A Career in Marketing by wuyunyi


									                                                      Marketing Association of ANZ 

                                  Marketing Association of Australia and New Zealand
                                                           (MAANZ International)
                                                    A Career in Marketing
Marketing is one of the essential functions of management. At its most strategic level, marketing involves managing the relationship between a
firm and its customers, and is at the core of the firm's value-creation activities. An in-depth understanding of marketing is necessary for those
who seek to be corporate marketing managers or brand managers, as well as those who want to become entrepreneurs or senior managers.


Marketing Association of Australia and New Zealand        1                  Promotion and Marketing Communications 8
Marketing Primer - Marketing Explained      3                                The Promotional Mix 8
Marketing Orientation – A customer focus 3                                   Advertising 8
Four Ps       4                                                              Functions and advantages of successful advertising 9
Focusing on specific markets – not just anyone and everyone         4        Objectives of advertising    9
Some other marketing concepts:       5                                       Requirements of a good advertisement       9
Product       6                                                              Steps in an advertising campaign    9
What Is A Product? 6                                                         Advertising Media 9
The New Product Development Process         6                                Personal Selling       10
Branding      8                                                              Sales Promotion        10

                                                     Marketing Association of ANZ 

Objectives of Sales Promotion        10                               Marketing Positions 18
Direct Marketing       11                                             Marketing, Advertising and Public - Relations Managers 19
Marketing Public Relations (MPR) 11                                   Sales Representatives 19
Marketing Research 12                                                 Advertising 20
Successful Marketers are Knowledgeable Marketers.        12           Public Relations (Publicity; Marketing PR) 20
Career Opportunities: 12                                              Marketing Research 21
Getting a Job 13                                                      Logistics: Materials Receiving, Scheduling, Dispatching and
What do graduates need to do to get a marketing job?     13           Distributing Occupations        21
Your résumé 14                                                        Contacts and Links 23
Three basic formats are used in preparing a résumé: 15                The Marketing Association of Australia and New Zealand 24
Getting the advantage 17                                              If you are really interested in a career in Marketing 24
Additional Marketing Study 17                                         Do your career a favour by joining the Marketing Association while
Intern ships create competitive advantage 18                          you are studying.       24
Professional membership       18

                                                       Marketing Association of ANZ 

Each year, thousands of graduates enter the job market, flooding            available as a digital download from the MAANZ site –
prospective employers with résumés and cover letters requesting             www.marketing.org.au for the price of A$25.00
interviews. Marketing is one of the largest employment categories of
the many career paths chosen by business graduates and job growth           Marketing is the activity, set of institutions, and processes for
in the field is expected to accelerate.                                     creating, communicating, delivering, and exchanging offerings that
                                                                            have value for customers, clients, partners, and society at large. The
Today we are witnessing an expansion of marketing activities far            term developed from the original meaning which referred literally to
beyond the narrow boundaries of consumer packaged goods and                 going to market, as in shopping, or going to a market to buy or sell
business products. Every successful organisation—profit - seeking           goods or services.
or not - for - profit—recognises the necessity of effective marketing       Marketing practice tended to be seen only as selling or as a creative
to accomplish its goals of providing customer satisfaction by               industry (advertising) in the past, which included advertising,
offering high - quality goods or services to specific markets. Art          distribution and selling. However, because marketing makes
institutes, museums, religious and human - services organisations,          extensive use of social sciences, psychology, sociology,
festivals, college and professional sports teams and charitable,            mathematics, economics, and anthropology the profession is now
cultural and entertainment events employ most of the same                   widely recognised in a more objective, even scientific way, with
marketing techniques typically associated with producers and                universities and colleges offering programs.
retailers of consumer and business products. All of these
organisations seek out highly motivated, professionally educated               Marketing Orientation – A customer focus
marketing specialists to design and implement these customer -              Most firms today have a customer focus (or market orientation).
driven programs.                                                            This implies that the company focuses its activities and products on
                                                                            consumer demands.
This document aims to provide information to help you make                  In the consumer-driven approach, consumer wants are the drivers of
educational and career decisions.                                           all strategic marketing decisions. No strategy is pursued until it
                                                                            passes the test of consumer research. Every aspect of a market
It gives a solid overview of what marketing is about and describes          offering, including the nature of the product itself, is driven by the
many of the marketing positions you have read about in texts and            needs of potential consumers. The starting point is always the
other publications.                                                         consumer. The rationale for this approach is that there is no point
                                                                            spending funds developing and trying to sell products that people
     Marketing Primer - Marketing Explained                                 will not buy. History attests to many products that were commercial
The following section is principally obtained from the MAANZ                failures in spite of being technological breakthroughs.
publication “Marketing Success in Black and White” which is

                                                        Marketing Association of ANZ 

The overall process starts with marketing research and goes through                   which segment (young adults, families, business people), etc.
market segmentation, business planning and execution, ending with                     also referring to how the environment in which the product is
pre and post-sales promotional activities. It is also related to many of              sold in can affect sales.
the creative arts. The marketing literature is also infamous for re-              •   Promotion: This includes advertising, sales promotion,
inventing itself and its vocabulary according to the times and the                    publicity, and personal selling. Branding refers to the
culture.                                                                              various methods of promoting the product, brand, or
                              Four Ps
In the early 1960s, Professor Neil Borden at Harvard Business                  These four elements are often referred to as the marketing mix,
School identified a number of company performance actions that                 which a marketer uses to create a marketing plan.
can influence the consumer decision to purchase goods or services.
Borden suggested that all those actions of the company represented a           Focusing on specific markets – not just anyone and
“Marketing Mix”. Professor E. Jerome McCarthy, also at the                     everyone
Harvard Business School in the early 1960s, suggested that the
Marketing Mix contained 4 elements: product, price, place and                  Segmentation and Targeting
                                                                               Marketing is based on is gaining and retaining the best customers.
   •   Product: The product aspects of marketing deal with the                 It is important to fully understand who these best customers could
       specifications of the actual goods or services, and how it              be/are and what are their specific needs and preferences. Having
       relates to the end-user's needs and wants. The scope of a               only a general idea of what customers want from your organisation
       product generally includes supporting elements such as                  is not enough
       warranties, guarantees, and support.
   •   Pricing: This refers to the process of setting a price for a            A `Market' can be defined as a group of customers who exhibit
       product, including discounts. The price need not be                     broadly similar needs and have the ability to satisfy those needs. The
       monetary; it can simply be what is exchanged for the                    market can also be defined in terms of the benefits sought by the
       product, e.g. time, energy, or attention. This concept is               customer, not in terms of particular products or technical
       known as the “total customer investment or payment.                     specifications.
   •   Placement (or distribution): refers to how the product gets to
       the customer; for example, point-of-sale placement or                   Defining the market may be approached from a number of ways
       retailing. This third P has also sometimes been called Place,           each yielding a different description — some may be narrow in
       referring to the channel by which a product is sold (e.g.               focus others may be broad. The defining of the market will
       online vs. retail), which geographic region or industry, to

