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					ICT Standards and Guidelines
Segment 105

Operating Systems

Appendices
(Version 2.0)
Table of Contents - Operating Systems
1.0   Appendix A - Operating System Examples: MS Windows .......................... 1
      1.1  Windows 2000 .................................................................................. 1
      1.2  Windows XP ...................................................................................... 1
      1.3  The.NET Platform strategy .................................................................. 2
      1.4  NTFS ............................................................................................... 3
           1.4.1 How NTFS Works..................................................................... 3
2.0   Appendix B - Operating System Examples: UNIX ..................................... 4
      2.1  The Unix Family of Operating Systems ................................................. 4
      2.2  Solaris, Sun Microsystems Operating System ........................................ 5
3.0   Appendix C - Operating System Examples: Linux ..................................... 6
4.0   Appendix D - Comparison between UNIX, Linux and Windows ................. 7
5.0   Appendix E - Operating System Example: Mac OS X ................................. 8
      5.1  Darwin, the Open Source Core of the System ....................................... 8
      5.2  Mac OS X Graphics System ................................................................. 9
           5.2.1 Quartz ................................................................................... 9
           5.2.2 OpenGL ................................................................................. 9
           5.2.3 QuickTime ............................................................................ 10
      5.3  Rapid Interface Development with Interface Builder ............................ 10
      5.4  User Interface ................................................................................. 10
      5.5  Interoperability ............................................................................... 11
           5.5.1 Macintosh Systems ................................................................ 12
           5.5.2 Java Platform........................................................................ 12
      5.6  Development Options ...................................................................... 12
           5.6.1 Carbon ................................................................................. 12
           5.6.2 Cocoa .................................................................................. 12
           5.6.3 Java .................................................................................... 13
           5.6.4 Unix .................................................................................... 13
6.0   Appendix F - A sample Service - The Directory Services ......................... 14
      6.1  The Need for a Directory Service ....................................................... 14
      6.2  The Benefits of a Directory Service .................................................... 14
      6.3  The Directory Service Needs an Open Strategy ................................... 14
      6.4  State of the Directory Services Market ............................................... 15
      6.5  Directory Service Products Criteria .................................................... 16
      6.6  The Four Directory Services leaders ................................................... 16
           6.6.1 Microsoft's Active Directory .................................................... 16
           6.6.2 iPlanet ................................................................................. 17
           6.6.3 Novell .................................................................................. 17
           6.6.4 IBM’s SecureWay .................................................................. 17
      6.7  The Directory Services Challengers .................................................... 17
           6.7.1 Oracle Internet Directory and IBM Domino ............................... 17
           6.7.2 Critical Path from Siemens ..................................................... 17
           6.7.3 Computer Associates International (CA) ................................... 17
           6.7.4 Syntegra .............................................................................. 18
      6.8  Recommendations about Directory Services ....................................... 18
1.0       Appendix A - Operating System Examples: MS Windows


1.1       Windows 2000

Windows 2000 (W2K) is the latest commercial version of Microsoft's evolving Windows
operating system. Previously called Windows NT 5.0, Microsoft emphasizes that Windows
2000 is evolutionary and "Built on NT Technology." Windows 2000 is designed to appeal
to small business and professional users as well as to the more technical and larger
business market for which the NT was designed.
The Windows 2000 product line consists of four products:

         Windows 2000 Professional, aimed at individuals and businesses of all sizes. It
          includes security and mobile use enhancements. It is the most economical choice.

         Windows 2000 Server, aimed at small-to-medium size businesses. It can
          function as a Web server and/or a workgroup (or branch office) server. It can be
          part of a two-way symmetric multiprocessing system. NT 4.0 servers can be
          upgraded to this server.

         Windows 2000 Advanced Server, aimed at being a network operating system
          server and/or an application server, including those involving large databases.
          This server facilitates clustering and load-balancing. NT 4.0 servers with up to
          eight-way SMP can upgrade to this product.

         Windows 2000 Datacenter Server, designed for large data warehouses, online
          transaction processing (OLTP), econometric analysis and other applications
          requiring high-speed computation and large databases. The Datacenter Server
          supports up to 16-way SMP and up to 64 gigabytes of physical memory.

Windows 2000 enhancements:

         Windows 2000 is reported to be more stable (less apt to crash) than Windows
          98/NT systems.

         A significant new feature is Microsoft's Active Directory, which, among other
          capabilities, enables a company to set up virtual private networks, to encrypt
          data locally or on the network and to give users access to shared files in a
          consistent way from any network computer.


1.2       Windows XP

Windows XP is the latest version of the Windows desktop operating system for the PC.
Microsoft and trade publication writers view Windows XP as the most important version
of Windows since Windows 95.
Windows XP is built on the Windows 2000 kernel but brings a new, more personalized
look to the desktop that will also make it easier for users to scan or import images and
to acquire music files on the Web and transfer them to portable devices.

Windows XP enhancements:

         The new Windows allows different family members to use their own desktop and
          personal sets of files.



