c. 250,000 BC Swanscombe Man (actually a woman), the oldest known human remains in Britain.
c. 26,000 BC Cave-dwelling Upper Paleolithic peoples in Britain.
c. 10,000 BC Last Ice Age ends.
c. 8300 BC Mesolithic period begins.
c. 6500 BC English Channel forms, separating Britain from the mainland.
c. 4000 BC Neolithic period begins in Britain, introducing the first agriculture.
c. 3000 BC First henge monuments.
c. 2600 BC Main phase of construction at Stonehenge begins, replacing earlier wooden and earthen works.
c. 2300 BC Arrival of the Beaker People in Britain.
c.2300 - Construction begun on Britain's largest stone circle at Avebury.
c. 1800 BC Wessex culture brings bronze-working to Britain.
c. 1600 BC Last construction at Stonehenge.
c. 1400 BC Wessex culture replaced by more agrarian peoples; stone circles and early hillforts produced.
c.1200-1000 - Emergence of a warrior class who now begins to take a central role in society.
Some believe that these people, also known as the Urnfield civilization, are the "proto-Celts."
c. 800 BC Celts bring iron working to Britain; Hallstatt Culture.
c.600 - Iron replaces bronze, Iron Age begins; construction of Old Sarum begun.
c. 400 BC Parisi tribe from northern France settle in Yorkshire. First brochs constructed.
c. 330 BC Pytheas of Massilia circumnavigates Britain.
c. 300 BC La Tene artwork introduced from northern France.
c. 100 First wave of Belgic invaders settle in the south-east, establishing the Catuvellauni and Trinovantes tribes. First coins
c. 80 BC Second wave of Belgic invaders settle in Sussex, Berkshire, and Hampshire, establishing the Atrebates and Regnenses
55 BC Commius, chieftain of the Atrebates, captured by the British after serving as an envoy to Rome.
26 August - Julius Caesar lands between Deal and Walmer, wins skirmishes against the British, and frees Commius.
31 August - Britons in war-chariots defeat the Romans. Romans return to Gaul.
54 July - Julius Caesar invades Britain and defeats the Catuvellauni under Cassivellaunus.
Sep - Tribute fixed, and peace agreed between the Catevellauni and the Trinovantes, allied with Rome. Romans return to
54 BC-43 AD - Roman influence increase in Britain during this time, though Roman troops absent, result of trade and other.
50 BC Fleeing to Britain after a failed revolt in Gaul, Commius becomes chieftain of the Atrebates.
34 BC Emperor Octavian makes an alliance with the Atrebates and Trinovantes.
c. 25 BC Tincommius, leader of the Atrebates, issues Roman-style coinage.
5 - Rome acknowledges Cymbeline, King of the Catuvellauni, as king of Britain
7 Cunobelin of the Catuvellauni defeats the Trinovantes, and establishes a capitol at Colchester.
9 Cunobelin becomes king of the Catuvellauni.
39/40 A succession crisis erupts at Cunobelin's court and his exiled younger son Adminius flees to court of Emperor Caligula in
40 Caligula plans an invasion of Britain but turns back before reaching the coast of Gaul.
42 death of Cunobelin, sons Caratacus and Togodumnus expand Catuvellauni territory into Atrebates, driving out king Verica,
travels to Rome to appeal Claudius to help him regain his throne.
43 May - Roman legions, under Aulus Plautius, invade Britain, landing near Richborough.
General Vespasian captures the River Medway and forces Britons back across the Thames.
September - Emperor Claudius brings reinforcements and captures Colchester; Britons surrender.
Aulus Plautius becomes the first Roman Governor of Britain. Foundation of London.
44 Construction of Watling Street, Ermine Street, Stane Street, and Fosse Way begins.
Conquest of south-western Britain and the Isle of Wight begins. Vespasian captures the Dorset hill forts.
47 Aulus Plautius is received as a hero in Rome.
Roman allies Iceni ordered to surrender weapons by new Governor Ostorius Scapula.
Some tribesmen resist and are quickly put down. Prasutagus takes over as king of the Iceni at about this time.
48 Romans defeat the Deceangli tribes of north-eastern Wales.
49 Silures tribes of southern Wales attack the Romans, but are held back by newly constructed forts.
Roman citizen-colony is founded at Camulodunum (Colchester).
51 Caratacus leads the Ordovices of north-western Wales against the Romans, but is defeated and captured.
Foundation of Verulamium (St Albans).
52 Governor Aulus Didius Gallus builds a legionary base at Wroxeter.
58 Governor Gaius Suetonius Paulinus launches an invasion of Wales.
61 Paulinus captures Anglesey, the last stronghold of the druids.
Boudicca leads a rebellion of the Iceni against Roman rule, Iceni and Trinovantes burn Colchester, and massacre civilians.
Rebels sack London,
Paulinus defeats rebels, and imposes wide-ranging punishments on native Britons, but removed from office after an enquiry
63 - Joseph of Arimathea came to Glastonbury on the first Christian mission to Britain.
68 Governor Marcus Vettius Bolanus unsuccessfully attacks the lands of the Brigantes.
69 Cartimandua, Queen of the Brigantes, is overthrown.
71 Governor Quintus Petillius Cerialis conquers the Parisii and Brigantes tribes of the north-east.
74 Governor Sextus Julius Frontinus completes the conquest of the Silures, and constructs a fort at Caerleon.
78 General (later Governor) Gnaeus Julius Agricola completes the conquest of the Ordovices.
79 Legionary fortress constructed at Chester; subjugation of north-west completed.
Grand opening of civic centre in St Albans, Local aristocrats are encouraged to abandon ancient British culture.
80 Agricola advances to the River Tay, and fortifies Carlisle and Corstopitum.
82 Agricola subdues and occupies Galloway.
83 Roman army campaigns against the Caledonii tribes of the north; constructs a base at Inchtuthil.
84 Battle of Mons Graupius: Romans defeat the Caledonii, and advance to the Moray Firth.
85 Agricola recalled to Rome. Construction of Dere Street and Stanegate begins.
118 Governor Quintus Pompeius Falco suppresses a revolt by the Brigantes.
c. 120 Car Dyke constructed over newly drained East Anglian Fens.
122 Emperor Hadrian visits Britain and appoints Aulus Platorius Nepos as Governor.
Construction of Hadrian's Wall begins, Construction of London forum completed.
133 - Julius Severus, governor of Britain, is sent to Palestine to crush the revolt
139 Newly appointed Governor Quintus Lollius Urbicus advances to the Clyde-Forth line, re-constructing Corstopitum as a base.
142 Emperor Antoninus Pius orders the construction of the Antonine Wall.
154 Governor Gnaeus Julius Verus suppresses a revolt by the Brigantes. Antonine Wall overrun.
155 Fire destroys much of central St Albans.
158 Re-fortification of Hadrian's Wall begins.
160 Antonine Wall re-occupied.
163 Antonine Wall abandoned. Governor Sextus Calpurnius Agricola re-builds forts along Hadrian's Wall.
167 - At request of King Lucius, missionaries, Phagan and Deruvian, said to have been sent by Pope Eleutherius to convert
Britons to Christianity.
175 - 5,500 conscripted Sarmatian cavalry stationed in northern Britain.
180 Northern tribes breach Hadrian's Wall and ravage the countryside.
Governor Ulpius Marcellus launches punitive campaigns to the north.
184 - Lucius Artorius Castus, commander of a detachment of Sarmatian conscripts stationed in Britain, led his troops to Gaul to
quell a rebellion.
This is first appearance of name, Artorius, and some believe is basis, for Arthurian legend.
185 Marcellus forced to retreat to Hadrian's Wall.
Roman army in Britain mutinies. Helvius Pertinax appointed as Governor, and suppresses mutiny.
187 Pertinax resigns, after becoming unpopular with the army.
192 Clodius Albinus, Governor of Britain, briefly proclaimed Emperor, but instead acquiesces to the rival claim of Septimus
196 Albinus proclaims himself "Augustus" and invades Gaul, seeking to overthrow Severus.
197 Albinus defeated at the Battle of Lyons in Gaul; Severus appoints Virius Lupus as Governor.
Maeatae launch raids against Hadrian's Wall.
208 - Severus goes to defend Britain, and repairs Hadrian's Wall take personal command of the army in Britain.
209 Severus and Caracalla lead an expedition against the Caledonii, and build forts at Cramond and the Tay estuary.
St. Alban, first British martyr, was killed for his faith
210 Caracalla leads an expedition against the rebellious Maeatae tribe.
211 February 4 - Severus dies at York, while preparing another expedition against the northern rebels.
Caracalla, now Emperor, abandons territory north of Hadrian's Wall, and returns to Rome.
c. 214 Britain divided into two provinces, Britannia Superior and Britannia Inferior, with administrative centres at London and
c. 220 Saxons raid south-east coast; forts built at Reculver and Brancaster.
250 First mention on record of the Picts attacking from the north.
255 Work begins on a riverside wall in London.
259 Rebel leader Latinus Postumus proclaims Britain as part of his "Empire of the Gauls".
270 Construction of forts along the Saxon Shore begins in response to increased raiding.
273 Stone walls built around St Albans.
274 Postumus' Gallic Empire is reabsorbed into the Roman Empire under Aurelian.
287 Mausaeus Carausius, commander of the Roman British fleet, takes power in Britain and proclaims himself Emperor.
289 Carausius defeats Emperor Maximian in a naval battle.
293 Finance minister Allectus murders Carausius and seizes power; employs Frankish mercenaries.
296 Julius Constantius defeats Britons near Silchester, killing Allectus; prevents retreating Franks from sacking London.
297 Re-building of forts near Hadrian's Wall begins. Constantius returns to Gaul.
301 Emperor Diocletian fixes the prices of British woollen goods and beer.
306 July 25 - Emperor Constantius Chlorus dies at York, after campaigning against the Picts.
Constantine (later to be known as "the Great") was proclaimed Emperor at York.
314 reforms of Diocletian take effect, dividing Britain into four provinces and separating military and civilian government.
Establishment of initial Christian hierarchy in Britain. Three British bishops attend the Council of Arles.
343 January - Emperor Constans visits Britain, and strengthens northern frontier and Saxon Shore. Construction of Pevensey
353 Byzantine Emperor Constantius II punishes British supporters of recently defeated usurper, Magnentius, and suppresses
355 Julian the Apostate placed in charge of Britain and Gaul.
359 Julian makes Britain main granary for western Roman army.
360 Picts and Irish attack northern frontier.
367 Great Conspiracy: raids by Picts, Irish, Saxons. Hadrian's Wall abandoned and commander Fullofaudes captured or killed.
368 Count Theodosius arrives in Britain with task-force, restores administration under Governor Civilis and commander
369 Theodosius defeats invaders, builds new watchtowers from Filey to Huntcliff, re-fortifies northern frontier.
382 Magnus Maximus defeats the Picts and Scots.
383 Maximus usurps control of the Empire, taking troops from Britain and abandoning the forts at Chester and the Pennines.
397 Saint Ninian converts the region around Galloway to Christianity.
The Roman commander, Stilicho, comes to Britain and repels an attack by Picts, Irish and Saxons.