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determine who the organisations best potential competitors and             suppliers, customers, channel partners facilitating partners and
customers are and their Key Buying Criteria (KBC)                          employees, to create better value and increased performance as well
                                                                           as sustainable business results. . Loyalty marketing is part of the
A market segment comprises a relatively homogenous group of                relationship marketing focus, however it tends to be associated with
potential customers where the members of that segment share some           rewarding (paying) customers to remain loyal.
similar characteristic of value to the organisation. These
characteristics could be specific needs and wants, particular              Value Marketing - The central part of marketing is understanding
perceptions of value, behaviour, resources or location.                    what value is to both partners in an exchange and creating better
                                                                           offers that can be delivered to customers. (See earlier in this chapter
Target segments or target markets are distinct groups or segments          and throughout the book.
of customers. Clearly defining your organisations target market will
help develop the best value offers for them.                               Marketing Metrics - Marketing metrics is about creating methods
                                                                           to measure and analyse marketing performance.
Some other marketing concepts:
                                                                           Supply Chain Management, Category Management, and
Services Marketing must account for the unique nature of services.         Efficient Consumer Response - Supply Chain Management is the
                                                                           management of the entire value-added chain, from the supplier to
Industrial or B2B (Business to Business) or O2O (Organisation              manufacturer right through to the retailer and the final customer.
to Organisation – a wider concept on the former) marketing must            SCM has three primary goals: Reduce inventory, increase the
account for the long term contractual agreements that are typical in       transaction speed by exchanging data in real-time, and increase sales
supply chain transactions.                                                 by implementing customer requirements more efficiently. Category
                                                                           Management and Efficient Consumer Response are sub sets of
Internal Marketing is an emerging area of study and practice               SCM
concerns internal marketing, or how employees are trained and
managed to deliver the brand in a way that positively impacts the          Globalisation of Markets - Multinational corporations manufacture
acquisition and retention of customers (employer branding).                products in many countries and sell to customers around the world.
                                                                           Products and finances, ideas and cultures circulate more freely. As a
Internet marketing - This form of marketing uses the Internet and          result, laws, economies, and social movements are forming at the
is generally called eMarketing, or online marketing.                       international level.

Relationship and Loyalty Marketing - Relationship and Loyalty              Quality Management - Value and quality have always been at the
Marketing are business strategies that actively try to build an            centre of marketing thinking. The concept of Quality Management
ongoing partnership and preference for an organisation with its            is however now entrenched in the production of all sorts of products.

                                                          Marketing Association of ANZ 

Terms like Total Quality Management (TQM) and programs like                     The product as a good is seen primarily as a tangible physical
Six Sigma ( a quality management program that measures and                      entity, such as a box of corn flakes or a pen.
improves the operational performance of an organisation by
identifying and correcting defects in the company's processes and               The product as a service is seen primarily as an intangible activity -
products) have a significant effect on marketing                                the result of the application of human and/or mechanical efforts.
                                                                                Examples of services include courier services; medical services,
                              Product                                           ATMs and child care.
What Is A Product?
                                                                                Products are always both goods (tangibles) and services
The Product is the central element of an organisation’s Value Offer             (intangibles) - see chapter xx Services. A product is a key element
to its target segment. The term “product” is a broad one and                    of the marketing mix and marketing exchange. It is a complex
refers to both goods and services.                                              bundle of elements, both tangible and intangible. No product can
                                                                                exist without tangibility. The main value of any product is to be
In fact a product is anything offered and acquired considered                   found in its intangible elements.
having value by:
1. A Buyer                                                                      When buyers acquire (purchase, hire) a product, they are really
2. The Seller                                                                   buying the benefits and satisfaction they think the product will
                                                                                provide. Products are offered and purchased on the basis of
From the perspective of the supplier a product is part of the value             promises of benefits and satisfaction.
offer or value proposition made to a buyer.
                                                                                     The New Product Development Process
From the perspective of the buyer/consumer it can also be seen as a
solution to their needs (wants/desires). If they buy it (or rent it, hire          1. Idea Generation is often called the "fuzzy front end" of the
it etc.) it then becomes a value acquisition. Before it is acquired it                NPD process
has little if any value to either the buyer or the supplier.                             o Ideas for new products can be obtained from basic
                                                                                            research using a SWOT analysis (Strengths,
‘Products’ may include ideas, service activities, a good, a place, a                        weaknesses, Opportunities & Threats), Market and
person, an organisation or (more usually) some combination of                               consumer trends, company's R&D department,
these. This definition also covers supporting services that go with                         competitors, focus groups, employees, salespeople,
goods, such as installation, guarantees, product information, and                           corporate spies, trade shows, or Ethnographic
promises of repair or maintenance.                                                          discovery methods (searching for user patterns and
                                                                                            habits) may also be used to get an insight into new
                                                                                            product lines or product features.
                                                  Marketing Association of ANZ 