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          In addition to the "My Computer" and "My Documents" views provided in
           Windows 2000, Windows XP users see "My Music" and "My Pictures."
          The Start Menu has been redesigned to make the most-used programs easiest to
           find.

Windows XP comes in a:

         Professional version
         Home Edition version


1.3        The.NET Platform strategy

.NET is both:

          A business strategy from Microsoft and its collection of programming support for
           what are known as Web services and
          The ability to use the Web rather than your own computer for various services.

Microsoft's goal is to provide individual and business users with a seamlessly
interoperable and Web-enabled interface for applications and computing devices and to
make computing activities increasingly Web browser-oriented.

The.NET platform includes servers; building-block services, such as Web-based data
storage; and device software. It also includes Passport, Microsoft's fill-in-the-form-only-
once identity verification service.

The.NET platform is expected to provide:

          The ability to make the entire range of computing devices work together and to
           have user information automatically updated and synchronized on all of them
          Increased interactive capability for Web sites, enabled by greater use of XML
           (Extensible Mark-up Language) rather than HTML
          A premium online subscription service, that will feature customized access and
           delivery of products and services to the user from a central starting point for the
           management of various applications, such as e-mail, for example, or software,
           such as Office.NET
          Centralized data storage, which will increase efficiency and ease of access to
           information, as well as synchronization of information among users and devices
          The ability to integrate various communications media, such as e-mail, faxes and
           telephones
          For developers, the ability to create reusable modules, which should increase
           productivity and reduce the number of programming errors

Microsoft expects that.NET will have as significant an effect on the computing world as
the introduction of Windows. One concern being voiced is that although.NET's services
will be accessible through any browser, they are likely to function more fully on products
designed to work with.NET code.

The full release of.NET is expected to take several years to complete, with intermittent
releases of products such as a personal security service and new versions of Windows
and Office that implement the.NET strategy coming on the market separately.

Visual Studio.NET is a development environment that is now available.


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Windows XP supports certain.NET capabilities.


1.4       NTFS

NTFS (NT file system; sometimes New Technology File System) is the file system that
the Windows NT operating system uses for storing and retrieving file on a hard disk.
NTFS is the Windows NT equivalent of the Windows 95 file allocation table (FAT) and the
OS/2 High Performance File System (HPFS). However, NTFS offers a number of
improvements over FAT and HPFS in terms of performance, extendibility and security.
Notable features of NTFS include:

         Use of a B-tree directory scheme to keep track of file clusters
         Information about a file's clusters and other data is stored with each cluster, not
          just a governing table (as FAT is)
         Support for very large files (up to 2 to the 64th power or approximately 16 billion
          bytes in size)
         An access control list (ACL) that lets a server administrator control who can
          access specific files
         Integrated file compression
         Support for names based on Unicode
         Support for long file names as well as "8 by 3" names
         Data security on both removable and fixed disks


1.4.1 How NTFS Works

When a hard disk is formatted (initialized), it is divided into partitions or major divisions
of the total physical hard disk space. Within each partition, the operating system keeps
track of all the files that are stored by that operating system. Each file is actually stored
on the hard disk in one or more clusters or disk spaces of a predefined uniform size.
Using NTFS, the sizes of clusters range from 512 bytes to 64 kilobytes. Windows NT
provides a recommended default cluster size for any given drive size. For example, for a
4 GB (gigabyte) drive, the default cluster size is 4 KB (kilobytes). Note that clusters are
indivisible. Even the smallest file takes up one cluster and a 4.1 KB file takes up two
clusters (or 8 KB) on a 4 KB cluster system.

The selection of the cluster size is a trade-off between efficient use of disk space and the
number of disk accesses required to access a file. In general, using NTFS, the larger the
hard disk the larger the default cluster size, since it's assumed that a system user will
prefer to increase performance (fewer disk accesses) at the expense of some amount of
space inefficiency.

When a file is created using NTFS, a record about the file is created in a special file, the
Master File Table (MFT). The record is used to locate a file's possibly scattered clusters.
NTFS tries to find contiguous storage space that will hold the entire file (all of its
clusters).

Each file contains, along with its data content, a description of its attributes (its
metadata).




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2.0    Appendix B - Operating System Examples: UNIX

UNIX is an operating system that originated at Bell Labs in 1969 as an interactive
time-sharing system. Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie are considered the inventors of
UNIX. In 1974, UNIX became the first operating system written in the C language. UNIX
has evolved as a kind of large freeware product, with many extensions and new ideas
provided in a variety of versions of UNIX by different companies, universities and
individuals.

Partly because it was not a proprietary operating system owned by any one of the
leading computer companies and partly because it is written in a standard language and
embraced many popular ideas, UNIX became the first open or standard operating system
that could be improved or enhanced by anyone. A composite of the C language and shell
(user command) interfaces from different versions of UNIX were standardized under the
auspices of the IEEE as the Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX).