401 Stilicho withdraws troops from Britain, and abandons forts on the Yorkshire coast.
402 Last issue of Roman coinage in Britain.
403 Victricius, Bishop of Rouen, visited Britain for purpose of bringing peace to the island's clergy, over the Pelagian heresy.
405 Niall of the Nine Hostages leads Irish raids along the south coast.
406, remaining Roman army in Britain decided to mutiny. One Marcus proclaimed emperor in Britain, but immediately
407 Army in Britain proclaims Constantine III as Emperor.
408 With both Roman legions withdrawn, Britain endures devastating attacks by the Picts, Scots and Saxons.
409 Army rebels against Constantine. Saxons raid Britain.
410 Emperor Honorius recalls the last legions from Britain. Britain gains "independence"
411 Capture, at Arles, of Constatine, last Emperor of Britain. He was executed at Ravenna soon afterward.
420 Pelagian heresy outlawed in Rome (418) but, in Britain, supposedly enjoys much support from "pro-Celtic" faction.
c.420 Death of Coel Hen, probably the last Roman Dux Brittanniarum.
421 death of King Gradlon Mawr of Brittany. Probable division of Brittany into sub-kingdoms of Cornouaille and Domnonée.
425 Vortigern usurps Imperial power in Britain, possibly as High-King.
c.425-50 King Conomor flourishes in Dumnonia, probably from his capital at Castle Dore.
428 Vortigern invites a number of Germanic warriors to aid him in consolidating his position in Britain.
429 The Pope sends Saint Germanus to Britain, who defeats the Pelagians in public debate.
c.430 Vortigern allows Anglo-Saxon mercenaries to settle on Thanet.
433 TBritons call the Angles to come and help them as mercenaries against the Picts.
c.434 St. Patrick is captured by pirates and taken to Ireland as a slave.
435 -Tibatto leads Armorican movement for independence from Roman Gaul.
437 Ambrosius Aurelianus leader of Pro-Roman faction in Britain (traditionally returning from exile in Brittany).
Vortigern's apparent relative, Vitalinus (Guitolinus), fights against Ambrosius at the Battle of Wallop.
c.440 - St. Patrick escapes from his captors and returns to Britain.
c.440-50 - Period of Civil War and famine in Britain, caused by ruling council's weakness and inability to deal with Pictish
c.441 - Gallic Chronicle records, prematurely, that "Britain, abandoned by the Romans, passed into the power of the Saxons."
443 - Death of King Constantine Corneu of Dumnonia. His kingdom was divided between his two sons as Dumnonia and
446 The "Groans of the Britons": Britons appeal (possibly to the Consul Aetius) for the Roman army to come back to Britain.
c.446 - Vortigern authorizes the use of Saxon mercenaries.
447 Saint Germanus returns to Britain, and exiles the Pelagians.
c.447 - Britons, aroused to heroic effort, "inflicted a massacre" on their enemies, Picts and Irish, and were left in peace, for brief
c.448 - Civil war and plague ravage Britain.
c.450 - the coming of the Saxons. welcomed by Vortigern
c.452 - Increasing Saxon settlement in Britain. .
c.453 - Raids on British towns and cities becoming more frequent. Increasing Saxon unrest.
455 Battle of Aylesford: Hengest and Horsa defeat Vortigern, although Horsa dies in the battle.
c.456 - St. Patrick leaves Britain once more to evangelise Ireland.
457 Battle of Crayford: Hengest & Æsc defeat the Britons, driving them from Kent.
c.458-60 Full-scale migration of British aristos and city-dwellers across Channel to Armorica, in north-western Gaul ("second
458 - Saxon uprising in full-swing. Hengest finally conquers Kent, in south-eastern Britain.
c.459 - Vortigern is burnt to death while being besieged by Ambrosius Aurelianus at Ganarew.
c.460-70 - Ambrosius Aurelianus of pro-Roman faction takes full control of Britain; leads Britons in years of back-and-forth
fighting with Saxons.
British strategy seems to have been to allow Saxon landings and to then contain them there.
464 - Supposed death of the legendary King Aldrien of Brittany.
466 Battle of Wippedesfleot: Hengest and Æsc again defeat an army of the Britons.
c.469 - Roman emperor, Anthemius, appeals to Britons for military help against the Visigoths.
473 Hengest and Æsc fight against the Britons, driving Britons back
477 Ælle lands at Selsey, and founds the Kingdom of Sussex.
c.485-96 - Period of Arthur's "twelve battles" during which he gains reputation for invincibility.
485 Ælle fights against the Britons near the margin of Mearcræd's stream.
486 - Aelle and sons engaged by Britons at B. of Mercredesburne. indecisive, and ends with both sides pledging friendship.
491 Ælle and his son Cissa besiege Pevensey, and kill all the Britons there.
493 - Death of St. Patrick, in Glastonbury according to local legend. Down Patrick seems more likely.
495 Cerdic, later the first King of Wessex, lands at Southampton.
c.500 B. of Mons Badonicus: Britons defeat advancing Saxons, and retain control of the north and west. (Exact year uncertain).
Angles colonise the North Sea and Humber coastal areas, particularly around Holderness.
501 Port and his sons, Bieda and Mægla, arrive at what is now Portsmouth.
508 - King Cerdic of Wessex begins to move inland and defeats British king, Nudd-Lludd (Natanleod), at the Battle of Netley.
c.510 - B. of Llongborth, King Gerren Llyngesoc of Dumnonia, killed.
c.515 - Death of Aelle. Kingdom of Sussex passed to his son, Cissa
519 Cerdic founds the Kingdom of Wessex.
527 Foundation of the Kingdom of Essex.
536 The climate changes of 535-536 likely caused a great famine and decline in population.
537 - B/ of Camlann, between the forces of Arthur and Mordred.
545 - Death of the joint-Kings Budic II and his son Hoel I Mawr of Brittany.
546 - St. Gildas returns to Brittany with St. Cadog.
547 Angles under Ida conquer a Celtic area called Bryneich, founding the Kingdom of Bernicia.
c.548 - King Cono-Mark of Cerniw, Poher and Domnonée marries Princess Triphine of Broërec.
549 A great plague causes much population loss.
550 Gildas completes his post-Roman history On the Destruction of Britain.
552 - King Cynric of Wessex lays siege to the British at Old Sarum and put them to flight.
556 - King Cynric of Wessex lays siege to the British at Barbury Castle and is victorious.
558 - Broërec is attacked by King Childebert of the Franks. King Canao II leads resistance.
560 Angles conquer eastern Yorkshire and the British kingdom of Ebrauc, and establish the Kingdom of Deira.
569 - St. David holds the Synod of Victoria to denounce the Pelagian heresy once more.
570 - Death of St. Gildas.
c.570-75 Northern British Alliance forged between kingdoms of North Rheged, Strathclyde, Bryneich and Elmet.
They fight the Northumbrians at the Battles of Gwen Ystrad and the Cells of Berwyn
571 Foundation of East Anglia. B. of Bedcanford: Cuthwulf captures Limbury, Aylesbury, Benson, and Eynsham.
577 Battle of Dyrham: Ceawlin of Wessex captures Gloucester, Cirencester, and Bath, expanding his kingdom to the west.
584 Battle of Fethanleag: Ceawlin and Cutha fight against the Britons.
585 Foundation of the Kingdom of Mercia.
585 - Death of King Alain I of Brittany.
586 - Death of King Rhun Hir of Gwynedd. Death of King Judwal of Domnonée.
588 - King Edwin of Deira is ousted from his Kingdom by the Bernicians and seeks refuge at the court of King Iago of Gwynedd.
589 - Death of Saint and King Constantine of Dumnonia. Death of St. David, Archbishop of St. Davids.
590 Elmet joins an alliance of Celtic kingdoms against the expanding Angles of Bernicia. Urien of Rheged murdered.
597 Saint Augustine leads a papal mission to Britain, converts Kent to Christianity, and becomes the first Bishop of Canterbury.
600 Battle of Catterick: Northumbria defeats an invasion by a combined force from Wales and Lothian.
601 The Bishopric of Canterbury is raised to an Archbishopric.
604 The first Bishop of London and Bishop of Rochester are consecrated; King Ethelbert of Kent founds Saint Paul's Cathedral.
King Ethelfrith unites Bernicia and Deira to create the Kingdom of Northumbria.
606 - Death of King Pybba of Mercia. He is succeeded by his kinsman, Ceorl.
611 - Death of King Ceolwulf of Wessex. He is succeeded by his nephew, Cynegils.
613 - King Aethelfrith of Bernicia invades Gwynedd in order to route out his old enemy, King Edwin of Deira.
614 - King Cynegils & his son, Prince Cwichelm, of Wessex invade Dumnonia and defeat the local army
614 Cynegils and Cwichelm fight on the same side at Beandun, defeating the Welsh.
616 Battle of Chester: King Aethelfrith of Northumbria defeats Powys.
Battle of the River Idle: King Rædwald of East Anglia kills Ethelfrith of Northumbria, and conquers the Kingdom of Elmet.
618 - Raedwald's son. Eorpwald, takes the East Anglian throne from his uncle, King Eni.
619 - Death of Archbishop Laurence of Canterbury.
626 - Death of King Ceorl of Mercia. He is succeeded by Penda, son of his predecessor.
627 Paulinus consecrated as the first Bishop of York, and converts Northumbria and the Kingdom of Lindsey to Christianity.
628 Battle of Cirencester: King Penda of Mercia defeats Wessex and captures lands along the River Severn.
629 - St. Paulinus meets Blecca, the Praefectus Civitatis of Lincoln, and converts him to Christianity.
630 - The West Saxons invade Gwent. King Meurig defeats them, with the help of his aging father, at the Battle of
c.630 - King Penda of Mercia besieges Exeter
631 Saint Felix and Saint Fursey convert East Anglia to Christianity.
632 Oct 12- B. of Hatfield Chase: Gwynedd and Mercia attack, defeat Northumbria; Elmet + Ebrauc temporarily return to Celtic
West Saxons cross into Wales and defeat King Idris of Meirionydd on the Severn.
633 Battle of Heavenfield: Northumbria expels the Gwynedd army.
634 Saint Aidan founds Lindisfarne.
635 - King Penda of Mercia aims to gain control of Middle Anglia and therefore attacks his rivals in East Anglia.
Saint Birinus begins the conversion of Wessex to Christianity.
638 King Oswald of Northumbria captures Edinburgh.
642 August 5 - Battle of Maserfield: King Penda of Mercia kills Oswald of Northumbria and divides his realm.
643 Widsith, the earliest surviving example of English heroic prose, is composed.
645 King Cenwalh of Wessex driven from his kingdom by his one time brother-in-law, King Penda of Mercia. flees to Court of
King Anna of East Anglia. Penda overruns Wessex.
652 - Penda's Mercian army invades Bernicia and besieges King Oswiu at Bamburgh. Cenwalh of Wessex wins b.
653 Saint Cedd begins the conversion of Mercia and Essex to Christianity.
c.653 - Aethelwald of Deira rejects his uncle's overlordship and turns to Penda of Mercia instead mounts another attack of
654 - King Penda of Mercia and his armies invade East Anglia and kill King Anna.