       o  Idea Generation or Brainstorming of new product,                                 Prove feasibility through virtual computer
          service, or store concepts - idea generation techniques                          aided rendering, and rapid prototyping
          can begin when you have done your opportunity                                    What will it cost to produce it?
          analysis to support your ideas in the Idea Screening                  o Testing the Concept by asking a sample of
          Phase (shown in the next development step).                              prospective customers what they think of the idea.
2. Idea Screening                                                       4.   Business Analysis
      o The object is to eliminate unsound concepts prior to                    o Estimate likely selling price based upon competition
          devoting resources to them.                                              and customer feedback
      o The screeners must ask at least three questions:                        o Estimate sales volume based upon size of market
                  Will the customer in the target market benefit                o Estimate profitability and breakeven point
                  from the product?                                     5.   Beta Testing and Market Testing
                  What is the size and growth forecasts of the                  o Produce a physical prototype or mock-up
                  market segment/target market?                                 o Test the product (and its packaging) in typical usage
                  What is the current or expected competitive                      situations
                  pressure for the product idea?                                o Conduct focus group customer interviews or
                  What are the industry sales and market trends                    introduce at trade show
                  the product idea is based on?                                 o Make adjustments where necessary
                  Is it technically feasible to manufacture the                 o Produce an initial run of the product and sell it in a
                  product?                                                         test market area to determine customer acceptance
                  Will the product be profitable when                   6.   Technical Implementation
                  manufactured and delivered to the customer at                 o New program initiation
                  the target price?                                             o Resource estimation
3. Concept Development and Testing                                              o Requirement publication
      o Develop the marketing and engineering details                           o Engineering operations planning
                  Who is the target market and who is the                       o Department scheduling
                  decision maker in the purchasing process?                     o Supplier collaboration
                  What product features must the product                        o Logistics plan
                  incorporate?                                                  o Resource plan publication
                  What benefits will the product provide?                       o Program review and monitoring
                  How will consumers react to the product?                      o Contingencies - what-if planning
                  How will the product be produced most cost            7.   Commercialisation (often considered post-NPD)
                  effectively?                                                  o Launch the product

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           o Produce and place advertisements and other                       brand represents the consumers' experience with an organisation,
             promotions                                                       product, or service. A brand is more than a name, design or symbol.
           o Fill the distribution pipeline with product                      Brand reflects personality of the company which is organisational

These steps may be iterated as needed. Some steps may be                      A brand has also been defined as an identifiable entity that makes a
eliminated. To reduce the time that the NPD process takes, many               specific value based on promises made and kept either actively or
companies are completing several steps at the same time (referred to          passively.
as concurrent engineering or time to market). Most industry
leaders see new product development as a proactive process where              Branding means creating a reference of certain products in the mind
resources are allocated to identify market changes and seize upon             of the target segment.
new product opportunities before they occur (in contrast to a
reactive strategy in which nothing is done until problems occur or               Promotion and Marketing Communications
the competitor introduces an innovation). Many industry leaders see           Communicating value to the target segment
new product development as an ongoing process (referred to as
continuous development) in which the entire organisation is always            Marketing communications breaks down the strategies involved
looking for opportunities.                                                    with marketing messages into categories based on the goals of each
                                                                              message. There are distinct stages in converting strangers to
Because the NPD process typically requires both engineering and               customers that govern the communication medium that should be
marketing expertise, cross-functional teams are a common way of               used.
organising projects. The team is responsible for all aspects of the
project, from initial idea generation to final commercialization, and                            The Promotional Mix
they usually report to senior management (often to a vice president
or Program Manager). In those industries where products are                   The Promotional Mix (which is a subset of the Marketing Mix)
technically complex, development research is typically expensive,             involves four main elements which are used to create mostly
and product life cycles are relatively short, strategic alliances among       external informative and persuasive communications for the
several organisations helps to spread the costs, provide access to a          organisation:
wider skill set, and speeds the overall process.                                  • Advertising
                                                                                  • Personal Selling
                            Branding                                              • Sales Promotion
A brand is a name, term, design, symbol, or other feature that                    • Publicity/Marketing Public Relations
distinguishes products and services from competitive offerings. A
                                                    Marketing Association of ANZ 

   •   Paid form of public promotion and expressive promotion of          •   Stimulate interest
       products (and brands) through ideas                                •   Create a desire
   •   Aimed at masses                                                    •   Bring about action (to buy the product)
   •   Manufacturer may determine what goes into advertisement
   •   Pervasive and impersonal medium                                 Steps in an advertising campaign

Functions and advantages of successful advertising                        •   Market research
                                                                          •   Setting out aims
   •   Task of the salesman made easier                                   •   Budgeting
   •   Maximize sales                                                     •   Choice of media (television, newspaper/magazines, radio,
   •   Publicity                                                              web, outdoor)
   •   Brand building                                                     •   Choice of actors and players (New Trend)
   •   Create awareness                                                   •   Design and wording
   •   Persuade buyers                                                    •   Co-ordination
   •   Introduction of new product                                        •   Test results
   •   Enable market leadership
   •   To face competition                                             Advertising Media
   •   To inform changes
                                                                       To the marketer, media refers to the vehicles used to carry the
   •   To counteract to competitors advertisement
                                                                       advertising message to its intended target; usually- newspapers,
   •   To enhance goodwill
                                                                       magazines, television, and radio. The role of media is to connect
                                                                       companies and customers, not just to deliver brand messages.
Objectives of advertising                                              Delivery means “taking something to a person or place,” and
                                                                       connecting means “joining together.” To motivate repeat purchases,
   •   Maintain demand for well-known goods                            companies need to continually reconnect with customers and the
   •   Introduce new and unknown goods                                 media most suited to do this is addressable, interactive media.
   •   Increase demand for well-known goods/products/services          Recent technological advances have shaped today’s interactive
Requirements of a good advertisement
                                                                       Each medium has its own role to play in the advertising scheme of
To generate AIDA - Attention, Interest, Desire and Action              things, and the relative importance of each medium to any single
                                                                       advertiser depends upon the advertiser's particular objectives, target
   •   Attract attention (awareness)                                   market, and resources.