In turn, the POSIX interfaces were specified in the X/Open Programming Guide 4.2 (also
known as the "Single UNIX Specification" and "UNIX 95"). Version 2 of the Single UNIX
Specification is also known as UNIX 98.

The "official" trademarked UNIX is now owned by the The Open Group, an industry
standards organization, which certifies and brands UNIX implementations.
UNIX operating systems are used in widely-sold workstation products from Sun
Microsystems, Silicon Graphics, IBM and a number of other companies.

The UNIX environment and the client/server program model were important elements in
the development of the Internet and the reshaping of computing as centred in networks
rather than in individual computers.

Linux, a UNIX derivative available in both "free software" and commercial versions, is
increasing in popularity as an alternative to proprietary operating systems


2.1    The Unix Family of Operating Systems

UNIX is a family of operating systems, which includes AIX, BSDI, FreeBSD, HP-UX, IRIX,
Linux, NetBSD, OpenBSD, Pyramid, SCO (UnixWare and OpenServer), Solaris, SunOS,
Tru64 UNIX and more.

Vendors such as Sun, IBM, DEC, SCO and HP modified Unix to differentiate their
products. This splintered UNIX to a degree, though not quite as much as is usually
perceived. Programmers have created development tools that help them work around
the differences between UNIX flavors. As a result, there is a large body of software
based on source code that will automatically configure itself to compile on most Unix
platforms, including Intel-based Unix.

UNIX is a mature, technically superior group of operating systems with a proven track
record for performance, reliability and security in a server environment. The almost
thirty years of continual development, performed often by volunteers who believe in
what they’re doing, has produced a group of operating systems—and extremely powerful
multiprocessor server hardware tailor-made to its needs, whose performance is still




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unparalleled by Intel hardware—that not only meets the demands of today’s computing
needs, but in many cases exceeds them.

UNIX system had great advantage to be used in the server environment since it will
provide good:

         Performance
         Reliability
         Security


2.2       Solaris, Sun Microsystems Operating System

Solaris is the computer operating system that Sun Microsystems provides for its family of
Scalable Processor Architecture-based processors as well as for Intel-based processors.

Sun has historically dominated the large UNIX workstation market. As the Internet grew
in the early 1990s, Sun's SPARC/Solaris systems became the most widely installed
servers for Web sites. Sun emphasizes:

         The system's availability (meaning it seldom crashes)
         Its large number of features
         Its Internet-oriented design

Sun advertises that its latest version, the Solaris 8 Operating Environment, is "the
leading UNIX environment" today.

Sun emphasizes these features of Solaris:

         Its availability. Special features make it easy to add new capability or to fix
          problems without having to restart the system. Because it has evolved through a
          number of versions, it is "stable" - that is, like IBM's well-known mainframe
          operating system, MVS, Solaris has exercised and fixed almost any code path that
          might break. It can be upgraded, monitored and controlled from a remote
          console.
         Its scalability. If you move to a larger processor, your applications should not
          only run, but also run faster.
         It is built for network computing. As part of the first and most successful Web
          server system in history, the latest Solaris systems are built on the company's
          experience with early Web sites and network demands.
         It includes security features. These include support for IPsec, Kerberos, AMI and
          smart cards.

Sun provides three extensions for its Solaris operating system:

         The Easy Access Server, which is designed to run in a network that also has
          Windows NT systems
         The Enterprise Server, which is aimed at the "business-critical" environment and
          includes support for clustering
         The Internet Service Provider (ISP) Server

Since Sun originated the platform-independent Java programming language and runtime
environment, Solaris systems come with a Java virtual machine and the Java
Development Kit (JDK).


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3.0    Appendix C - Operating System Examples: Linux

Linux is a UNIX-like operating system that was designed to provide personal computer
users a free or very low-cost operating system comparable to traditional and usually
more expensive UNIX systems. Linux has a reputation as a very efficient and
fast-performing system. Linux's kernel (the central part of the operating system) was
developed by Linus Torvalds at the University of Helsinki in Finland. To complete the
operating system, Torvalds and other team members made use of system components
developed by members of the Free Software Foundation for the GNU project.
Linux is a remarkably complete operating system, including a graphical user interface,
an X Window System, TCP/IP, the Emacs editor and other components usually found in a
comprehensive UNIX system. Although copyrights are held by various creators of Linux's
components, Linux is distributed using the Free Software Foundation's copyleft
stipulations that means that any modified version that is redistributed must in turn be
freely available.

Unlike Windows and other proprietary systems, Linux is publicly open and extendible by
contributors. Because it conforms to the Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX)
standard user and programming interfaces, developers can write programs that can be
ported to other operating systems. Linux comes in versions for all the major
microprocessor platforms including the Intel, PowerPC, Sparc and Alpha platforms. Linux
is distributed commercially by a number of companies including first ones like IBM, etc.

Linux is sometimes suggested as a possible publicly-developed alternative to the desktop
predominance of Microsoft Windows.

