable Base
• Honeymoon- a short grace period of time after a
president take the White House.
• Rally Event- an event that directly involves the
United States and particular the president and are
specific, dramatic and focused.
• Gulf War- George Bush
• 911- George W. Bush
What really changes
• How the president certain
• Foreign Affairs
• Does the personality of a
president matter as much as his
efforts or stands on issues?
• (T or F) President can influence
the public especially if they are
• Citizens in many cases have a
• Examples- page 426
Ronald Reagan- The
• Mobilization- getting the public
to communicate their views
directly to congress.
• 1981 Tax Cuts- anomaly or
great example of mobilization.
The President and the
• Presidents goals • Press goals for
for the press the President
• Control the • Demand all the
amount and information
timing of about the
about their without delay.
Who controls information
given to the press?
• Press Secretary- serves as the
conduit of information from the
White House to the press.
• Hold daily press briefings
• Give prepared announcements
• Answer questions
Controlled News: The
• Most of the reporters in the
press focus on the most visible
layer of the president’s personal
and official activities.
Bias and the News
• Studies have concluded that the
news media is not systematically
bias toward a particular person,
party, or ideology as measured in the
amount of favorable coverage.
• Distortion is not something that the
news is above.
• The news at best is fundamentally
superficial, oversimplified and often
• The press loves negativity