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                                                                                  Sales promotion is any activity that offers an incentive to induce a
Media selection means finding the most cost-effective way to                      desired response from target customers, salespeople, or
deliver the message to the desired audience.                                      intermediaries over a limited period of time.
                        Personal Selling                                          Sales promotion involves some type of inducement that provides an
Personal presentation given by a salesperson who approaches                       extra incentive to buy. This incentive is usually the key element in
individuals or a group of potential customers                                     a promotional program; it may be a coupon or price reduction, the
                                                                                  opportunity to enter a contest or sweepstakes, a money-back refund
    •   Live, interactive (two way) relationship                                  or rebate, or an extra amount of a product. The incentive may be a
    •   Personal interest                                                         free sample of the product, given in hopes of generating a future
    •   Attention and response                                                    purchase, or a premium that serves as a reminder of the brand and
    •   Interesting presentation                                                  reinforces its image. Most sales promotion offers attempt to add
    •   Clear and thorough.                                                       some value to the product. While advertising appeals to the mind
                                                                                  and emotions to give the consumer a reason to buy, sales promotion
Personal selling is a special form of interpersonal communication.                appeals more to the pocketbook and provides an incentive for
Its goal is to provide information to a prospective buyer in such a               purchasing a brand.
way that it elicits a purchase. Personal selling is unique in that it is a        Objectives of Sales Promotion
form of dyadic (two way) communication. In personal selling,
messages flow between one sender and one (or perhaps a few)                       Obtaining Trial and Repurchase
receivers; advertising, sales promotion, and publicity are mass                   Increasing Consumption of an Established Brand
communication forms.                                                              Keeping Current Customers
                                                                                  Targeting A Specific Market Segment
    •   More money is spent on personal selling activities than on                Enhancing Advertising and Marketing Efforts
        the other promotional tools. Some estimate that firms spend               Getting Trade support
        ten times as much on personal selling as they do on
        advertising.                                                              Common sales promotion activities include:
                                                                                    • Point of Purchase POP/Point of Sale POS promotion;
                        Sales Promotion                                             • Signs and posters
                                                                                    • Contests and sweepstakes;
Sales Promotion is about short-term incentives to encourage buying                  • Special price coupons;
of products:

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   •    Samples and sampling - Sampling places a free product in                      product at a specified savings off the regular retail price;
        the hands of the consumer for trial, with the idea of letting                 Other forms of deal include:
        the product sell itself.
    • Premiums (articles of merchandise provided free or at                                    bonus packs where bonus pack deal offers the
        reduced prices to consumers as incentives); Direct Premiums            consumer an opportunity to purchase more of a product with no
        - go right to the consumer, free of charge at the time of              increase in the products regular price;
        purchase. Major types of premiums:                                                     refunds and rebates offer the consumer a cash
        On Pack Premiums:                                                      payment in return for proof of purchase for specific products;
        In Pack Premiums:- inside the package of the product.                                  combination offers, which combines a refund offer
                Near Pack Premiums:                                            with another form of                   consumer incentive.
                Container Premiums - A container premium is a                  Direct Marketing
reusable container that also serves as the products package.
        Self Liquidating Premiums - requires the consumer to                   Long considered to be an element of Sales Promotion, the term
make a payment for the premium article and provide proof of                    Direct Marketing, usually covers direct mail and telemarketing
purchase of the product.                                                       activities.
        Free Mail In Premiums - the consumer receives the
premium merchandise after mailing in a request for the article along           Direct marketing is an interactive system of marketing which uses
with a proof of purchase.                                                      one or more advertising media to affect a measurable response
        Continuity Coupon Premiums - are articles of merchandise               and/or transaction at any location. The key element of modern
for which the consumer saves by collecting coupons, proof of                   Direct Marketing is the development of in-depth Data Bases which
purchase seals, special labels                                                 provide buyer details including preferences.
                Free Giveaways:- In a free giveaway, the dealer
                                                                                        Marketing Public Relations (MPR)
gives certain articles to the consumer directly at the time the product
is purchased.                                                                  Publicity and Marketing Public Relations
    • Advertising specialities (articles of merchandise usually
        bearing the advertisers name, logo and promotional message)               •   Stimulation of demand through press release giving a
    • Event Sponsorship                                                               favourable report to a product
    • Brochures and flyers                                                        •   Higher degree of credibility
    • Consumer deals - short term promotions offering consumers                   •   Effectively news
        a savings in the purchase of a product. The major type of                 •   Boosts enterprise's image
        consumer deals are: direct price reduction, which is an
        offer the consumer is given for the opportunity to purchase a

                                                      Marketing Association of ANZ 

Publicity (also known as Marketing Public Relations) is a type of            1) Understanding Value - the customer and what they value, (Who
communication that comes under the general heading of Public                 are they and What do they want?)
Relations.                                                                   2) Creating Value for the customer (Product and Pricing Strategy)
                                                                             3) Communicating Value to the target segment (Promotional
Publicity is news and information generally carried in the mass              Strategy)
media about an organisation and its products, policies, personnel, or        4) Delivering Value and making it easy for the customer to buy.
actions; it can originate with the media or the marketer and is              (Placement Strategy)
published or aired at no charge to the organisation for media space          All of these elements are developed through marketing research.
or time.
                                                                             Successful Marketers are Knowledgeable Marketers.
Although publicity does not require any payment to the broadcast
media for time or to the print media for space, it is not free               The marketing world has many intuitively clever marketers and
communication. For example the marketer, may have to pay for the             many plain lucky marketers. But, the most successful marketers are
cost of preparing news releases. The main drawback as a                      the best informed. They know their customers, know their
promotional method is that publicity doesn’t allow a great deal of           competitors and distributors, and know which marketing tactics
control.                                                                     work and which ones don't.
As a part of the promotional plan, publicity is most concerned with
external communications designed to inform and/or to enhance the             More importantly, they know what they don't know and want to find
image of the organisation in the minds of its various publics -              it out.
ultimate consumers, suppliers, stockholders, and the community at
large.                                                                       An increased emphasis is being placed on the importance of sound
                                                                             managerial decision-making. These are decisions that are based on
Image is of great importance for overall promotional strategy                a good understanding of the situation that can be shown to be
because it is the attitudinal background against which all                   rational on the basis of the information available. It is the task of
organisational offerings are evaluated.                                      Marketing Research to provide relevant, accurate, reliable, valid,
                                                                             and current information on which to make sound decisions. By
                    Marketing Research                                       doing this properly the chances of an incorrect or poor decision are
Marketing Research fulfils an organisation’s need for knowledge of           reduced.
the market and helps managers understand the market’s concepts of
value and predict how to develop better marketing offers.
                                                                                                Career Opportunities:
                                                                             Key areas for marketing sector employment are in:
Four key elements for successful marketing have previously
been identified. These are:

