Sexually Transmitted Infections - PowerPoint - PowerPoint

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					Sexually Transmitted
                STI’s or STD’s
• Infections that are spread from person to person
    through sexual contact
• There are more than 25 known STI’s, many of
    which are difficult to track because people who
    have them do not exhibit symptoms
•   Other cases are not reported because people do
    not seek treatment due to shame, fear, or
    Widespread among teens

• Approx 15 million ppl contract 1 or more
  STI’s every year, ¼ of these new cases
  are in teens
• Currently > 65 million have incurable STI
• Y? many STI’s have no symptoms or don’t
  ever show up, others have a lengthy delay
  between infection and symptoms
 Sexually Active Teens at a higher
               risk bc
• Engaging in Sexual acts without protection
• Using alcohol or other drugs because they
  cause inhibitions to lower
• Being sexually active with more than one
  person at a time or over time
• Choosing high-risk partners who have a
  history of being sexually active
           More reasons…

• Choosing a high-risk partner who have a
  history of Intravenous Drug Use
• Choosing a partner who seems to be low
  risk but really isn't
       Most common STI’s in US
• Human Papillomavirus, HPV – a virus that
    causes genital warts and warts on other parts of
    the body
• Believed to be the most commonly contracted of
    all the STI’s
•   Many cases go unreported & unnoticed, approx
    5.5 million people contract each year
•   Approx 20 million already have it
                 HPV cont’d
• Most easily recognized symptom is genital warts
  (venereal warts) are soft, moist, pink or red
  swellings that appear on the genitals
• Grow in clusters spread into large masses
• Over 100 types of HPV, 30 of which are
  transmitted thru oral, anal, & vaginal sexual
• Certain types linked to cervical cancer, including
  some which are associated with cancers of the
  vulva, penis and anus
             HPV found in
• Females – if present genital warts are
  found on the vulva, in the vagina, on the
  cervix, or around the anus
• Males – if present genital warts are found
  on the penis, scrotum, groin, thigh or
  around the anus
• Genital warts found only rarely in the
  mouth or throat

• Commonly diagnosed by an exam of
  genital warts
• May disappear by themselves, or removed
  by laser, being frozen, burned or cut off
• Doesn’t eliminate the virus, however
• Will recur AND the virus remains in the
  body for life

• An STI that is caused by the bacterium
    Chlamydia trachomatis
• Most commonly reported bacterial STI in US,
    & most commonly reported infectious disease
•   Approx 2 million curr. infected, 3 million
    become infected each year
•   40 % of reported cases people 15 -19 years
          MORE Chlamydia
• Despite being easily cured, one of the
  most dangerous, because it easily goes
• 75% of women, 50% of male with it have
  NO symptoms, but can spread it
• If symptoms do occur, usually appear
  within 1-3 weeks of sexual contact with an
  infected person
      Diagnosis of Chlamydia

• Made by testing a specimen collected from
  infected site for bacteria
• More recent test involves checking a urine
  sample for bacteria
• If diagnosed with Chlamydia, antibiotics
  can easily CURE the infection
       Chlamydia symptoms
• Females – early stages small % develop
  an abnormal vaginal discharge or a
  burning sensation when urinating
• Males – may have a discharge from the
  penis and a burning sensation when
• 40 % of females with untreated Chlamydia
  will develop Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
   Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

• PID – a painful infection of the uterus,
  fallopian tubes, and/or ovaries
• Permanent damage to these structures can
  result, along with severe pelvic pain,
  infertility, and increased likelihood of ectopic
• 3-5 times as likely to be infected with HIV if
  exposed to it, if you have an active
  Chlamydia infection

• An STI caused by bacterium Neisseria
 Gonorrhoeae, a bacteria that live in
  warm, moist areas of the body.
• 650,000 reported new cases each year, it
  is an extremely common infectious disease
• Teens & young adults have the highest
  incidences of gonorrhea
• Females ages 15-19 highest reported rate
• Males ages 20-24 highest reported rate
• Thrives in mucous membranes of the cervix,
  uterus & fallopian tubes in females, the urethra
  in females & males; & also in the mouth, throat,
  and anus in females and males
       Gonorrhea symptoms

• Most males will show some signs when
• Usually appear 2- 5 days after infection,
  but can also take up to 30 days
• Burning sensation when urinating,
  yellowish-white discharge from penis,
  sometimes painful or swollen testicles
       Gonorrhea symptoms
• Females it can go unnoticed because
  rarely show symptoms
• Early symptoms go unnoticed because
  they are mild and mistaken for something
• Burning sensation when urinating, yellow
  vaginal discharge that may be tinged with
        Gonorrhea symptoms
• Rectal infection – anal discharge, itching,
  soreness, and bleeding, as well as painful
  bowel movements – MALE & FEMALE
• Throat infections causes few symptoms
• If untreated can lead to PID in females,
  and epididymitis in males – inflammation
  of the testes – can cause sterility
• Treated with antibiotics

• 2 types – simplex type 1 & simplex type 2
• HSV-1 causes cold sores – blisters on the
  mouth and lips of infected people
• HSV-2 causes genital herpes