The major pros for using Linux are the following:

      Network-friendly
      Multi-user
      Open
      Free
      Reliable and backwards-Compatible

Linux gained deep enterprise credibility beyond Web servers and appliances. Linux got
wide cooperative support from leading system and software vendors (e.g., IBM, Compaq
Computer, Hewlett-Packard, Dell Computer, Veritas Software and Computer Associates
International). They choose to develop new cooperative relationships with the loosely
organized OSS community to fast-track advanced technologies to Linux.




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4.0    Appendix D - Comparison between UNIX, Linux and Windows

The “holy war” of computing— Microsoft’s Windows Server vs. UNIX — has, strangely
enough, been upstaged by a Johnny-come-lately called Linux.

While UNIX-clone Linux’s emerging popularity gives small businesses another attractive
alternative when plotting their network operating system (NOS) strategies, it also adds
confusion to an already muddled issue.

Currently the market is dominated by three major types of operating systems: Windows
Family, Unix and Linux. Most server application operating systems are using Unix or
Linux and the desktops are using windows operating system. However, MS Windows are
developing high-end windows operating system and are trying to occupy the server
operating system market as well. Linux is getting more popularity on the desktop
low-end.

The following comparison highlights some of the differentiators between the major
brands in operating systems.

Overall Comparison between UNIX, Linux and windows 2000

Source Gartner

      Stability: High marks go to UNIX and Linux (but at less complexity than Unix),
       while Windows 2000 with a huge new code base must demonstrate promised
       improvements over NT v.4.
      SMP Scaling: UNIX enjoys superiority and Windows 2000 is demonstrating
       significantly better performance than NT, while Linux awaits further scaling
       improvements in kernel version 2.4 due later this year.
      Clustering: Linux provides good clustering performance, which continues to
       improve; UNIX can match this performance (but more expensively), while
       Windows 2000 lags.
      High Availability: Only UNIX currently excels, with Windows 2000 and Linux
       expected to improve in two to three years in OLTP.
      RDBMS Size: Linux is still weak in support of large numbers of disks and shared
       storage, while UNIX will maintain its current advantage for 24 to 36 months.
      Ease of Use: UNIX and Linux have more complexity than Windows, but technical
       users may prefer the greater customization and exposed API features, especially
       in Linux.
      Plug-and-Play Drivers: Linux started from scratch and still lags well behind
       Windows, but many OSS volunteers are at work to redress the imbalance.
      Technical Support: The OSS community is a big asset to Linux, but Linux lacks
       the vendor depth and enterprise experience of UNIX and Windows.
      ISV/VAR Support: Linux is still mainly focused on Web serving and is strong
       with ISPs, but it lacks the vast breadth in applications of UNIX and Windows.
      System Management: Linux cannot handle the variety of functions of a
       managed distributed environment, whereas UNIX and Windows have the
       necessary depth.
      Security: Linux and UNIX will approach comparable levels to one another, ahead
       of Windows 2000.
      Pricing: Pricing favors Linux at the low end and midrange, especially in
       replicated sites, but TCO differences will narrow and may in fact favor Unix as
       more complex deployments conceal the OS and GPL advantages.


Operating Systems - Appendices                                                   Page 7
5.0       Appendix E - Operating System Example: Mac OS X

Mac OS X is a completely rebuilt implementation of the Macintosh operating system. It
expands on Apple’s technological strengths, such as industry-standard networking
capabilities and industry-leading user interface design. More importantly, Mac OS X
combines those strengths with support for a variety of technologies beyond those
typically associated with the Macintosh, such as:

         UNIX
         Java 2 Standard Edition

Apple is the first major computer company to make open source development a key part
of its ongoing software strategy. The core of Mac OS X, Darwin, is itself an open source
project. This approach to operating system development allows developers and students
to view the Darwin source code, learn from it and submit suggestions and modifications.


5.1       Darwin, the Open Source Core of the System

The stability of Mac OS X begins with Darwin, the open source core of the system.

Darwin integrates a number of technologies, including the Mach 3.0 kernel, operating
system services based on BSD UNIX (Berkeley Software Distribution), high-performance
networking facilities and support for multiple integrated file systems. Further, Darwin’s
modular design lets developers dynamically load such things as device drivers,
networking extensions and new file systems.

A key factor in the stability of the system is Darwin’s advanced memory protection and
management system. Darwin ensures reliability by protecting applications with a robust
architecture that allocates a unique address space for each application or process. The
Mach kernel augments standard virtual memory semantics with the abstraction of
memory objects. This enables Mac OS X to manage separate application environments
simultaneously, while presenting users with a seamless experience.

Device drivers are created using an object-oriented programming framework called I/O
Kit. Drivers created with I/O Kit easily acquire true plug and play, dynamic device
management (“hot plugging”) and power management. I/O kit also provides hardware
access to high-level application software. For network protocol developers, Darwin
provides the Network Kernel Extension (NKE) facility. This allows developers to create
networking modules and even entire protocol stacks that can be dynamically loaded and
unloaded. NKEs also make it possible to configure protocol stacks automatically and
easily monitor and modify network traffic. At the data-link and network layers, they can
also receive notifications of asynchronous events from device drivers.