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   •   Consumer Products - Fast Moving Consumer Goods as well                  •   Retailing
       as Consumer Durables)                                                   •   Public Relations
   •   Organisational Products (Business to Business; Industrial;              •   New Product development
       Institutional; Government)                                              •   Marketing Performance analysis (metrics)
   •   Not-for Profit and Social sectors                                       •   Online business (eBusiness/eMarketing)
   •   International Marketing                                                 •   Managing marketing projects
   •   Retailing and Wholesaling (merchandising; purchasing)
   •   eBusiness (Virtual (Web and Mobile) based Marketing                  As you begin a career in marketing, you will have to apply many of
                                                                            the principles and concepts you have studied, including how to
Within these sectors, the main job roles will be involved in:               target a market, capitalise on brand equity, position a product and use
                                                                            market research techniques. Even in jobs that seem remote from the
   •   Marketing Management                                                 marketing discipline, this knowledge will help you to stay focused
   •   Brand and Product Management                                         on the most important aspect of business: the customer. Looking for
   •   Product Development                                                  a job that will fulfil your career goals is much the same as marketing
   •   Marketing Research and Analysis                                      a product (your skills) to a customer (the company).
   •   Marketing Communication (Advertising; Sales Promotion;                                        Getting a Job
       Media; Marketing Public Relations)
   •   Sales Management and Personal Selling                                What do graduates need to do to get a marketing job?
   •   Account Management                                                   Firstly, they need to show intelligence. But know that it is far from
                                                                            the most important criteria.
After completing key electives, students will be able to demonstrate
a high level of competency or expertise in areas such as                    Secondly, they need to show a good (the right?) attitude - that
                                                                            changes for each organisation. Drive (without the other “attitude”
   •   Product and Brand Management                                         and excess ego needs) is important - planning and organisational
   •   Marketing Distribution                                               skills and also good interpersonal skills (how you interact and speak
   •   International marketing                                              with other people)
   •   Pricing
   •   Organisational Marketing                                             Fitting in with the team (everyone emphasises “teamwork” – but it
   •   Not-for-profit marketing                                             doesn’t – or shouldn’t really mean being a drone) and the
   •   Social marketing                                                     organisation's culture (most especially the section you are going to
   •   Advertising and Sales Promotion                                      be working with.

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Trust and respect.                                                           An estimated 42% of people find their job through a networking
                                                                             contact. Reach out to your network and tell them what kind of
You new boss needs to trust you. Trust that you will do a good job
                                                                             position you would like, without directly asking for a job. Instead
and not prove to be a problem. There need to be the basis for mutual
                                                                             ask them for information and referrals. Find a contact who can
                                                                             introduce you to a decision maker at companies where you want to
Candidates need to show reasonable perspective - they want you
to be successful, but one needs to know that it won't happen
                                                                             Consider intern roles or temp and contract positions as a way of
immediately and they don’t want you more focused on your personal
                                                                             getting into the door of your target companies. Flexibility will be
career advancement over getting the job done. Performance is
normally preceded by hard work.
                                                                             Run multiple strategies: one as a graduate and the other as a future
Not being overly critical. This can be hard. Your experience and
                                                                             high - potential employee.
expectations may show that the organisation you are now working
for is not perfect – none of them are. If its your first job you will        Your résumé
likely form a lowly opinion of your new employer. Keep in mind
                                                                             The résumé is probably the most important document a job seeker
that at least many of the folk you are working with are as smart,
                                                                             can provide to a potential employer. The résumé’s written record of
talented and hard working as you. Some are not. None of them will
                                                                             credentials often provides the only in - formation available to
appreciate being told constantly that they and their work are poor.
                                                                             employers on which to base their evaluation and selection of a job
                                                                             candidate. For this reason, the résumé becomes a critical tool for
Finally and vitally, they need energy and passion. I know of
                                                                             obtaining an entry - level position.
virtually no - one who succeeds in the long term without either of
those things.
                                                                             A résumé is a comprehensive summary of academic, professional
Getting a foot in the door                                                   and personal accomplishments that makes focused statements about a
In terms of getting a foot in the door - keep up the momentum and            job candidate. There is no one best way to write a résumé; however,
try not to let it get you down. With organisations at the moment they        it should provide accurate information that is related to the type of
will have thousands of applications and have to use screening                job desired in a direct, concise manner. Many computer software
criteria, which although effective can feel arbitrary.                       packages are available that require little more than filling in the
Another strategy is to think about your contacts and networks.               Focus on your audience
Connect with purpose and network strategically.

                                                       Marketing Association of ANZ 

Who are they and what do they want? (the two basic marketing                  objectives. For this reason, it is critical that you include any and all
questions. If you don’t know much about them or what they want –              pre - professional (for example student membership of a
try to find out.                                                              professional body) and extracurricular activities in your résumé.

There is a strong likelihood that the person reading your resume and          The important thing to remember in writing an effective résumé is to
letter will not be impressed by sms speak or poor spelling and                present the most relevant information in a clear, concise manner that
grammar.                                                                      emphasises your best attributes.
Three basic formats are used in preparing a résumé:                           Cover Letter
Chronological: Arranged in reverse chronological order;                       Letters of transmission, or cover letters, serve several purposes.
emphasises job titles and organisations with descriptions of                  Primarily, however, they seek to motivate employers to read the
responsibilities held and duties performed. This format highlights            enclosed résumé.
continuity and career growth.
                                                                              The cover letter must provide specifically targeted information, from
Functional: Accents accomplishments and strengths, placing less               addressing the letter to the appropriate person in the organisation to
emphasis on job titles and work history. This format reduces                  mentioning when to expect a follow - up call. The following list
repetitive language in job descriptions.                                      offers several tips mentioned by career - services advisors:

Combined: Emphasises skills first, followed by employment                     Always address the letter to a specific person.
history. This format suits students who need to show their                    Follow the salutation with a colon, not a comma.
responsibility and potential, but have employment histories not               State which position you are applying for, where you learned about
directly related to their desired jobs.                                       it and why you are interested in that position.