• Very common n the US, but Not
  considered a STI
• Virus can e spread thru saliva to another
  person when lesions are present
• HSV-1 infection can occur on the genitals
  following oral-genital contact with a
  person who has a cold sore
• 45 million people in US curr. infected - 1
  million new cases each year
• 1 in 4 females and 1 in 5 males have the
• The # of teens and young adults with HSV-2
  is increasing dramatically
• Spread from open sores during sexual
  contact, but it also can be released when
  lesions are not present
• Person with frequently has no symptoms
• If they do occur, it is usually within two
  weeks of exposure to the virus and
  consists of an outbreak of blisters on or
  around the genitals or rectum
• Some may get a fever or swollen glands
• After blisters break, painful lesions remain
  and may take 2-4 weeks to heal
• Within a few weeks another outbreak may
    occur, usually less severe than the 1st
•   May have 4-5 episodes in the first year, and the
    fewer as the years go by
•   Once you contract HSV-2, you have it for the
    remainder of your life
•   Are antiviral medications to control the duration
    and severity of episodes, but not rid the body of
    the virus
           HSV-1 & HSV-2

• Anyone who has an active episode of
 either virus should avoid touching the
 lesion; careful personal hygiene, including
 hand-washing, does help in preventing the
 spread of herpes to other people and
 other areas of one’s body
                  Hepatitis B
• HBV is a viral STI that attacks the liver and can
    cause extreme illness and death
• Transmitted when blood or other body fluids
    from an infected person enter the body of
•   Spread through sexual activity as well, drug
    users who share needles from an infected
•   Tattoo's or body piercings‘ where instruments
    are not sterilized or inks are used over
       Hepatitis B symptoms

• Jaundice, fatigue, abdominal pain, nausea
  and vomiting, joint pain & loss of appetite
• Can be treated with drugs-effective in
  40% of individuals
• Vaccine available since 1982, given to
  children from birth to 18
               Hepatitis C

• Virus, blood-borne infection
• Can lead to chronic liver disease, liver
  cancer, & liver failure
• Asymptomatic – progresses slowly
• Transmitted thru sexual contact and any
  direct contact with contaminated blood
• NO CURE for hepatitis C

• STI caused by the bacterium Treponema
  Pallidum, and it progresses in stages
• Spread by direct contact with a chancre, a
  painless sore that appears early, or with
  the infectious rash that appears later
• Transmitted thru sexual activity
          Stages of Syphilis
• Untreated syphilis progresses thru 3
• Primary stage - 10-90 days after infection
  – a small, firm, round sore called a
  chancre appears where bacterium entered
  the body
• Sore is painless & lasts 3-6 weeks can
  disappear without treatment
          Stages of Syphilis

• Secondary stage – an infectious rash of
  rough, red or reddish-brown spots appears
  on the palms of the hands and soles of
  the feet
• Flulike symptoms, hair loss, & weight loss
  can occur.
• Rash can disappear without treatment
          Stages of Syphilis
• Late Stage – organism last in the body,
  damaging organs including brain, nerves,
  eyes, heart, blood vessels, liver, bones, &
• Symptoms include loss of muscle
  coordination, paralysis, blindness, and
• Can lead to death
        Diagnosis of Syphilis

• Blood test or laboratory exam of material
  from primary chancre or secondary rash
• Easily cured with antibiotics – but once
  damage to internal organs occurs, there is
  no way to repair the damage

• Many types of vaginitis, inflammation of
  the vagina caused by various organisms
• Only 2 however are transmitted sexually,
  both infections are treated with the
  prescription drug metronidazole
• Trichomonasis and Bacterial Vaginosis

• An STI caused by the parasite
  Trichomonas vaginalis, affects both males
  and females
• Infected males – rarely have symptoms –
  irritation inside the penis, mild discharge,
  or slight burning after urinating or

• Infected females – 5-28 days after
 exposure symptoms appear – foamy,
 yellow-green vaginal discharge with a
 strong odor, can also cause genital
 irritation & itching, and discomfort during
 intercourse & urination
      Bacterial Vaginosis - BV

• An STI caused by an imbalance of bacteria
  normally found in the vagina – affects only
• Little is known about the cause, but
  having intercourse with a new partner and
  douching may be contributing factors
      Bacterial Vaginosis - BV

• Symptoms, when present include white or
  gray vagina discharge with a strong odor
  as well as itching and burning around the
• BV increases risk of gonorrhea may lead
  to PID
                Pubic Lice

• Also known as “crabs” tiny parasitic
  insects that infest in the genital area of
• Spread thru sexual contact, and in rare
  circumstances from infested bed linens,
  towels, and clothing since lice can live for
  a short time away from their host
      Symptoms of Pubic Lice

• Main – intense itching
• Usually live in pubic hair but can also live
  in the coarse hair of legs, armpits,
  mustaches, beards, eyebrows, and
• Lice that infect a persons head are NOT
  pubic lice
      Treatment of Pubic Lice

• Medicated shampoos OTC and Dr.’s
• Shampoos are harsh and should not be
  used on eyebrows or eyelashes – have a
  special ointment that will not damage the
  eyes by prescription only

• An STI infestation of the skin with
 microscopic mites called Sarcoptes Scabiei
• Spread thru sharing of infested bedding &
  clothing and thru prolonged skin-2-skin
• CAN NOT be transmitted by shaking
  someone’s hand
          Symptoms of Scabies
• Appear 4-6 weeks after contact, a pimplelike
    rash, particularly between fingers and in skin
    folds on the body
•   Also on the penis, breast, and shoulder blades
•   Rash causes severe itching, sores can be
    infected from scratching
•   Fewer than 10 mites are usually present on an
    infected person, making diagnosis difficult
       Treatment of Scabies

• Special lotions are available and everyone
 living in the same household as the
 infected person should get treatment as
 well at the same time
   General Treatment of STI’s
• Follow Dr.’s orders for treatment and
  finish all medication prescribed. Never
  stop taking med’s because symptoms
  went away
• Notify everyone with whom he or she has
  had sexual contact
• Remember that abstinence only 100%

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