Since Mac OS X is designed to excel in a heterogeneous computing environment, Darwin
also offers support for multiple file systems. Based on extensions to BSD and an
enhanced Virtual File System (VFS) design, the file system component of Darwin uses a
layered architecture in which file systems are stackable. It also introduces several other
general features: permissions on removable media including USB and FireWire devices,
URL-based volume mount, a unified buffer cache and long filenames based on UTF-8.

Darwin also supplies the following advanced functionality:




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         Pre-emptive and cooperative multitasking via the Mach kernel.
         Symmetric multiprocessing (SMP) augmented by support for multithreading.
         Real-time support guaranteeing low-latency access to processor resources for
          time-sensitive media applications.


5.2       Mac OS X Graphics System

Mac OS X combines three powerful graphics technologies, Quartz, OpenGL and
QuickTime, enabling developers to push graphics beyond anything users have seen on a
desktop operating system.


5.2.1 Quartz

Quartz is comprised of a high-performance, lightweight window server and a
graphics-rendering library for two-dimensional (2D) shapes.
The rendering model of Quartz is based on the cross-platform Portable Document Format
(PDF) standard, enabling developers to easily embed and manipulate PDF data within
any Mac OS X application. This yields such benefits as automatic PDF generation and
save-as-PDF, automatic onscreen preview of graphics, conversion of PDF data to printer
raster data or PostScript and a consistent feature set for all printers.
The layered composting engine used by Quartz allows developers to create unique
onscreen effects. It replaces the “switch model” of traditional windowing systems with a
“video mixer” model in which every pixel on the screen can be shared among windows in
real time. This model allows for smooth transitions between the states of the graphical
user interface.

Another important feature of Quartz is its ability to do window bitmap buffering. In Mac
OS X, each window is represented as a bitmap that includes both translucency (alpha
channel) and anti-aliasing information. This bitmap is buffered, allowing the window
server to “remember” an application’s window contents and to re-composite it without
the application’s involvement, providing improved graphics performance without
additional developer effort.
Quartz also provides developers with these advantages:

         On the fly anti-aliasing of graphics and text enabled by the use of a floating-point
          coordinate system and high-precision vector processing
         Direct access to the video frame buffer
         Automatic detection of and benefit from the floating-point co-processing
          performed by the Velocity Engine in PowerPC G4 microprocessors
         High-quality screen rendering


5.2.2 OpenGL

For three-dimensional (3D) graphics, Mac OS X features an optimized implementation of
industry-standard OpenGL. OpenGL is one of the most widely adopted graphics
standards today, making code written to OpenGL extremely portable and making
generated visual effects highly consistent. It is specifically designed for games,
animation, CAD/CAM, medical imaging and other applications that need a rich, robust
framework for visualizing shapes in two and three dimensions.
The Darwin foundation of Mac OS X ratchets up OpenGL performance. For applications
that manage OpenGL resources like large textures, Mac OS X is very efficient at moving


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texture memory from applications to 3D graphics cards, ensuring maximum quality and
frame rates.


5.2.3 QuickTime

Mac OS X comes packaged with the latest version of QuickTime, a powerful multimedia
technology for manipulating, enhancing and storing video, sound, animation, graphics,
text, music and even 360-degree virtual reality. It also allows streaming of either live or
stored digital video.

As a cross-platform technology, QuickTime can deliver content on Mac OS X, as well as
Mac OS 8, Mac OS 9, Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows NT, Windows 2000 and
Windows XP.

Augmenting its cross-platform capabilities, QuickTime supports every major file format
for images, including BMP, GIF, JPEG, Photoshop, PNG and TIFF. It also supports every
significant professional file format for video, including AVI, AVR, DV, Flash, M-JPEG,
MPEG-1, H.263 and OpenDML. For web streaming, QuickTime includes support for HTTP
as well as RTP (Real-Time Transport Protocol) and RTSP (Real-Time Streaming Protocol).
Through the QuickTime plug-in, QuickTime’s digital video streaming capability is
extended to all popular web browsers, including Internet Explorer, Netscape Navigator
and America Online.

The plug-in supports over thirty different media types and makes it possible to view over
80 percent of all Internet media. QuickTime also features other advanced web streaming
capabilities, such as movie “hot spots” and automatic web page launching.


5.3    Rapid Interface Development with Interface Builder

Interface Builder is Apple’s user interface design tool for applications. Developers using
its graphical editing environment can manage virtually every aspect of creating a
well-designed user interface that adheres to the Mac OS X user interface guidelines.
This allows developers to create and test application interface elements quickly, so that a
programmer’s time can be spent developing application logic rather than learning
interface code.

Interface Builder works with Project Builder (Apple’s Integrated Development
Environment) to make application design and development more productive and to
create highly reliable, good-looking applications.