Most résumés include full names, mail and email addresses and                 List specific examples of skills and contributions you offer; set a
telephone and fax numbers. Statements of career objectives typically          confident but not arrogant tone.
follow. Academic information is provided next, followed by
experience and work history. Applicants with limited work histories           Avoid overuse of I and me in the cover letter. Do not use slang or
and no internship experience typically focus on relevant personal             cliché phrases.
activities and interests. Most résumés close with lists of references.        Make certain your cover letter is neat and attractive; print it on high
                                                                              - quality paper and limit it to one page.
Applicants are stronger candidates for employment when they can
cite academic, work and internship experiences related to their career

                                                       Marketing Association of ANZ 

Mention any follow - up action that you plan to take, such as a                   •   Evaluation of personal character (what kind of colleague the
call and state when you will call.                                                    candidate will make).
                                                                                   • Summary of the candidate’s outstanding strengths and
Express appreciation for being considered for the position.                           abilities.
                                                                               Career Facts
Sign the letter in black or blue ink.                                          Many firms look for employees through online recruiting sources.
                                                                               The most popular sources: the Internet (47 percent), electronic
Correct form and accuracy are important in a cover letter, since               résumé banks (21 percent) and automated telephone listings (19
employers often use the cover letter to evaluate written                       percent).
communication skills.
                                                                               Success and Failure
After a reasonable period has passed—one to two weeks—it is                    Don’t let failure get to you. Some of today’s top business leaders
appropriate to call to verify that the résumé arrived and to inquire           who didn’t give up include:
about any additional questions and/or possible dates for interviews.
                                                                               Jack Welch, managed a plastics plant that blew up but went on to
References and Letters of Recommendation
                                                                               become CEO of General Electric.
Letters of recommendation serve as testimonials to your performance
in academic and work settings. The best references provide                     Ed Artzt, had to deal with a warehouse full of a new detergent that
information relative to the desired industry or marketing specialty, as        crystallized just before he was to bring it to market. Yet he
well as opinions of your skills, abilities and character. References           progressed to become CEO of Procter & Gamble
may be obtained from former or current employers, supervisors from
volunteer experiences, professors and others who can attest to your            Bernard Marcus, founded U.S hardware giant Home Depot after
academic and professional competencies.                                        being fired from a regional hardware chain.

An effective letter of recommendation typically contains the                   How about Sam Walton, whose first store failed,
following elements:
                                                                               Walt Disney, who was fired from an ad agency because he couldn’t
   •   Statement of the length and nature of the relationship                  draw.
       between the writer and the job candidate.
   •   Description of the candidate’s academic and career growth               Because letters of recommendation take time and effort, allow ample
       and potential.                                                          time for your references to compose them—as long as a month is not
   •   Review of important achievements.                                       unusual. When you ask someone to write a letter of recommendation,

                                                        Marketing Association of ANZ 

you should always provide a résumé and any other information                  résumé must contain the key words associated with your skills,
relative to the recommendation, along with a stamped, pre -                   experience, achievements, interests and personality. In fact, printing
addressed (typed) envelope.                                                   your résumé in a fancy font can often confuse the computer’s
                                                                              scanning process, causing it to discard your unreadable résumé!
Supporting Documents
In addition to a cover letter, résumé and letters of recommendation,          Job seekers also benefit from electronic recruiting. These systems
candidates should include photocopies of transcripts, writing                 have extended the life span of a résumé from less than a year to two
samples, or graphics products in their credentials packages. For              or more. Traditionally, job candidates submitted résumés in
example, if you are applying for a position in public relations,              response to advertisements for particular job openings. Recruiters
advertising, or sports marketing, you may want to include examples            reviewed the résumés at that time for that job. Now, however, they
of professional writing, graphics, or audio/visual tapes to support           can review a stored résumé for any job that becomes available
written evidence of your credentials. Research and service projects           during a much longer time span, giving applicants more chances at
that resulted in published or unpublished articles may also fill out          all the jobs that become available.
the package.
Electronic Résumés                                                            Thousands of web sites currently carry job postings. The most
                                                                              comprehensive job banks list openings around the globe. The
The electronic age has affected every aspect of the business world,           largest, Monster Board, contains 221,000 job listings. In second
including finding a job. Today, many firms use special computer               place with 175,000 listings is Headhunter.net. JobWeb’s job bank
software to receive, sort, store and retrieve résumés from hopeful job        currently contains listings from over 1,600 employer organisations.
applicants.                                                                   All three of these online employment exchanges update their job
                                                                              rosters daily.
A computer system can quickly scan data from thousands of résumés
to find a dozen promising candidates for a job opening. For example,          Each of these sites is designed to make it easy for you to identify job
a company seeking an international marketing specialist may need a            opportunities that best match your interests.
person with fluency in multiple languages and experience with
international trade laws and practices. By searching for specific key                            Getting the advantage
words, the software retrieves the résumés that contain the desired            Additional Marketing Study
                                                                              Specialised Professional education
Gone are the days when a flashy résumé printed on expensive paper             Many professional organisations – including the Marketing
was sufficient to catch the attention of most recruiters. Now a               Association of ANZ offer specific marketing courses and
computer is likely to review these documents. That means your                 qualifications. Many are available via distance education.