655 November 15 - Battle of the Winwaed: King Oswiu of Bernicia kills King Penda of Mercia, giving Northumbria rule over
657 Mercia regains its independence. Saint Hilda founds Whitby Abbey.
658 Battle of Peonnum: King Cenwalh of Wessex conquers Dorset and Somerset, pushing the Britons into Cornwall.
660 - King Sigeberht II of Essex is murdered by his brothers,
660 First Bishop of Winchester consecrated.
661 - King Cenwalh of Wessex invades Dumnonia. He is victorious at the Battle of Posbury
c.662 - King Swithelm of Essex is converted to Christianity
664 Synod of Whitby settles disputes between the Roman and Celtic Churches.
669 Theodore of Tarsus enthroned as Archbishop of Canterbury and tasked with re-organising the English Church.
First Bishop of Lichfield consecrated.
c.669 - King Ecgbert I of Kent loses the overlordship of Surrey to King Wulhere of Mercia.
672 King Ecgfrith of Northumbria defeats the Picts.
26 September - Synod of Hertford gives the Archbishop of Canterbury authority over the whole of the English Church.
674 Construction of Ripon Minster, in the Italian style, begins.
Benedict Biscop founds Monkwearmouth-Jarrow Abbey.
Queen Seaxburh of Wessex is removed from power
King Wulfhere of Mercia leads an army against King Ecgfrith of Northumbria, but is defeated
676 First Bishop of Hereford consecrated.
677 Saint Wilfrid, the Bishop of York, expelled from Northumbria after resisting re-organisation of the Church.
678 Battle of the River Trent: Mercia defeats Northumbrian invasion.
680 St Wilfrid converts last Saxon pagan realm, Kingdom of Sussex, to Christianity. First Bishop of Worcester consecrated.
681 Centwine pursues the Britons to the sea.
684 Saint Cuthbert becomes Bishop of Hexham. King Ecgfrith of Northumbria campaigns in Ireland.
685 May 20 - Battle of Dunnichen Moss: Picts kill Ecgfrith, ending Saxon rule north of the River Forth.
King Cædwalla of Wessex takes control of Kent, Surrey, Sussex, and the Isle of Wight.
687 - King Mul of Kent and twelve companions are burnt to death during a Kentish uprising
688 Cædwalla baptised in Rome, but dies shortly after. Succeeded by Ine. Re-foundation of Glastonbury Abbey.
690 - King Oswine of Kent is toppled by Wihtred the brother of the late King Eadric of Ken
691 Saint Wilfrid exiled again, to Mercia.
694 King Ine of Wessex writes a new code of laws.
698 Creation of the Lindisfarne Gospels begins.
705 Saint Wilfrid re-instated as Bishop of Ripon. Bede completes his first chronological work.
710 Picts unsuccessfully invade Northumbria.
711 - Dux Berhtfrith leads a Northumbrian campaign against the Picts and defeats them in Manau Gododdin.
713 - Death of King Eadwulf of East Anglia. He is succeeded by his brother, Aelfwald.
715 - Kings Ine of Wessex and Coelred of Mercia clash at the Battle of Wodensbarrow
716 Ethelbald becomes King of Mercia, marking the beginning of that kingdom's ascendancy over the other Saxon realms.
718 - Death of King Coenred of Northumbria. The throne is seized by one, Osric
722 King Ine of Wessex fails to conquer Cornwall, being defeated at the three battles of Hehil, Garth Maelog, and Pencon.
725 - Death of King Nunna of Sussex. The exiled Prince Ealdberht, seeks sanctuary in Sussex.
Ine attacks the South Saxons and kills Ealdberht. Death of King Wihtred of Kent.
kingdom divided between three sons: Aethelbert II as overking, King Eadbert in West Kent and Alric who dies soon
726 - Abdication of King Ine of Wessex. succeeded by his brother-in-lawAethelheard
c.729 - The Northumbrians sign a peace treaty with the Picts.
730: Northumbria annexes Rheged.
731 Bede completes his Ecclesiastical History of the English.
735 Bishopric of York upgraded to an Archbishopric; Ecgbert becomes the first Archbishop.
736 King Ethelbald of Mercia describes himself as "King of Britain".
737 - King Ceolwulf of Northumbria abdicates in favour of his cousin, Eadberht,
738 - Death of King Swaefbert of Essex. He is succeeded by Saelred, a minor member of the Essex Royal Family.
740 - Death of Aethelheard of Wessex succeeded by a distant kinsman, Cuthred.
King Eadberht of Northumbria marches his army north to attack the Picts.
King Aethelbald of Mercia takes advantage of his absence and ravages Southern Northumbria.
Internal struggles re-emerge in Northumbria with the murder of Earnwine, son of the late usurping King Eadwulf.
c.740 - Death of King Mildfrith of Magonset. He is replaced by a Mercian Ealdorman.
King Aethelbald of Mercia takes control of Berkshire from Wessex.
743 - Kings Aethelbald of Mercia and Ceolred of Wessex join forces to attack Gwent and Powys.
St. Wihtburh, youngest daughter of the late King Anna of East Anglia, dies at East Dereham Abbey and is buried there.
c.744 - Construction of Wat's Dyke. The border between Mercia and Powys is set there.
746 - Death of King Saelred of Essex. He is succeeded by Swithred, grandson of the late King Sigeheard.
747 First Council of Clofeshoh reforms the Church.
748 - Death of King Eadbert of West Kent. He is succeeded by his sons, Eadbert and Eardwulf.
749 Edict of Gumley: Church freed from its economic obligations to the King of Mercia.
Death of Aelfwald of East Anglia succeeded by Hun, Beorna and Alberht. Relationship unknown. Beorna emerges as
King Aethelbald of Mercia calls the Synod of Gumley and agrees to exempt monasteries from Royal service.
750 King Eadberht of Northumbria invades the Kingdom of Strathclyde, capturing Kyle.
752 Battle of Beorhford: Wessex defeats Mercia.
756 King Eadberht captures Dumbarton, capitol of Strathclyde.
757 King Ethelbald of Mercia murdered; succeeded by Offa.
Wat's Dyke constructed.
758 - King Eadberht of Northumbria abdicates in favour of his son, Oswulf.
c.758 - King Cynewulf of Wessex retakes Berkshire from the Mercians.
759 - King Oswulf of Northumbria is murdered
760 Battle of Hereford: Battle between Mercia and the Welsh; Dyfnwal ap Tewdwr dies.
761 - King Aethelwald Moll of Northumbria faces a rebellion under Oswine. Battle of Eildon.
762 - Death of King Aethelbert II of Kent. His nephew, King Eadbert of West Kent,
764 Offa conquers Kent.
771 Offa conquers Sussex.
774 Offa first uses the title "King of the English".
776 Battle of Otford: Kent expels the Mercians.
778 Offa raids Dyfed. Unrest in Northumbria leads to King Aethelred I ordering the execution of three of his Duces.
779 - Offa, King of Mercia, becomes "King of All England". Offa defeats King Cynewulf of Wessex at the Battle of Bensington
784 Offa raids Wales.
Construction of Offa's Dyke begins.
786 Papal legates hold councils in Mercia and Northumbria. Mercia regains control of Kent.
787 Offa issues the first silver penny. Offa has his son consecrated as King; the first such ceremony in England.
788 At Offa's urging, the Pope upgrades the Bishopric of Lichfield to an Archbishopric.
789 Charlemagne establishes a trade embargo on the English after failed negotiations for his daughter to marry Offa's son.
790 - King Aethelred I returns to Northumbria, captures King Osred II,
c.790 - Offa of Mercia takes control of East Anglia.
793 June 8 - Vikings raid Lindisfarne.
794 Vikings raid Jarrow.
796 Kent rebels against Mercia again. Offa raids Dyfed. Battle of Rhuddlan. 26 July Offa dies; Wessex regains its independence.
798 Kentish rebellion suppressed.
801 Northumbrian invasion of Mercia fails.
802 Egbert becomes King of Wessex.
803 Council of Clofeshoh abolishes the Archbishopric of Lichfield.
c.812 - King Sigered of Essex is reduced to the rank of Dux by his Mercian overlords.
815 Egbert of Wessex conquers Cornwall.
816 Saxons invade the mountains of Eryri and the kingdom of Rhufoniog.
818 King Cenwulf of Mercia devastates Dyfed.
821 Wulfred, Archbishop of Canterbury, submits to Cenwulf of Mercia in a dispute over Church lands.
822 Mercian army destroys the fortress of Degannwy and takes control of Powys.
823 A fight of Welsh/Britons [against] Devon-men at Galford
825 B. of Ellendun: King Egbert of Wessex defeats Mercians, and subdues Essex, Sussex, and Kent, ending the Mercian
829 Egbert of Wessex temporarily conquers Mercia.
830 Nennius completes his Historia Brittonum.
835 Vikings raid Sheppey.
836 - Wessex is defeated by invading Vikings at the Battle of Carhampton.
838 Battle of Hingston Down: Egbert of Wessex defeats combined Danish and Cornish armies.
839 - Death of King Egbert of Wessex & All England. His son, King Aethelwulf of Kent succeeds as King of Wessex.
841 - Death of King Eanred of Northumbria. He is succeeded by his son as King Aethelred II.
842 Vikings raid London, Rochester, and Southampton.
851 Kentish ships defeat the Danes off Sandwich in the first recorded naval battle in English history.
Battle of Oakley: King Ethelwulf of Wessex defeats the Danes. Danes over-winter in England for the first time, at Thanet.
852 Saint Swithun becomes Bishop of Winchester.
852 - Death of King Beorhtwulf of Mercia. He is succeeded by his kinsman, Burghred.
853 - Mercia and Wessex attack Powys. King Ethelwulf sends his son Alfred to the papal court in Rome.
855 - Death of King Aethelweard of East Anglia.
858 - Death of King Aethelwulf of Wessex. He is succeeded by his son, Aethelbald.
860 - Death of King Aethelbald of Wessex. He is succeeded by his brother, sub-King Aethelbert of Kent, Essex, Surrey and
865 Ethelred becomes King of Wessex. Danish invasion force lands in East Anglia.
866 Danes capture York.
867 Danes defeat Northumbrians and install a puppet ruler.
869 20 November - Battle of Hoxne: Danes defeat East Anglians, killing King Edmund the Martyr.
870 - Edmund of East Anglia is captured by Ivarr the Boneless and Ubbe Ragnarson
Ivarr's brother, Halfdan Wide-Embrace moves the Viking army to Wessex via the Thames and takes Reading
Vikings clash with Ealdorman Aethlewulf of Berkshire at the Battle of Englefield.
The invaders are driven back to Reading and besieged by King Aethelred I and his brother, Alfred.
Ealdorman Aethelwulf is killed in the fighting. The Danes are victorious and drive the English into the marshes.
871 January - Battle of Ashdown: Ethelred defeats the Danes. 'Great Summer Army'
23 April - Ethelred dies; succeeded by his brother Alfred the Great.
Alfred fights the Danes at the Battle of Wilton and defeated.
872 - Alfred buys a peace with the Vikings and they remove the 'Great Heathen Army' from Reading to London.