5.4    User Interface

The most visible expression of Mac OS X power and technology is its new user interface,
Aqua. Apple applies its leadership in user interface design to Aqua, incorporating many
of the qualities and characteristics Macintosh users expect, while adding advancements
to benefit expert and novice users alike. Ease of use is factored into every feature and
capability.

Consistent with Apple’s design philosophy, visual enhancements serve not just as
beautiful images, but as cues to the functionality and operation of the system. A prime
example of this user-focused design is the use of “sheets.” These non-modal dialog


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boxes attach directly to the title bar of the relevant document, intuitively linking
document and action. The non-modal nature of sheets prevents applications from
hijacking the system and interrupting user workflow.

One of the Mac OS X user interface features that benefits developers is its application
packaging method. Using application packages, developers can group an application’s
executable with multiple libraries and resource files in what end users view as a single
icon. Thus, developers can simplify the installation process for users, while packaging
internationalized and localized software versions in the same bundle.


5.5       Interoperability

Mac OS X makes unprecedented use of technologies and standards that allow interaction
with other platforms. This affords both developers and users the opportunity to use
Macintosh computers in new places and in new ways.

A non-modal save dialog in Mac OS X remains linked to its parent window. Networking
and File Systems Mac OS X manages multiple file and networking formats and protocols.
Based on an enhanced VFS design, the file system supports the following local formats:

         Universal File System (UFS), similar to the standard volume format of most UNIX
          operating systems and supporting POSIX file system semantics, important for
          many server applications
         NFS (Network File System), used for sharing volumes over TCP/IP networks
         Universal Disk Format (UDF) for DVD volumes
         ISO 9660, the standard format for CD-ROM volumes
         Mac OS Standard (HFS), the format used on Macintosh systems prior to Mac OS
          8.1
         Mac OS Extended (HFS Plus), the default format on systems from Mac OS 8.1
          through Mac OS X

Mac OS X supports the following industry-standard protocols:

         WebDAV (Web Distributed Authoring and Versioning), which allows users to
          collaboratively edit and manage files on remote web servers
         SMB (Server Message Block), a protocol designed to allow file and printer sharing
          across a small network
         TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol) and UDP/IP (User Datagram Protocol),
          transmission-layer protocols that function with the network-layer Internet
          Protocol
         PPP (Point to Point Protocol), used for dialup (modem) access
         PAP (Printer Access Protocol), used for spooling print jobs and printing to network
          printers
         HTTP (Hypertext Transport Protocol), the standard protocol for transferring web
          pages between a web server and a browser
         FTP (File Transfer Protocol), used to move files between computers on TCP/IP
          networks
         DNS (Domain Name Services), the standard Internet service for mapping host
          names to IP addresses
         SLP (Service Location Protocol), designed for the automatic discovery of
          resources (printers, servers, fax machines, etc.) on an IP network
         DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) and BOOTP (Bootstrap Protocol)
          automate the assignment of IP addresses in a particular network


Operating Systems - Appendices                                                       Page 11
         LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol), used to locate organizations,
          individuals and resources such as files and devices in a network.
         NTP (Network Time Protocol), used for synchronizing client clocks. Mac OS X
          provides standard support for hardware connectivity through Ethernet
          (10/100/1000Base-T) and serial connections for modems, ISDN, DSL, etc.
          Wireless networking through AirPort (IEEE 802.11) is built into Mac OS X and
          peripheral interconnectivity is provided through USB (Universal Serial Bus) and
          FireWire (IEEE 1394)


5.5.1 Macintosh Systems

Darwin’s ability to manage multiple application environments simultaneously makes Mac
OS X interoperable with previous versions of the Mac OS. Two Mac OS X environments,
Classic and Carbon, are specifically designed for such interoperability.

The Classic environment is actually a full version of Mac OS 9.1 running in a protected
memory space under Mac OS X. As a result, most Mac OS 9 compatible applications will
run side-by-side with Mac OS X applications. This allows users to upgrade to Mac OS X
without fear of application incompatibility. Carbon is a native Mac OS X environment that
allows programmers to take advantage of advanced Mac OS X features while retaining
compatibility with the installed base of Macintosh computers running Mac OS 8.1 and
later.


5.5.2 Java Platform

Mac OS X ships with a complete implementation of Java 2 Standard Edition (J2SE)
version 1.3.1, including the HotSpot virtual machine. Benefits of Apple’s Java
implementation include access to Aqua user interface elements “for free” through Swing,
native pre-emptive multitasking, multiprocessing support (with no additional coding
required) and treatment of JAR files as shared libraries. This last advance improves the
speed of execution and reduces the RAM footprint of applications, which rely on the
same archive, such as applications within suites.
Additionally, Mac OS X plugs the Java windowing toolkit directly into the Mac’s native
windowing toolkit, giving Java applications and applets the graphics performance
benefits of Quartz.