                                                      Marketing Association of ANZ 

Specialised graduate education                                               The internship fills out a student’s professional credentials and
                                                                             allows for exploration of career options while observing and
Not everyone will graduate with a bachelor’s degree and enter the
                                                                             interacting with professionals at work. In some in - stances,
job market. Many marketing graduates choose to continue their
                                                                             internships are precursors for specific employment opportunities,
studies by pursuing MBA degrees or entering Marketing Master’s
                                                                             allowing students to demonstrate technical proficiency while
programs specially suited to their career goals. A student who
                                                                             providing cost - effective personnel training for the industry as a
wishes to extend formal education in a specialised degree program
should seek advice on specific programs
Intern ships create competitive advantage                                    The effectiveness of an internship experience depends on the quality
Internships have been described as a critical link in bridging the           of involvement by the student, the agency or site and the university
theory - practice educational gap. They serve as learning                    coordinator. Students interested in completing internships should
experiences for interns, providing a practical application of                discuss the matter with their instructors. Instructors can ex - plain
classroom theory as well as a means of gaining hands - on                    university requirements and identify any on - campus specialists
experience. Internships are becoming even more critical to                   who recommend potential interns, help them complete applications
networking and job hunting as students strive to reach ambitious             and arrange interviews with potential internship providers.
career goals. They help to carry students between the academic               Professional membership
present and the professional future.
                                                                             Membership of an appropriate professional body/association (see
                                                                             the end of this document for a list and contacts) is a way of being
An internship is a partnership between the student, the university
                                                                             able to demonstrate an interest and a commitment to a marketing
and/or the agency or internship provider. All of these parties assume
                                                                             career to an employer.
definite responsibilities, perform specific functions and achieve
benefits as a result of their involvement. Internships offer valuable
                                                                             Student membership in most associations is available while you are
culminating experiences for marketing students. They provide
                                                                             studying and once you have graduated it is a good move to join as
opportunities to apply the ideas and theories presented in the
                                                                             a full Professional or Associate member
classroom to the experience in a work environment.
                                                                             The other real advantage of membership is the services you can
Through an internship, an individual makes the transition from
                                                                             access (in the case of MAANZ – a considerable amount of
student to professional and establishes a link between theory and
                                                                             marketing information) as well as the possibility of making
practice. Interns gain valuable, practical work experiences under the
supervision of both university faculty and on - site marketing
practitioners.                                                                                   Marketing Positions

                                                       Marketing Association of ANZ 

The basic objective of any firm is to market its products - goods or          Top marketing - management positions often involve long hours and
services. Marketing responsibilities vary among organisations and             extensive travel. Work under pressure is also commonplace.
industries. In a small firm, the owner or manager may assume
                                                                              Career Path
marketing responsibilities. A large firm needs a staff of
experienced marketing, advertising and public - relations managers            For most marketing, sales and promotion - management positions,
to coordinate these activities. Some typical marketing -                      employers prefer degrees in business, preferably with
management positions are described in the following sections.                 concentrations in marketing. In highly technical industries, such as
(Please remember, however, that specific titles of positions will             chemicals and electronics, employers prefer bachelor’s degrees in
vary among firms.)                                                            science or engineering combined with master’s degrees in business
                                                                              administration. Liberal arts students can also find many
Marketing, Advertising and Public - Relations                                 opportunities, especially if they have business minors. Most
Managers                                                                      managers are promoted from positions such as sales
Marketing management spans a range of positions, including vice               representatives, product or brand specialists and advertising
president of marketing, marketing manager, sales manager,                     specialists within their organisations. Skills or traits that are most
advertising manager, promotion manager and public - relations                 desirable for these jobs include maturity, creativity, high motivation,
manager. The marketing director directs the firm’s overall marketing          resistance to stress, flexibility and the ability to communicate
policy and all other marketers report through channels to this                persuasively.
person. Marketing managers work with product development and                  Sales Representatives
market - research managers to develop the firm’s detailed
marketing strategies. Sales managers direct the efforts of salespeople        Millions of items are bought and sold every day. The people a firm
by assigning territories, establishing goals, developing training             hires to carry out this activity work under a variety of titles, such as
programs and supervising local sales managers and their personnel.            sales representative, account manager, manufacturer’s representative,
Advertising managers oversee account services, creative services              sales engineer, sales agent, retail salesperson, wholesale sales
and media services departments. Promotion managers direct                     representative and service sales representative. Most companies
promotional (sales promotion) pro - grams that combine advertising            require that all marketing professionals spend some time in the field
with purchase incentives in order to increase the sales of the firm’s         to experience the market firsthand and understand the challenges
goods or services. Public - relations managers conduct marketing              faced by front - line marketing personnel.
P.R and publicity programs and supervise the specialists who                  Job Description
implement them.
                                                                              All salespeople must fully understand and competently discuss the
Job Description                                                               products offered by the company. Salespeople usually develop
                                                                              prospective client lists, meet with current and prospective clients to
                                                                              describe the firm’s products and then follow up. In most cases, the
                                                       Marketing Association of ANZ 

salesperson must learn about each customer’s business needs in order           Advertising
to identify products that best satisfy them. These professionals
                                                                               Job Description
answer questions about the characteristics and costs of their offerings
and try to persuade potential customers to purchase them. After the            Advertising can be one of the most glamorous and creative fields in
sale, many representatives revisit their customers to see that the             marketing. Because the field combines the best of both worlds, that
products met their needs and to explore further business                       is, the tangible and scientific aspects of marketing along with
opportunities or referrals with them. Some sales of technical goods            creative artistry, advertising attracts people with a broad array of
and services involve lengthy interactions. In these cases, a                   abilities.
salesperson may work with several clients simultaneously over a                Career Path
large geographical area. Those responsible for large territories may
spend most of their time travelling to make sales presentations. Retail        Most new hires begin as assistants or associates for the positions
or telephone salespeople may spend most of their work days on the              they hope to acquire, such as copywriters, art directors and media
phone or on the sales floor.                                                   buyers. Often, a newly hired employee must receive two to four
                                                                               promotions before becoming manager of these functions. Degrees in
Work as a sales representative can be rewarding for those who enjoy            Arts, graphic arts, journalism, psychology, or sociology, in addition
interacting with people, like competition and feel energized by the            to marketing training, are preferred for entry - level positions in
challenge of expanding sales in their territories. Successful sales            advertising.
professionals should be goal - oriented, persuasive, self - motivated          Public Relations (Publicity; Marketing PR)
and independent people. In addition, patience and perseverance are
important qualities for a sales representative.                                Specialists in public relations serve as advocates for businesses and
                                                                               other organisations. They strive to build and maintain positive
Career Path                                                                    relationships with various publics. They may assist company
The background needed for a sales position varies according to the             executives in drafting speeches, arranging interviews, overseeing
product line and market. A college degree is desirable and many                company archives, responding to information requests and handling
companies run their own formal training pro - grams for sales                  special events, such as sponsorships and trade shows, that provide
representatives that can last up to two years. This training may take          promotional value to the firm.
place in a classroom, in the field with a mentor, or—most often—a              Job Description
combination of both methods. Similarly, the career ladder in retail
sales typically involves moving to positions of greater responsibility         Public - relations specialists normally work a standard 40 - hour
and higher earnings potential over a period of time.                           week, but sometimes they need to rearrange their normal schedules
                                                                               to meet deadlines or prepare for major events. Occasionally they are
                                                                               required to be on the job or on call around the clock to respond to an
                                                                               emergency or crisis. Over 109,000 public - relations specialists are