Death of King Ecgberht I of Northumbria. Vikings install one Ricsige in his place.
873 - The 'Great Heathen Army' of Vikings returns to York from where they attack Mercia.
They capture the Royal capital at Repton and spend the winter there.
874 - From Repton Vikings drive King Burgred of Mercia into exile, install puppet Ceolwulf, as sub-King
875 - 'The Great Heathen Army' divided. Halfdan & Uppsala takes a contingent back to York
'Great Summer Army' moves on ambridge under Guthrum, Oscetel and Anund.
Alfred fights them in a Naval engagement.
876 - Vikings take Wareham under Guthrum, and Alfred forced to buy peace once more. The invaders retreat to Exeter.
Danes capture southern Northumbria, and found the Kingdom of York.
877 Saxons kill Rhodri the Great and his son Gwriad. Danes capture Exeter, and settle in the Five Boroughs.
878 January - Danes capture Chippenham, and take control of much of Wessex.
Easter - Alfred constructs a fort at Athelney, and holds out against the Danes.
11 May - Battle of Edington: Alfred defeats the Danes. Guthrum baptised.
Danes take control of East Anglia. Princes of southern Wales acknowledge Alfred as their overlord.
879 - Death of sub-King Aethelred of East Anglia Guthrum takes the throne.
Alfred begins to build a large mobile army and naval fleet, establishes defensive burghs around the country.
Death of Ceolwulf II of Mercia. Aethelred II king of the Mercians.
884 - Aethelred II of the Mercians marries Princess Aethelflaed, daughter of Alfred, accepts Wessex overlordship
885 - Alfred summons Asser, to the English Court. Vikings attack Rochester but are beaten back by King Alfred.
886 Alfred restores London to Mercia.
Alred signs a treaty with Guthrum, granting the territory between the Thames and the Tees to the Danes; later known as
892 Danes invade again, under the leadership of Hastein. Anglo-Saxon Chronicle first compiled.
893 B. of Buttington Island: Alfred joins with Welsh forces to push back Danes to Chester. Asser writes the Life of Alfred.
894 Danish forces reach the Thames estuary.
895 Alfred blockades the Danish fleet at the River Lea; Danes retreat to Bridgnorth.
896 Danish army leaves Wessex.
899 October 26 - King Alfred of Wessex dies; succeeded by his son, Edward the Elder.
902 Irish Norsemen, expelled from Dublin, establish colonies on The Wirral.
905 - The Norse settler, Ingimund, and his men revolt against the Mercians and try to take the city of Chester. They are beaten
909 - Death of Bishop Asser of Sherborne.
910-920 Edward the Elder, King of Wessex, and Ethelfleda, King of Mercia, conquer most of the Danelaw.
910 5 August - Battle of Tettenhall: Edward the Elder, King of Wessex defeats a Viking army.
911 Edward transfers London and Oxford from Mercia to Wessex.
913 - King Edward the Elder of England recaptures Essex from the Danes.
914 - Ealdred I of Bamburgh persuades King Constantine II of Alba to invade Norse controlled Bernicia
Vikings defeat the Scots at the First Battle of Corbridge.
915 First Battle of Corbridge Viking victory over the Anglo-Saxons. King Edward occupies Bedford.
917 King Edward captures Derby and seizes control of East Anglia. All Danes south of the Humber submit to his rule.
918 King Ethelfleda of Mercia dies; Edward the Elder takes control of his kingdom. Welsh princes pay homage to Edward.
Second Battle of Corbridge.
919 Ragnall ua Ímair seizes control of the Kingdom of York.
920 Norse Vikings under Sihtric attack Cheshire.
Constantine II of Scotland, and the kings of Strathclyde, York, and Northumbria acknowledge Edward the Elder as their
c. 923 Athelm enthroned as Archbishop of Canterbury.
924 July 17 - Edward the Elder dies and is succeeded by Athelstan as King of Wessex.
925 September 4 - Coronation of Athelstan as King of Wessex.
926 - Athelstan annexes Northumbria, and forces the kings of Wales, Strathclyde, the Picts, and the Scots to submit to him
c. 926 Wulfhelm enthroned as Archbishop of Canterbury.
927 King Athelstan of Wessex unites the Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy into the Kingdom of England.
12 July - Kings of Scotland and Strathclyde acknowledge Athelstan as their overlord.
928 King Athelstan defeats the Welsh, and sets the border of Wales at the River Wye.
King Athelstan subdues the Cornish, and sets the border of Cornwall at the River Tamar.
931 Athelstan holds the first Council of All England, at Colchester.
934 Athelstan invades Scotland, reaching as far as Caithness.
935 Athelstan mints the first coins proclaiming himself to be "King of All Britain".
937 Battle of Brunanburh: King Athelstan defeats the Scots, Vikings, and Strathclyde Welsh.
939 Failed expedition to support King Louis IV of France against the Germans.
King Athelstan dies succeeded by brother Edmund I of England. Viking leader Olaf III Guthfrithson captures York.
940 King Edmund cedes Northumbria and the Five Boroughs to Olaf Guthfrithson.
Saint Dunstan becomes abbot of Glastonbury and initiates monastic reform and revival.
King Edmund summons Dunstan to his court where he becomes a favourite.
941 Oda the Severe enthroned as Archbishop of Canterbury. Olaf Guthfrithson dies; Olaf Sihtricsson becomes King of York.
942 King Edmund re-captures the Five Boroughs.
944 King Edmund takes York from the Vikings.
945 King Edmund invades Strathclyde, and grants Cumbria to King Malcolm I of Scotland.
946 May 26 - King Edmund murdered and succeeded by his brother Edred of England.
947 Wulfstan I, Archbishop of York invites the Viking leader Eric Bloodaxe to become King of York.
948 King Edred expels Eric Bloodaxe from Northumbria. King Malcolm I of Scotland raids Northumbria.
949 Olaf Sihtricsson returns as King of York.
952 Eric Bloodaxe reconquers York. King Edred imprisons Wulfstan of York.
954 Eric Bloodaxe dies allowing King Edred to recover York.
955 November 23 - King Edred dies and is succeeded by his nephew Edwy of England.
956 Dunstan exiled after quarreling with King Edwy.
957 Dunstan re-founds abbeys at Bath, Exeter, Malmesbury, and Westminster.
Mercia and Northumbria rebel, choosing Edgar of England as King.
959 Aelfsige enthroned as Archbishop of Canterbury but dies en route to Rome. Birthelm enthroned as Archbishop of
1 October - King Edy dies and is succeeded by his brother Edgar of England.
Edgar overturns the appointment of Birthelm as Archbishop of Canterbury. Dunstan enthroned as Archbishop of
961 Saint Oswald becomes Bishop of Worcester; establishes or re-founds abbeys at Ramsey, Evesham, Pershore, and
963 King Edgar grants legal autonomy to the Danelaw.
Saint Ethelwold becomes Bishop of Winchester; re-founds abbeys at Ely and Peterborough.
c. 970 Regularis Concordia produced at Winchester.
971 July 15 - planned removal of body of Saint Swithun during re-building of Winchester Cathedral delayed by 40 days due to
Kenneth II of Scotland raids England, reaching as far as Yorkshire.
973 May 11 - Coronation of King Edgar at Bath.
Edgar sails to Chester, and receives homage from the rulers of Alba, Strathclyde, Wales, and the Kingdom of the Isles.
975 July 8 - King Edgar dies and is succeeded by his son Edward the Martyr, who is only 12 years old.
978 Mar 18 - Edward murdered by servants of stepmother Ælfthryth, succeeded by stepbrother Ethelred the Unready.
980 Vikings begin a new wave of raids on England.
981 Danish raids on Dorset, Devon, and Cornwall begin, and continue for a further seven years.
988 Æthelgar enthroned as Archbishop of Canterbury.
c.988 - Manx Vikings, under King Godfred I, ravage Anglesey.
990 Sigeric the Serious enthroned as Archbishop of Canterbury.
991 March 1 - Ethelred signs a treaty with Duke Richard I of Normandy, by which each agrees not to aid the others enemies.
August - Norse invasion force sacks Ipswich.
10 August - Battle of Maldon: Danes defeat the English army.
The first Danegeld, of £10,000, is paid to the Danes in return for their leaving England.
992 - Aethelred makes a truce with Duke Richard I of Normandy.
993 Danes raid Northumbria.
994 Norse and Danish armies under Olaf Trygvesson ravage the south-east, but fail to capture London.
£16,000 of Danegeld paid. Olaf II of Norway is baptised at Andover, and swears not to return to England.
995 Ælfric of Abingdon enthroned as Archbishop of Canterbury.
997 King Ethelred issues a law code at Wantage, defining the legal position in the Danelaw and introducing trial by jury.
Ælfric of Eynsham completes the English Lives of Saints.
998 Danes raid southern and western coasts.
999 Danes raid Kent, attacking Rochester.
1000 English fleet invades the Isle of Man. English invasion of Cumbria fails. Heroic poem The Battle of Maldon composed.
1003 - Sweyn and an army of Norsemen land in England and wreak a terrible vengeance.
1007 - Aethelred buys two years' peace from the Danes for 36,000 pounds of silver.
Uhtred, son of Ealdorman Waltheof I of Northumbria, is appointed to his father's old position.
1011 - Thorkell the Tall and his brother, Hemming, plunder Canterbury, burn city and the Cathedral, and make off with
Archbishop Alphege to Greenwich. St. Alphage refuses to be ransomed, Vikings throw ox-bones at him in a drunken orgee
and kill him.
1012 - The Danes sack Canterbury: bought off for 48,000 pounds of silver.
1013 - King Sweyn Forkbeard of Denmark lands in England and is proclaimed king; Aethelred II the Unready flees to
c.1013 - Archbishop Lyfing probably restores Canterbury Cathedral, adding porticus towers and a massive 'westwerk'.
1014 - English recall Aethelred II the Unready as King on death of King Sweyn Forkbeard;
the latter's son, Canute (II), retreats to Denmark and turns his attention to annexing Norway.
1015 - King Canute II of Denmark & Norway again invades England; war between Danes and Saxons.
1016 - Edmund Ironside, son of Aethelred II becomes King.
He and King Canute II of Denmark & Norway meet on the Isle of Alney near Deerhurst and agree to divide the kingdom:
Canute holds the north and Edmund Wessex; Edmund is assassinated;
Canute takes the throne as King Canute the Great of England.
1017 - King Canute the Great divides England into four earldoms.
1019 - King Canute the Great marries the Dowager-Queen Emma, widow of Aethelred II.
1026 - King Canute the Great's steward, Orc, founds Abbotsbury Abbey.
1034 Death of King Malcolm II of Scotland, Duncan I accedes to the Scottish throne
1035 Death of Cnut Harold I Harefoot, becomes King of England (to 1040).
1035 William the Bastard became Duke of Normandy at the age of only seven years old
1040 Death of Harold Harefoot, his brother Harthacnut accedes to the English throne
1042 Death of Harthacnut, Edward the Confessor accedes to the English throne
1051 - Earl Godwin exiled (until 1052): he returns with a fleet and wins back his power.