5.6       Development Options

There are multiple ways to develop for Mac OS X. Individual skills, preferred languages
and tools, target user base and time to market concerns will influence a developer’s
approach:

5.6.1 Carbon

The Carbon APIs are based on earlier Mac OS APIs. While Carbon allows applications to
take advantage of Mac OS X features such as multiprocessing support and the Aqua user
interface, Carbon is specifically designed to allow compatibility with older versions of the
Mac OS.

5.6.2 Cocoa




Operating Systems - Appendices                                                      Page 12
The Cocoa application environment runs natively under Mac OS X. For those who wish to
develop for Mac OS X using rapid application development (RAD) tools and
object-oriented techniques, the Cocoa frameworks provide a fast and complete way to
do so. These frame-works offer both Java and Objective-C APIs.

5.6.3 Java

The Java application environment allows development and execution of Java programs
on Mac OS X. The J2SE implementation in Mac OS X is designed to allow maximum Java
application portability while delivering the performance benefits of Mac OS X. Developers
can also use the Java development language to write a Cocoa application, allowing Java
programmers to use a familiar language to develop for a new platform.

5.6.4 Unix

Since Mac OS X is built atop a Mach/BSD kernel, porting UNIX-based applications to the
platform is relatively easy and enables enterprise-level UNIX products to enjoy parity
with consumer and business applications on a commercial desktop platform.




Operating Systems - Appendices                                                   Page 13
6.0       Appendix F - A sample Service - The Directory Services


6.1       The Need for a Directory Service

Today, networked computing is more important than ever for businesses and public
services. As a result, modern operating systems require mechanisms for managing the
identities and relationships of the distributed resources that make up network
environments. A directory service should provide a place to store information about
network-based entities, such as applications, files, printers and people. It provides a
consistent way to name, describe, locate, access, manage and secure information about
these individual resources.

Further, a directory service should act as the main switchboard of the network operating
system. It is the central authority that manages the identities and brokers the
relationships between these distributed resources, enabling them to work together.
Because a directory service implies these fundamental network operating system
functions, it should somehow be coupled with the management and security mechanisms
of the operating system to ensure the integrity and privacy of the network. It should also
play a critical role in an organization's ability to define and maintain the network
infrastructure, perform system administration and control the overall user experience of
a company's information systems.


6.2       The Benefits of a Directory Service

The need for a powerful, transparent and integrated directory service is driven by the
explosive growth of networked computing. As local area networks (LANs) and wide area
networks (WANs) grow larger and more complex, as networks are connected to the
Internet and as applications require more from the network and are linked to other
systems through corporate intranets, more is required from a directory service. A
directory service should be one of the important components of an extended computer
system because it:

         Simplifies management. Provides a single, consistent point of management for
          users, applications and devices.
         Strengthens security. Provides users with a single sign-on to network resources
          and provides administrators with powerful and consistent tools to manage
          security services for internal desktop users, remote dial-up users and external
          service clients.
         Extends interoperability. Supplies standards-based access to all the Directory
          Service features as well as synchronization support for popular directories.

As the number of objects in a network grows, the directory service becomes essential.
The directory service will be the hub around which a large distributed system turns.


6.3       The Directory Service Needs an Open Strategy

Many vendors build specialized repositories or directory services into their applications
and devices to enable the specific functionality their customers require. For example,
e-mail products include directory services that let users look up and send mail to others.
And server operating systems use directory services for features such as user account



Operating Systems - Appendices                                                     Page 14
management and storing configuration information about applications. Because these
directory services are targeted narrowly to the needs of the application or device and
often lack standards-based interfaces, most IT organisations have found that they are
responsible for many different directories that can’t be managed centrally or interoperate
easily with each other. Having many incompatible directory services means that:

         End users must use multiple user accounts and passwords to log in to different
          systems and they must know the exact locations of information on the network.
         Administrators must understand how to manage each directory within the
          network and must duplicate many steps when procedures, such as adding a new
          employee to a company, involve many different directories.
         Application developers must write different logic for every directory that their
          applications need to access.

The proliferation of customized directory services translates directly into a continually
rising cost of ownership: it requires greater management, necessitates more complex
applications and adversely affects the productivity of the end user. In the near term,
companies need to find ways to halt this trend and minimize the total number of
directories that they have through proactive consolidation.


6.4       State of the Directory Services Market


The directory service market is rapidly evolving but also generating high frustration for
customers. The frustration arises from the lack of standards to enable interoperability
between vendors and to ensure that any directory can be used with any application or
operating system. As a result, directory consolidation projects are out of reach for most
Agencies and Agencies must therefore support multiple directories (and typically multiple
directory products).
Interoperability notwithstanding, two sets of standards do play a strong role in directory
products:

         The Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) v.3 has emerged as the
          preferred standard for read/write access to directories. However, that is where
          that standard both begins and ends - LDAP does not define schema rules, security
          models or interoperability mechanisms.
         The X.500 set of standards has enjoyed new interest, as it provides formal
          standards for global directory construction and replication. In short, X.500
          standards support the construction of large, multiple-location (multiple-server)
          directories.