                                                        Marketing Association of ANZ 

employed in the United States, two - thirds of them in service                 needed data. Once they compile data, analysts evaluate it and then
industries. Public - relations positions tend to be concentrated in            make recommendations to management.
large cities near press services and communications facilities. How -
                                                                               Job Description
ever, that centralisation is changing with the increased popularity of
new communications technologies such as the Internet and World                 Firms that specialise in market research and management consulting
Wide Web, which allow more freedom of movement.                                employ the majority of the nation’s market research analysts.
                                                                               Positions are usually concentrated in larger cities. Those who pursue
Essential characteristics include creativity, initiative, good judgment        careers in market research need to work accurately with detail,
and the ability to express thoughts clearly and simply—both in                 display patience and persistence, work effectively both
writing and in spoken statements. An out - going personality, self -           independently and with others, operate objectively and
confidence and enthusiasm are also recommended traits of public -              systematically and be effective oral and written communicators in
relations specialists.                                                         presenting their results. Creativity and intellectual curiosity are
                                                                               essential for success in this field.
Career Path
                                                                               Career Path
A degree combined with public relations experience, usually gained
through an internship, is considered excellent preparation for public          A bachelor’s degree with emphasis in marketing provides sufficient
relations. Many entry - level public - relations specialists hold              qualifications for many beginning jobs in market research. Because
degrees with a major in advertising, marketing, public relations, or           of the importance of quantitative skills, this education should
communications. New employees in larger organisations are likely to            include courses in calculus, linear algebra, statistics, sampling
participate in formal training programs; those who begin their careers         theory and survey design and computer science. Students should
at smaller firms typically work under the guidance of experienced              try to develop experience in conducting interviews or surveys while
staff members. Entry - level positions carry such titles as re - search        still in college. A master’s degree in business or a related discipline
assistant or account assistant. Potential career paths include                 is advised to improve opportunities for advancement.
promotion to account executive, account supervisor, vice president             Logistics: Materials Receiving, Scheduling, Dispatching
and eventually senior vice president.                                          and Distributing Occupations
Marketing Research                                                             Often overlooked by marketing students, the area of logistics offers
Market research analysts provide information that helps marketers to           a myriad of career positions. Titles under the heading of logistics
identify and define opportunities; they generate, refine and evaluate          include materials receiving, scheduling, dispatching, materials
marketing actions and monitor marketing performance. Market                    management executive, distribution operations coordinator,
research analysts devise methods and procedures for obtaining                  distribution centre manager and transportation manager. The

                                                       Marketing Association of ANZ 

logistics function includes responsibility for production and            Selecting a career ladder to climb is no easy task. In today’s
inventory planning and control, distribution and transportation.         competitive job market, the most desirable and highest - paying jobs
                                                                         will go to the most qualified candidates. A degree in marketing will
Job Description
                                                                         prepare you for a number of entry - level positions. However, job -
These positions demand good planning, communication skills and           hopping in order to determine the career that best suits you is likely to
ability to work well under pressure.                                     create a detrimental image for you. Successful applicants understand
Career Path                                                              well their own interests and abilities, the general characteristics of the
                                                                         jobs they seek and how their interests and abilities might fit an
Computer skills are highly valued in these jobs. Employers look          employer’s needs. You should have noticed that these three criteria
for candidates with degrees in logistics and transportation.             resemble closely the elements leading to customer satisfaction in all
However, graduates in other business disciplines often succeed in        business transactions.
the field.

                                               Marketing Association of ANZ 

                                                   Contacts and Links

                 The Marketing Association of Australia and New Zealand (MAANZ)
                                             Website - www.marketing.org.au
                                           email – information@marketing.org.au

The Australian Market & Social Research Society Limited          Public Relations Institute
(AMSRS)                                                          www.pria.com.au
                                                                 Australian Association of National Advertisers
Advertising Institute of Australia                               (AANA)
www.advertisinginstitute.org.au/                                 www.aana.com.au

Australian Direct Marketing Association                          The Asia-Pacific Professional Services Marketing Association
www.adma.com.au                                                  (APSMA)
Australian Marketing Institute

                                        Marketing Association of ANZ 

                  The Marketing Association of Australia and New Zealand
                                            (MAANZ International)

                      If you are really interested in a career in Marketing
Do your career a favour by joining the Marketing Association while you are studying.

            • On joining you will receive a signed and sealed MAANZ Certificate and a New members pack
 •   As a new member you will receive free marketing papers and each year you are a member you will continue to receive
                          • free downloadable presentations of Marketing Ideas and Skills.
               • Additionally you will be able to receive a discount on all MAANZ papers, and courses,
                                    • as well as regular e Newsletters and eMags.
            • When you graduate your first year as a Professional Member will be at a special discount price

                                         Visit www.marketing.org.au today
                             and see how you can benefit by becoming a Student Member

             And while you are there check out the range of MAANZ Courses short courses


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