1051 William said that King Edward the Confessor had promised that William should succeed him as king of England.
1052: Married Matilda of Flanders. William and Matilda had six daughters and four sons
1053 - Death of Godwin: his son Harold succeeds him as Earl of Wessex. begins programme of building work at Waltham
1055 - Harold's brother Tostig becomes Earl of Northumbria.
1063 - Harold and Tostig subdue Wales.
1064 - Harold is shipwrecked in Normandy; while there, he swears a solemn oath to support William of Normandy's claim to
1065 - Northumbria rebels against Tostig, who is exiled
1066 January 4th 1066: The Death of Edward the Confessor
January 6th 1066: Harold Earl of Wessex crowned King of England
April 1066: Halley's Comet
Spring 1066: Norman mission to Rome to seek Papal support for the Norman Invasion
July 1066: William prepares his fleet for the English invasion at the River Dives in Normandy
September Vikings! Harald Hadrada, King of Norway, launches a Viking invasion against King Harold and England
20th Sep Battle of Gate Fulford - The Vikings defeat the English led by Morcar
21st Sep Harold marches his army from the South Coast of England to York to defend England against the Viking Invasion
Sep 25th Stamford Bridge Battle - King Harold defeats Harald Hadrada and the Vikings at York
Sep 27th Duke William sets sail for England - The Norman Invasion begins
September 28th Duke William lands at Pevensey, on the South coast of England. The Norman Invasion
September 29th Duke William occupies Hastings, on the South coast of England
October 1st Harold , celebrating his victory over the Vikings at York, receives news of the Norman invasion
October 1st Harold marches his army back from the North of England to the South of England to defend against the Norman
October 6th King Harold arrives in London
October English Army prepare their defences at Senlac
Friday 13th Oct Negotiations between the Normans and Saxons
Saturday 14 Oct Battle of Hastings.
December 25th 1066: William is crowned King of England in Westminster Abbey in London
1067 Quashed a rebellion led by King Harold's mother Gytha
1068 King William exacted a terrible punishment on the rebels in the North of England referred to as 'The Harrying of the North'
Matilda is crowned Queen of England
1071 Quashed a rebellion led by Hereward the Wake
1073 The Building of Norman castles in England including the Tower of London
1086 Work commences on the Domesday Book
1087 Sep 9 Death of William the Conqueror
1087 William Rufus succeeded to the throne of England
1088 The English Rebel against William Rufus but he quashes the rebellion in July 1088
1089 Lanfranc dies
1093 Death of Malcolm III of Scotland in battle against the English
1095 Robert Mowbray's Rebellion. Mowbray was a Norman Baron.
1099 Ranulf Flambard was made Bishop of Durham
1099 July 15: The soldiers of the First Crusade successfully scale the walls of Jerusalem and take the Holy city
1100 Aug 2 Death of William II, Henry I accedes to the throne of England
1100 Aug 5 Henry Crowned at Westminster
1100 Nov 11 He married Edith, the daughter of Malcolm Greathead, King of Scotland.
1101 July Treaty of Alton.
1106 Robert Curthose, William the Conqueror's eldest son and brother to Henry I, led a rebellion against Henry but was defeated
1114 January Matilda, the daughter of Henry I is married to Emperor Henry V
1118 May 1 - Queen Maude died at the Palace of Westminster
1119 Stephen married Queen Matilda of Boulogne (1105 - 1152)
1120 Nov 25 Sinking of White Ship - William Adelin, the son of King Henry I died
1121 Jan 29 King Henry I, Beauclerc, married Adeliza, daughter of Godfrey I of Leuven, there were no children from this
1125 Matilda, was briefly married to the German Henry V, the Holy Roman Emperor but he died in 1125
1125 Matilda returns to Normandy
1126 December - Henry holds a council at Woodstock
1127 In January 1127 King Henry I forced the Barons to swear allegiance to Matilda
1128 Matilda marries Geoffrey of Anjou and they had three sons Henry, Geoffrey, Count of Nantes and her youngest son was
1134 Robert Curthose, William the Conqueror's eldest son and brother to Henry I, died in captivity in Cardiff Castle
1135 Dec 1 Death of Henry I, accession of King Stephen to English throne
1135 Dec 22 Stephen seizes the throne of England
1136 The civil war between Stephen and Matilda begins
1139 Matilda arrives in England and her greatest supporter was Robert Earl of Gloucester,
1141 Feb Stephen captured at the Battle of Lincoln
April - Matilda was claimed Queen of England
June - Matilda entered London for her coronation but had no support in London and was forced to flee the city.
Sep 14 - Rout of Winchester. Stephen's imprisonment was ended when he was exchanged for the Earl of Gloucester
1142 Matilda continued plotting against Stephen with the aid of Geoffrey de Mandeville
1143 Sep - Stephen arrested Geoffrey de Mandeville taking his lands and making him an outlaw
1145 King Stephen captured the castle at Farringdon from Matilda
1147 Robert, Earl of Gloucester died and Matilda gave up her fight for England and she conceded the throne to Stephen
1147 Matilda left England for Normandy and spent the rest of her life in a convent
1147 The eldest son of Matilda, Henry, attempted to invade England but he failed
1149 May 22 - Henry was knighted at Carlisle by David, King of the Scots.
1149 Henry again attempted to invade England but he was driven back to Normandy by Stephen
1150 Henry was given the title of Duke of Normandy by his father.
1151 War in Normandy - King Louis VII of France was unhappy with Henry's new position as Duke of Normandy and declared
1152 Henry married Eleanor of Aquitaine on 18 May 1152. This made him powerful and wealthy
1153 Henry again invaded England and Stephen forced to agree that Henry should be heir to the throne of England instead of his
own son, Eustace
1153 Eustace the son of Stephen was furious and continued the fight but he died suddenly on August 17
1154 Nov 6 - Treaty of Wallingford. The agreement of succession of Henry II after Stephen was witnessed by the English
1154 Oct 25, Stephen died in Dover, at Dover Priory, and was buried in Faversham Abbey
1154 Dec 19 Henry crowned, succeeded King Stephen as King Henry II of England
1154 Grand Master of Knights Templar, André de Montbard, superintended the Masons in England and built their Temple in
Fleet Street, London
1154 Thomas Becket was appointed as Chancellor of England. Beckett and Henry became good friends
1161 Thomas Becket was appointed Archbishop of Canterbury
1163 July Council at Woodstock: King Henry II and Thomas Becket argue over the control of payments to Sheriffs.
1163 Oct - Council of Westminster: Henry put forward plans to reduce the power of the Church
1164 Constitutions of Clarendon, a set of laws which governs the trial of members of the Church in England
1164 October meeting at Northampton: King Henry planned to accuse Becket of being a traitor
1164 November: Becket left England and went into exile in France. Henry confiscated all his property.
1168 Richard was invested with the duchy of Aquitaine
1169 Jan 6 - Henry II, King Louis VII of France and Thomas Becket met at Montmirail.
1170 December 1: Becket returned to Canterbury and excommunicated Henry
Richard de Hastings, the Master of the English Templars, attempted to reconcile the differences between King Henry II and
Jul 22: Becket and Henry meet at Freteval where as show of friendship is made and Becket's power is partially restored
Dec 1: Becket returns to Canterbury and threatens to excommunicated Henry for attempting to oppose and reduce the power
of the church
Henry went into a fit of temper where he raved and ranted against Becket asking why no one would rid him of Becket
December: Four knights took Henry at his word and travelled to England to deal with Becket
December 29: The four knights found Becket inside Canterbury Cathedral and killed him
1171 January 1 - King Henry is told of the murder of Becket
1172 Richard was invested with the duchy of Poitiers
1173 February 21: Thomas Becket was canonised by Pope Alexander III
English Barons rebel against King Henry. Henry argues with all of his sons
Henry begins his notorious affair with Rosamund Clifford - 'Fair Rosamund'.
Queen Eleanor plots against Henry involving her sons in the disputes leading to the younger Henry launching the Revolt of
Henry (the Young King), Geoffrey joined Richard in Paris in an effort to rise up against their father
King Henry orders the arrest of his wife and Eleanor was treated as a prisoner for the next 15 years,
1174 July 7 Whipping of Henry II:
1179 Richard took mighty fortress town of Taillebourg in just two weeks due to his skills in siege warfare
1179 Richard argued with his brothers and joined his father King Henry II to subdue Henry the Young King, Geoffrey and the
1183 June: Henry the Young King died of dysentery and Richard became heir to the throne of England
1186 July: Geoffrey, son of Henry II dies in a tournament
1187 The capture of Jerusalem by Saladin, the sultan of Egypt
1187 November: Richard takes the Cross as did King Philip Augustus of France and the German emperor, Frederick Barbarossa
1189 John was married to Avisa, daughter and heiress of William Fitz Robert, 2nd Earl of Gloucester in 1189 but the marriage
1189 July 6 Death of Henry II, Richard I accedes to the English throne.
1189 Queen Eleanor was freed from prison and was to reign until Richard arrived from France
1189 Sep 3 - Richard was crowned in Westminster Abbey
1189 Dec 11 - Richard began planning his Crusade by selling mansions and castles
1189 King Richard gives John the titles of Count of Mortain and Lord of Ireland and orders John to stay away from England for
the next three years.
1189 Richard names Arthur of Brittany ( the eldest son of his brother Geoffrey) as heir to the English throne
1190 Richard appoints Hugh, Bishop of Durham, and William de Mandeville, 3rd Earl of Essex, as regents.
1190 July 4 - Richard embarks on the Third Crusade first stopping at Sicily
1190 Richard's brother John, furious at his brother's choice of regents starts to plot against Richard
1190 - 1194 John attempts to overthrow William Longchamp, the Bishop of Ely and take the throne of England.
During this period the legend of Robin Hood is started
1191 May 6: Richard sails to Cyprus
1191 May 12: Married Queen Berengaria of Navarre first-born daughter of King Sancho VI of Navarre at Limassol. They had no
1191 June 1: Richard gains control of Cypress
1191 Jun 6 Richard arrived at Tyre and attacked Acre
1191 July 11: Richard gains control of Tyre
1191 July: Richard recovers the city of Acre from the Saracens
1191 - 1192 King Richard remained for longer in the Holy Land than the other leaders.