Interest in both LDAP and X.500 has led to X.500 directory products taking on LDAP
capabilities and LDAP directories taking on X.500 capabilities. This merging of
capabilities brings new value to directory products; however, it falls well short of
addressing directory consolidation or directory product interoperability.

The other significant trend in directory services is the trend toward product
commoditization.

IBM gives SecureWay away to DB2 users;
         Microsoft bundles Active Directory with its Windows family of server operating
          systems and offers unlimited Internet access to Active Directory for less than
          $2,000.


Operating Systems - Appendices                                                      Page 15
         Novell, iPlanet and Oracle offer license-free versions of their directories
          supporting approximately 200,000 users and also bundle their directory products
          with other "for-fee" products.
We see the commoditization trend continuing, forcing vendors to give away their
directory products in support of directory-enabled products and services.

Thus, according to market observers: By 2005, directory services will be commoditized
and no longer sold as stand-alone products (0.7 probability).

A solution is to standardize based on technologies that provide the required levels of
scalability, standards-based interoperability and operating system integration.


6.5       Directory Service Products Criteria

To position a vendor's Directory Service product with a coherent vision, we can use the
following factors that influence the positioning:

         Marketing and product strategies
         Third-party software market acceptance
         Packaging, branding and distribution
         Architectural flexibility
         Product reliability and scalability
         Investment resources and commitment

Successful vendors will demonstrate consistency and steady progress, while unsuccessful
vendors will appear to be facing untimely technological transitions, confusing market
strategy shifts or other changes that lower the chances of market success.
The Directory Services market can be divided into two areas:

         Platform-centric directories: A platform-centric directory is fully integrated into an
          operating system and handles user authentication, resource access control and
          resource management. Platform-centric directories should be regarded as
          non-substitutable infrastructure.
         Extranet/intranet directories. These directories are used for authentication,
          personalization, access control or certificate storage, typically in support of
          Web-based applications or portals. In most cases, LDAP is the mechanism that
          applications use to communicate with these directories.

The platform-centric directories cannot be considered as a plain "market" in its own right
because of the lack of choice - when an Agency buys into a platform, it buys into the
matching directory infrastructure. In contrast, with extranet/intranet directories,
Agencies have the potential to choose among multiple products - although, in some
cases, Agencies will be locked into a specific directory by the application choice.


6.6       The Four Directory Services leaders

6.6.1 Microsoft's Active Directory

Several Agencies have used Active Directory as the core directory in large, business-
critical extranet projects. Active Directory is still a maturing product and Agencies should
be careful to match their requirements with Active Directory's capabilities. Also,



Operating Systems - Appendices                                                         Page 16
Microsoft's ability to execute was downgraded due to confusion it has created around
Active Directory, Passport and Microsoft Metadirectory Services.


6.6.2 iPlanet

This continues to invest in its directory technology; The repackaging initiative in a
bundled solution (the bundle includes iPlanet's metadirectory and directory proxy
products) is not well accepted.


6.6.3 Novell

Novell continues to make a strong investment in eDirectory technology as well as
developing new partnerships to leverage eDirectory in a broader array of commercial
applications. Novell's eDirectory represents a new generation of Novell technology
completely independent of NetWare.


6.6.4 IBM’s SecureWay

The final product in the leaders group is IBM's SecureWay. SecureWay held a great deal
of promise initially; however, it has been shuffled around inside of IBM and IBM has not
made a strategic commitment to SecureWay in other software products (e.g.,
WebSphere, Domino). Client interest in SecureWay remains high, but implementations
are few and not particularly large - thus, SecureWay is seen as a tactical tool for IBM-
centric customers addressing small (fewer than 50,000-user) application projects.


6.7    The Directory Services Challengers


6.7.1 Oracle Internet Directory and IBM Domino

These are in the Challengers group and both have improved vision positioning based on
enhancements to their products. However, both products face the same challenge: They
are key to each vendor's applications (Oracle's line of applications and IBM's Domino and
Notes), but they lack widespread support from other vendors.


6.7.2 Critical Path from Siemens

Siemens continues to have a strong technical product and has enhanced its product line
by cooperating with Fischer International to port its directory product (DirX) to the IBM
zSeries (IBM mainframe).


6.7.3 Computer Associates International (CA)

An X.500 core directory. CA’s eTrust faces the same problem as Oracle Internet
Directory and IBM Domino - attracting other independent software vendors to use eTrust
for commercial applications.




Operating Systems - Appendices                                                      Page 17
6.7.4 Syntegra

This is a division of BT Ignite, has two entries: one for its X.500-core directory product -
Global Directory System (GDS) - and one for its LDAP-core product (Aphelion). Like
Siemens, Syntegra faces a challenge of creating global awareness of its products.


6.8    Recommendations about Directory Services


Agencies should assume the need to implement multiple directories, because of the lack
of interoperability standards.

Agencies should also recognize the commoditization trend in the directory service market
and leverage of free directory products and software/directory bundling. This should
drive the license cost of the core directory license down.




Operating Systems - Appendices                                                      Page 18

				
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