1192 Sep 2 - Richard and Saladin finally concluded a truce
1192 King Richard on his return from the Holy Land was shipwrecked off the coast of the Adriatic
1192 Dec Richard is captured by Duke Leopold of Austria whilst returning from the Crusades
1194 February 4, 1194 The ransom was paid and Richard was finally released
1194 During his absence, John had come close to seizing the throne but Richard forgave him, and even named him as his heir
1199 Apr 6 - Death of Richard I, King John accedes to the English throne
1199 May 27, 1199: The coronation of King John
1200 Aug 24 - King John married Isabelle of Angouleme
1202 April 28: John was declared a rebel and forfeits the lands of Aquitaine, Poitou and Anjou to King Philippe of France
1203 April 3: John was involved in the murder of Arthur
1205 John became involved in a dispute with Pope Innocent III
1209 King John excommunicated by Pope Innocent III
1211 John quashes a Welsh rebellion
1212 King John imposes taxes on the Barons in his attempts to regain the lost lands of Aquitaine, Poitou and Anjou
1214 July 27 - Defeat at the Battle of Bouvines: King John was forced to accept an unfavourable peace with France
1215 June 15, Magna Carta: The English barons forced John to sign the Great Charter
1215 - 1217 First Barons War: The rebel barons support the son of the king of France, Prince Louis
1216 May 21, Louis invades England and marches to London, John escapes to Winchester
June 14 Louis captures Winchester and then conquers over half the kingdom
July 25 Siege of Dover Castle: Louis fails to capture the castle
Oct 19, King John dies at Newark and is was buried in Worcester Cathedral
Oct 28, The barons turn against Louis and give their support to the nine year old son of John who then became King Henry
III of England
1219 William Marshal died and Hubert de Burgh took control of England
1227 King Henry took control of England and removed Hubert de Burgh from power replacing him with Bishop of Winchester -
Peter des Roches
1234 The English barons rebelled against King Henry and his French advisors and forced the expulsion of Peter des Roches
1236 Henry married Eleanor of Provence
1237 Border between Scotland and England established by the Treaty of York
1256 Welsh revolt: Llewelyn ap Gruffydd declared himself ruler of North Wales and rebelled against English control.
1257 King Henry and his son Edward quash the Welsh rebellion
1258 Provisions of Oxford: Seven barons led by Simon de Montfort forced Henry to agree to the Provisions of Oxford which
abolished the absolutist Anglo-Norman monarchy and gave power to a council of fifteen barons to govern England and a
1262 Henry obtained a papal bull exempting him from his agreements made at the Provisions of Oxford leading to Civil War
1263 Scotland defeats Norway at the Battle of Largs
1264 - 1265 Second Barons War the leading royalist was Prince Edward Longshanks (later Edward I of England) who was
opposed by barons led by Simon de Montfort
1264 May 14 - Simon de Montfort leads rebel English barons to defeat Henry III at the Battle of Lewes
1265 Battle of Evesham: Simon de Montfort is defeated and power restored to King Henry
1266 Scotland and Norway sign the Treaty of Perth under which Scottish control of the Western Isles is acknowledged
1271 Nov 16 Henry III (b.1207), king of England (1216-71), died.
1272 Nov 16 King Henry III died
1272 Edward I accedes to the English throne
1274 Aug 19 The coronation of Edward I
1277 England annexes Wales a state of affairs which lasted until 1283
1278 Edward commissioned the building of four major castles in Wales - Flint, Rhuddlan, Builth and Aberystwyth
1279 Statute of Mortmain
1282 English conquest of Wales
1282 Edward commissioned building of Caernarfon, Conwy, Harlech and Beaumaris castles in Wales as part of his strategy to
1284 Prince Edward was the first English prince to hold the title of the Prince of Wales
1284 The Statute of Rhuddlan: Wales became incorporated into England
1290 Queen Eleanor died and King Edward was distraught.
1292 John Balliol was crowned King of Scotland at Scone
1296 April: Balliol formally renounced his homage to Edward. Edward retaliated by invading and sacking Berwick.
The Battle of Dunbar followed and Edinburgh Castle was captured.
July 10 John de Balliol, King of Scots abdicated
1296 Stone of Scone: King Edward had the sacred Stone of Scone, removed to London and placed in Coronation Chair in
1296 The Scottish Rebellion and William Wallace ( now known as Braveheart ) led the Scots.
1297 William Wallace and the Scots defeat the English at the Battle of Stirling Bridge
1298 The Battle of Falkirk : William Wallace was defeated by King Edward. Wallace escaped but was later captured
1299 Sep: King Edward married Marguerite of France daughter of King Philippe III of France (Phillip the Bold)
1300 King Edward I chose Piers Gaveston as a suitable companion to Prince Edward
1305 William Wallace was tried and executed in London. The Scots were still not subdued
1306 Robert the Bruce rebelled and crowned king of Scotland. King Edward led another army to Scotland. He died in en-route.
1307 Jul 7 Edward I (Longshanks) died.
1307 Edward II ascended throne and had his former tutor, Piers Gaston, brought back to England and made him the Earl of
1308 January 25: King Edward II married Isabella of France
1311 The power of the decadent King was curbed by the Barons and the Parliamnet
1312 English barons, headed by the king's cousin Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, went to war against King Edward II and Piers
1312 19 June 1312: Piers Gaveston was murdered.
1314 Robert the Bruce was laying siege to Stirling Castle
1314 June 1314: Edward led an army into Scotland to relieve Stirling Castle
1314 June 24: Battle of Bannockburn. King Edward II was defeated by Robert the Bruce
1318 Hugh the younger Despenser replaced the role of Piers Gaveston. Edward gave him the title of the Earl of Gloucester
1321 Parliament, led by Thomas of Lancaster, had Hugh le Despenser and his son banished.
1322 War with the Barons: Edward recalled the Despensers from exile, and defeated Lancaster at Boroughbridge.
1322 - 1327 The Despensers effectively ruled England
1325 Queen Isabella went to France to negotiate a solution to the disputes. Her eldest son, Edward of Windsor accompanied her.
1325 Queen Isabella formed a liaison with Roger Mortimer and plotted against the decadent Edward and was determined to expel
1326 4 September 1326: Isabella landed in Essex accompanied by Roger Mortimer and her son Edward
1326 October 2 : King Edward fled from London who supported Isabella
1326 November 16: King Edward was and imprisoned in Monmouth Castle
1327 Jan Edward III usurps the English throne
1327 Feb 1 The coronation of Prince Edward
1327 April 3: The deposed Edward was imprisoned in Berkeley Castle
1327 King Edward II died on September 21, 1327 where he suffered a terrible death
1328 England recognises Scotland's independence in the Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton
1330 King Edward seized control of the English court, overthrowing Mortimer, who was executed, and removing Queen Isabella
1333 Battle of Halidon Hill: King Edward III defeated the Scots
1338 Edward III claims the throne of France, Start of the Hundred Years' War
1340 January 26: Edward had a claim to the French throne and declared himself king of France
1346 Aug 26 Battle of Crecy
1347 King Edward III founded the Order of the Garter as "a society, fellowship and college of knights."
1348 The Black Death first arrives in England and ultimately kills c. one third of the population
1356 The Battle of Poitiers: The Black Prince led England to the great victory at the Battle of Poitiers
1360 The Treaty of Bretigny: The English were given a three million crown ransom for the release of the captured French king,
1369 Queen Philippa died in 1369
1369 King Edward took Alice Perrers as his mistress
1376 June 8: Edward, the Black Prince died.
1376 The "Good Parliament": Parliament criticised Edward's councillors, including family members of Alice Perrers
1377 June 21, Death of Edward III, his Grandson Richard II accedes to the English throne
1380 Henry married Mary de Bohun; they had two daughters and four sons.
1381 Peasants' Revolt of 1381
1392 Great Act of Praemunire
1399 King Richard II banished Henry Bolingbroke to France for ten years and took his lands
1399 Henry Bolingbroke landed in Yorkshire with an army provided by the King of France
1399 King Richard was captured, forced to abdicate and conceded the crown to his cousin - Henry of Lancaster ( Henry
1400 February 14, 1400: King Richard II died - believed murdered in Pontefract Castle
1400 Henry quashed the Welsh rebellion led by Owain Glyndwr who had declared himself Prince of Wales with the help of
1403 Feb 7, Henry IV married Joanna of Navarre (c. 1370-1437) - They had no children
1403 July 21, Battle of Shrewsbury
1405 King Henry IV suffered from an unnamed illness - some believe leprosy, and suffered recurring illnesses up to his death
1410 The health of King Henry IV was so bad that his son, Prince Hal, took over many of his kingly duties
1413 March 20 Death of Henry IV, Henry V accedes to the English throne
1415 Southampton Plot: Henry quashed the Southampton plot which was in favour of Mortimer
1415 Aug 13 King Henry V of England took his army across the English Channel and laid siege on the French port of Harfleur.,
1415 Oct 25 Battle of Agincourt, France. Edward (b.1373), duke of York, died at the Battle of Agincourt.
1419 An English army under Henry V captured the duchy of Normandy.
1420 May 21 Charles VI of France signed Treaty of Troyes. It recognized all territorial gains of King Henry V,
gave Henry daughter of Charles, Catherine of Valois, in marriage, and acknowledged Henry as the legitimate heir to the
1420 Treaty of Troyes: Henry was recognised by the French in the Treaty of Troyes as heir to the French throne.
1420 June 2, Henry married Catherine of Valois, the daughter of King Charles VI, thus cementing the Treaty of Troyes
1420 Dec 1 Henry V, King of England and de facto ruler of France, entered Paris.
1422 Aug 31 Henry V died. Henry VI accedes to the English and French thrones
1423 Sep 23 - English nobles swore loyalty to the young Henry VI.
1429 April 29 Siege of Orleans: The English had laid siege to Orleans in France. Joan of Arc gains victory over the English
1429 Nov 6, coronation of Henry VI
1429 Catherine of Valois secretly married a Welsh courtier called Owen Tudor after the death of King Henry V
1430 May 23 - Joan of Arc was captured by the English
1431 Jan 9 The trial of Joan of Arc started at Rouen
1431 May 30 The execution of Joan of Arc who was burnt at the stake
1431 December 16, Henry was proclaimed King of France at Notre Dame in Paris on December 16, 1431
1437 His mother, Catherine of Valois, died and Henry took power of England
1445 April 23, Henry VI married Margaret of Anjou
1453 King Henry VI had a mental breakdown
1453 October 13, 1453: Edward of Westminster, Prince of Wales (1453-1471) was born
1450 The Duchy of Aquitaine and Normandy were lost, leaving Calais as England's only remaining territory in France
1450 Jack Cade led a rebellion in Kent. 20,000 peasants joined the revolt protesting against the King the losses in France and
1454 Edward of Westminster was invested as Prince of Wales
1454 Richard, Duke of York was named regent as Protector of the Realm and started pressing his claim to the throne
1455 King Henry VI made a temporary recovery form his illness and his strong wife drove Richard, Duke of York from court
1455 May 22, 1455: The First Battle of St Albans was the start of Civil war in England called the Wars of the Roses
1460 July 10, Battle of Northampton, Yorkist army under Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick ( the Kingmaker ) captured King
1460 King Henry VI again suffered a bout of madness and Richard Duke of York was again appointed Regent of England
1460 Oct Act of Accord: Richard, Duke of York was named as successor to the throne, disinheriting Henry's six year old son
1460 Battle of Wakefield: Richard defeated by the Lancastrian army. Richard was killed in the battle.
1461 March 4: Edward of York was declared King Edward IV in London
1465 - Henry VI imprisoned by Edward IV
1466 - Warwick's quarrels with Edward IV begin; forms alliance with Louis XI
1468 Last great acquisition of territory by Scotland when Orkney and Shetland come under Scottish control
1470 - Warwick turns Lancastrian: he defeats Edward IV and restores Henry VI to his throne in October
1470 A rebellion led by Warwick and Clarence failed and they were forced to flee to France where they made an alliance with
Margaret of Anjou
1470 The French support an English invasion led by Margaret, Warwick and Clarence.
1470 King Edward IV was forced to flee when Warwick's brother, John Neville changed to the Lancastrian side
1470 3 October 1470, Readeption of Henry VI: Henry VI was briefly restored to the throne of England
1470 December 1470: Prince Edward was married to Anne Neville, Warwick's younger daughter
1471 March: King Edward IV lands with an invasion force in England
1471 Battle of Barnet -14 April: King Edward IV wins the battle and Warwick is killed.
1471 Henry VI is murdered and Edward IV is restored to the English throne
1471 King Henry VI is imprisoned in the Tower of London
1471 May 4 Battle of Tewkesbury: King Edward IV wins a decisive victory and the Lancastrian male line are virtually
1471 May: Queen Margaret and her daughter-in-law, Anne Neville, are taken as prisoners by King Edward IV
1471 May 22, death of King Henry VI at the Tower of London.
1472 July 12, 1472: Richard married Anne Neville who was the younger daughter of Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick and Anne
1475 - Edward IV invades France; Peace of Piequigny between England and France
1476 King Edward IV, a notorious womaniser, started his affair with Jane Shore, his most famous mistress
1478 February 18, Edward's brother, the Duke of Clarence, imprisoned in the Tower of London for treason.
1482 Richard recaptured Berwick-upon-Tweed from the Scots
1483 April 9 Death of Edward IV, Edward V accedes throne. However, in June Edward V is declared illegitimate and disappears.
1483 June 25 1483: Parliament declared the two little princes illegitimate and, as next in line to the throne, their uncle and
Protector, Richard, Duke of Gloucester, was declared the true King. The two little princes were never seen again
1483 26 June 1483: Richard, Duke of Gloucester was declared King Richard III
1483 July 6, 1483: Richard was crowned at Westminster Abbey.
1484 March 16 1484: Anne Neville, the wife of King Richard III died of tuberculosis
1484 April 9 Edward of Middleham, only son of King Richard III of England died suddenly, cause unknown
1484 - Caxton prints Morte D'Arthur,
1485 Aug 22, B. of Bosworth Field ends Yorkist reign of Richard III and ushers in Tudor reign over England, with reign of
1486 - Henry VII (Tudor) married Elizabeth of York uniting houses of York and Lancaster.
1487 B. of Stoke is fought between Henry VII and Lambert Simnel a Yorkist claimant to the throne. Last battle of Wars of the
1496 - Henry VII joins the Holy League; commercial treaty between England and Netherlands.
1502 - Margaret, daughter of Henry VII, marries James IV of Scotland.
1509 Henry VIII of England crowned and married to Catherine of Aragon
1513 - B. of Flodden Field (fought at Flodden Edge, Northumberland) Scots defeated by English under James IV of Scotland is
1515 - Thomas Wolsey, Archbisop of York, is made Lord Chancellor of England and Cardinal
1517 - Protestant Reformation begins; Martin Luther nails his "95 Theses"
1520 - Field of Cloth of Gold: Francois I of France meets Henry VIII but fails to gain support against Holy Roman Emperor
1521 Lutheran writings begin to circulate in England.
1521 - Henry VIII receives the title "Defender of the Faith" from Pope Leo X for his opposition to Luther
1525 Henry VIII seeks an annulment of his marriage, which is refused.
1526 Cardinal Wolsey orders the burning of Lutheran books.
1529 - Henry VIII dismisses Thomas Wolsey for failing to obtain his divorce from Catherine. Thomas More appointed
Henry VIII summons "Reformation Parliament" and begins to cut ties with Church and declares himself head of English
1530 - Thomas Wolsey dies
1532 - Sir Thomas More resigns over the question of Henry VIII's divorce
1533 - 25th January - Henry marries Anne Boleyn
1 June - Anne Boleyn's Coronation
1 July - Henry VIII is excommunicated
7th September - Elizabeth is born
10 September - Elizabeth is given a magnificent christening at Greenwich
25 November - Henry Fitzroy, Henry VIII's illegitimate son, married Mary Howard
1534 - 16 March - Final severance of England from Rome Act of Supremacy passed
11 May - Henry VIII makes peace with Scotland
25 September - Pope Clement VII dies. Pope Paul III succeeds
1535 - 6th June - Thomas More is executed, aged 57. first Bible printed in English is dedicated to Henry VIII, but is printed
1536 - 7 January - Death of Catherine of Aragon
29 January - Anne Boleyn gives birth to a still-born son
19 May - Execution of Anne Boleyn
30 May - Henry marries Jane Seymour
1 July - Both Mary and Elizabeth are declared illegitimate by Parliament
12 July - Erasmus dies in Freiburg, aged 69
22 July - Death of Henry Fitzroy
6 October -William Tyndale is condemned for heresy at Vilvorde Castle near Brussels and strangled
9 October - Beginning of the Pilgrimage of Grace
Dissolution of the monasteries
1537 - 12 October - The birth of Prince Edward, the "boy King" Edward VI
15 October - Edward VI is christened
24 October - Death of Jane Seymour, Edward's mother
1538 - James V of Scotland marries the French Mary of Guise. Execution of Henry Pole
1539 - Treaty of Toledo, ends conflict between Francis I and Charles V
Dissolution of Glastonbury Abbey; buildings torched and looted by king's men;
Abbot Richard Whiting is executed by hanging atop Glastonbury Tor.
1540 - 6 January - Henry marries Anne of Cleves. The marriage is soon annulled
28 July - Henry VIII marries Catherine Howard, Anne Boleyn's cousin. Thomas Cromwell is executed
1541 - Henry VIII assumes title of King of Ireland, and "Head of the Church in Ireland"
18 October - Death of Henry VIII's sister, Margaret Tudor
9 November - Katherine Howard is sent to the Tower of London
1542 - 13th February - Catherine Howard is executed on charges of adultery
25th November - Battle of Soloway: English victory over invading Scottish Army
8 December - Birth of Mary, soon to be Mary, Queen of Scots
14 December - James V of Scotland dies
1543 - Jul 1 England and Scotland signed the peace of Greenwich.
12 July - Henry VIII marries Catherine Parr
20 November - Hans Holbein dies
alliance between Henry and Charles V (Holy Roman Emperor) against Scotland and France
Mary, Queen of Scots, goes to live in France, First burning of Protestants by the Spanish Inquisition
1544 - War with France. Treaty of Crespy-en-Valois, ending two year conflict between Charles V and Francis I
1545 - Council of Trent opens in an attempt to meet the challenge to Catholicism posed by the new Protestant religion
Henry VIII's flag ship, The Mary Rose, sinks just off the coast of Portsmouth
1546 - 18 February - Martin Luther dies where he was born, at Eisleben, aged 63
7 June - Peace of Ardres, ending two years of conflict between Henry VIII and Francis I
1547 - 28 January - The death of Henry VIII, aged 55.
20 February - Edward is crowned King of England age of only nine. Duke of Somerset, becomes protector of England
3 March - Francis I dies aged 52
1548 - 1 April - Sigismund I of Poland dies, aged 81. Succeeded by Sigismund II
5 September - Katherine Parr dies
1549 - 20 March - Execution of Thomas Seymour, Edward Seymour's brother, for treason.
His execution brings disgrace upon Edward Seymour, and he is replaced as Protector by John Dudley
War with France. Kett's rebellion
Act of Uniformity - Introduction of uniform Protestant service in England based on Edward VI's Book of Common Prayer
Prayer Book rebellion in south-west England
1550 - Treaty of Boulogne
4 June - Robert Dudley married Amy Robsart. Princess Elizabeth was among the guests
Fall of Duke of Somerset:; Duke of Northumberland succeeds as Protector
1551 - Renewal of war between France and Charles V
Archbishop Cranmer publishes Forty-two Articles of religion
1552 - 22 January - Execution of Edward Seymour, Duke of Somerset
1553 Act Against Sectaries 1553
21 May - The arranged marriage of Lady Jane Grey and Guildford Dudley took place
6 July - Death Edward VI
10 July - Lady Jane Grey was proclaimed Queen her reign lasts nine day
20 July - Mary Tudor proclaimed Queen
3 August - Mary rode in triumph into London, her half -sister Elizabeth with her
30 October - Coronation of Mary I
Restoration of Roman Catholic bishops in England
1554 Thomas Wyatt's rebellion
12 February - Execution of Lady Jane Grey and her husband Guildford Dudley
18 March - Elizabeth is sent to the Tower for supposed complicity with Wyatt and his followers
11 April - Execution of Sir Thomas Wyatt
19 May - Elizabeth is taken from the Tower to be closely confined at Woodstock Manor, Oxfordshire
25 July - Queen Mary marries Philip II
1555 - England returns to Roman Catholicism: Protestants are persecuted and about 300, including Cranmer, are burned at the
The famous burning of Protestants by Mary I begins
Elizabeth is released from Woodstock after a year's captivity, and allowed to return to her childhood home of Hatfield
23 March - Pope Julius III dies
30 April - Pope Marcellus dies, aged 52, succeeded by Pope Paul IV
16 October - Bishops Hugh Latimer and Nicholas Ridley are burned at the stake at Oxford
25 Oct - Charles V hands over his imperial position to his brother Ferdinand, and his sovereignty of Netherlands to his son,
1556 - 21 March - Archbishop Thomas Cranmer is burned at the stake
1557 - 7 July - Mary Tudor declares war on France in support of her husband
10 August - Battle of St Quintin: Spanish and English troops in alliance defeat the French
1558 - 7 January - England's last dominion in France, Calais, is lost to the French
24 April - Mary Queen of Scots marries Francis, heir to the French throne
21 September - Charles V dies, aged 58
17 November - Queen Mary dies. Elizabeth becomes Queen Repeal of Catholic legislation in England
14 December - Mary I is buried at Westminster
1559 - 15 January - Coronation of Elizabeth I
3 April - The Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis which brings peace with France
2 May - John Knox returns to Scotland
8 May - Elizabeth's Acts of Supremacy and Uniformity are passed, implementing the Elizabethan religious Settlement
10 May - John Knox incites the Scottish Lords of the Congregation to rise against the regency of Mary Queen of Scots
They seize Edinburgh, destroy religious houses, and subsequently approach Elizabeth I for aid in their cause
20 June - Henry II is seriously injured in a jousting tournament
10 July - Henry II dies. His son, Francis, becomes King. Mary Queen of Scots declares herself Queen of England
18 August - Pope Paul IV dies aged 83
21 October - Scottish Lords depose Mary of Guise, for not preventing the French fortifying Leith
18 December - Elizabeth I sends aid to the Scottish Lords by land and sea
1560 - 6 July - Peace with Scotland in Treaty of Edinburgh. Mary's claims to throne of England annulled, Mary refuses to ratify
8 September - Robert Dudley's wife, Amy Dudley (or Robsart as she is also known) is found dead in mysterious
1561 - 19 August - Mary, Queen of Scots returns to Scotland
O'Neill's rebellion in Ireland
1562- 1 March - The Duc de Guise orders a massacre of Huguenots at Vassay, which begins the wars of religion in France
26 May - Shane O' Neill leads a second rebellion in Ireland
22 September - Elizabeth signs the Treaty of Hampton Court, which gives assistance to the French Huguenots
October - Elizabeth is seriously ill with small pox
1563 - Thirty Nine Articles are issued, which define the Anglican faith.
John Foxe's "Acts and Monuments" or as it is better known, "Book of Martyrs," is published. Plague in London
1564 - 11 Apr - Peace of Troyes : between England and France. England renounces claim to Calais, French pay 222,000 crowns
1565 - 29 July - Mary Queen of Scots marries Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley
Ashley, Elizabeth's old governess, dies. Sir John Hawkins introduces Tobacco to England
1566 - 9 March -The murder of David Rizzio by Darnley and his friends
19 June - James VI (and later I of England) is born
10 November - Robert Devereux, the future Earl of Essex
1567 - 10 February - Darnley is murdered at Kirk O Field, Scotland
24 April - Mary Queen of Cots is "abducted" by James Hepburn, Earl of Bothwell
15 May Mary, Queen of Scots, marries James Hepburn, Earl of Bothwell, after his marriage is annulled
2 June, Shane O Neill, Earl of Tyrone, is assassinated
24 July - Mary is forced to abdicate. Mary's son, James, is proclaimed King of Scotland
29 September - Huguenot conspiracy of Meaux to capture Charles IX provokes the second phase of the wars of religion in
6 October - Margaret of Parma resigns the regency of the Netherlands. The Duke of Alva takes complete command
1568 - 23 March - Treaty of Longjumean ends second phase of French wars of religion
2 May - Mary Queen of Scots escapes from Lochleven
16 May - Mary takes refuge in England. But her relief is short lived, as she is imprisoned
23 May - William of Orange defeats a Spanish force at Heiligerlee. This marks the beginning of the Revolt of the
30 September - Eric XIV is depose as he has shown signs of mental illness, and replaced by his brother John III
Elizabeth seizes the treasure of a Spanish fleet driven into Plymouth
1569 - 9 November - The Northern Rebellion against Elizabeth breaks out
1570 - 23 Jan - James Stewart, Earl of Moray, (Mary Queen of Scots' half brother and Regent in Scotland for her son) is
20 February - Northern Rebellion finally defeated completely
25 February - Elizabeth is excommunicated by the Pope. (The Papal Bull)
8 August - The Peace of Germain-en-Laye ends the third period of the French wars of religion
Potato is introduced to Europe from Spanish America
1571 - Act Prohibiting Papal Bulls from Rome, Treasons Act 1571
23 January - The Royal exchange is opened
February 8, 1587 Execution of Mary, Queen of Scots at Fotheringay Castle in Northamptonshire
August 8, 1588 Spanish Armada destroyed
The Ridolfi plot to assassinate Elizabeth
1572 - 16 January - Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk is tried for treason for conspiracy in the Ridolfi Plot
2 June - Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk becomes the first nobleman of Elizabeth's reign to be executed for treason
22-24 Aug - Massacre of St Bartholomew's, 6,000 French Protestants murdered. Provokes fourth phase of French wars of
1573 Walsingham principal secretary for Elizabeth I. He founded espionage network to protect queen and served her until 1590.
1573 - 11 May - Poland elects its first King, choosing Henri of Valois. The election was paid for by Catherine de Medici
6 July - Peace of Boluogne, ends fourth phase of the French wars of religion
1574 - 23 February - fifth period of the French wars of religion breaks out
Richard Burbage opens the first Theater in England, simply called "The Theater"
1575 - 14 November - Elizabeth refuses the sovereignty of the Netherlands
Elizabeth visits Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, at Kenilworth, amidst spectacular entertainments
1576 - 6 May - Peace of Monsieur ends fifth phase of the French wars of religion
12 October - Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian II dies, aged 49, and is succeeded by his son, Rudolf
1577 - Alliance between England and Netherlands; Francis Drake sails around the world (to 1580)
17 August - The Peace of Bergerac ends the sixth phase of the French Wars of Religion
13 December - Sir Francis Drake sets out on the first English voyage around the world
1578 - 12 March - James VI takes over the reigns of government in Scotland, the Earl of Morton resigning the Regency
4 August - Sebastian I of Portugal is killed in a battle in north-west Africa. He is succeeded by Cardinal Henry
1 October - Don John of Austria dies of fever
1579 - Rebellion in Ireland, Simier comes to England in an attempt to negotiate a marriage between Elizabeth and Alencon
1580 - 5 June - Proclamation to restrict the growth of London
25 August - Philip of Spain invades Portugal, defeat the Portuguese army, and Philip is proclaimed King of Portugal as
26 September - Drake enters Plymouth Harbor after having circumnavigated the globe
26 November - Peace of Fleix ends seventh phase of the French wars of religion
Jesuit missionaries arrive in England
1581 - 4 April - Francis Drake is knighted
Francis, Duke of Alencon, himself comes to England to further the negotioations for the Queen's hand in marriage
7-11 November - Marriage treaty is signed between Elizabeth and Alencon
1 December - English Jesuit Edmund Campion is executed
1582 - 22 August - James VI is captured by the English party while out hunting, and kept in captivity until June 1583
5 October - Gregorian Calendar is adopted by Catholic countries, and the 5 of October becomes the 15th
Plague in London
1583 - The Irish rebellion is defeated
20 December - John Somerville is executed for a plot to assassinate Elizabeth
1584 - 10 July - Francis Throgmorton is executed for conspiracy for a Spanish invasion of England
Bond of association is formed, subjects of Queen pledge allegiance to her, and promise to avenge her murder if it takes place
Sir Walter Raleigh sales to Virginia
The Spanish Ambassador, Mendoza, is expelled from England
1585 - 7 June - First English colony in America is established at Roanoke Island, Virginia
29 June - Elizabeth again refuses sovereignty of the Netherlands
14 August - Elizabeth issues a declaration that she is taking the Netherlands under her protection
3 September - Treaty of Nonsuch
English expedition to Netherlands under the leadership of Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester. Start of the war with Spain as a
1586 - Expedition of Sir Francis Drake to the West Indies; Conspiracy against Elizabeth I involving Mary Queen of Scots
1 July - Treaty of Berwick, in which Elizabeth I and James VI forma league of amity
17 July - Babington plot to assassinate Elizabeth and place Mary of Scots, on the throne is revealed by Francis Walsingham
20 September - Anthony Babington and fellow conspirators are executed
22 September - The battle of Zutphen
11-14 October - The trial of Mary, Queen of Scots, for her supposed complicity in the Babington plot
17 October - Sir Philip Sidney dies of wounds received in the battle
25 October - Sentence is pronounced against Mary Queen of Scots
1587 - 1 February - Elizabeth signs the death warrant of Mary, Queen of Scots
8 February - Execution of Mary, Queen of Scots at Fotheringay
19 April - English attack Spanish fleet triumphantly at Cadiz
18 August - First English child to be born in North America, Virginia Dare, is born on Roanoke Island
1588 August 8 Defeat of the Spanish Armada
4 September - Death of Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester
1589 - 5 January - Death of Catherine de Medici
13 April - Francis Drake and Sir John Norris lead a campaign to Portugal
31 July - Henry III of France is murdered
1590 - 6 April - Death of Sir Francis Walsingham
1591 - Essex leads the English expedition to Brittany in an attempt to aid Henry IV, Increased severity against Recusants
20 November - Death of Sir Christopher Hatton
Trinity College is founded by Queen Elizabeth
1592 - Plague in London, The Rose Theater is opened
1593 Act Against Papists 1593
Plague in London
1 June - Christopher Marlowe is killed
Theaters are temporarily closed
1594 - Beginning of a series of bad harvests, Cardinal William Allen dies, Frobisher dies
1595 - 2 February - Execution of English Jesuit, Robert Southwell
Raleigh's voyage to Guiana
23 July - Spanish land in Cornwall and burn Penzance and Mousehole
1596 - Jul 1 An English fleet under the Earl of Essex, Lord Howard of Effingham and Francis Vere captured and sacked Cadiz,
Death of Sir Francis Drake
1597 - Irish rebellion under Hugh O'Neill, Earl of Tyrone (finally put down 1601)
Unsuccessful expedition against the Spanish under the leadership of Essex
Second Spanish Armada is defeated by bad weather
1598 - 15 April - Henry IV of France issues the Edict of Nantes which tolerates Protestants
4 August - Death of William Cecil
14 August - Irish forces defeat the English at the Yellow Ford on the Blackwater River
13 September - Deaths of Philip II of Spain . Succeeded by his son Philip III
End of the French Civil War
Publication of Love's Labour's Lost, the first play published under Shakespeare's name
1599 - Expedition to France led by Essex,
Essex is made Lord Lieutenant of Ireland and sent there. He returns without the Queen's consent and is imprisoned
Death of Edward Spencer
1599 - Sep 21 The Globe Theater had its first recorded performance.
1600 - English East India Company is founded
Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex tried for misdemeanors after his return from ireland and sentenced to lose his offices at
5 August - Gowrie Conspiracy in Scotland - James VI is seized by Lord Gowrie, but later rescued
1601 - Elizabethan Poor Law charges the parishes with providing for the needy; Essex attempts rebellion, and is executed
7-8 January - Essex Revolt against the Queen
19 February - Essex is tried for treason
25 February - Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex, is executed
20 November - Queen Elizabeth delivers her "Golden Speech"
A force of 3,000 Spaniards arrive in Ireland to aid the Irish rebellion
1602 - English Fleet capture Portuguese treasure ship, Epidemic of small pox
1603 - 24 March - Death of Elizabeth I. James VI of Scotland also becomes James I of England
Jul 17 Sir Walter Raleigh (1552-1618) was arrested, incarcerated in the Tower of London for 13 years
Plague in England
1604 - Hampton Court Conference: no relaxation by the Church towards Puritans; James bans Jesuits; England and Spain make
1605 Nov 5, Gunpowder plot uncovered, Guy Fawkes and other catholic associates attempted to blow up king, James I and
1607 - Parliament rejects proposals for union between England and Scotland;
May 13 English colonists founded a colony named Jamestown
1610 - Hudson Bay discovered
1611 - King James Bible is completed; English and Scottish Protestant colonists settle in Ulster
1614 - James I dissolves the "Addled Parliament" which has failed to pass any legislation
1617 Jan 6 Pocahontas, American Indian princess, attended a court masque with King James I and Queen Anne.
1618 - Thirty Years' War begins, lasts until 1648
1618 Execution of Sir Walter Raleigh
1620 Sep 16 The Pilgrims sailed from England on the Mayflower, finally settling at Plymouth, Mass.
1622 - James I dissolves Parliament for asserting its right to debate foreign affairs
1624 - Alliance between James I and France; Parliament votes for war against Spain; Virginia becomes crown colony
1625 March 27, Death of James VI of Scotland/James I of England
Charles I marries Henrietta Maria, sister of Louis XIII of France; dissolves Parliament which fails to vote him money
1626 - Parliament dismiss Villiers, 1st Duke Buckingham from command of English forces in Europe; Charles, furious, dismisses
1628 - Charles recalls Parliament; draws up Petition of Right which Charles reluctantly accepts. John Felton murders George
Villiers in Portsmouth.
1628 - Petition of Right; Charles I forced to accept Parliament's statement of civil rights in return for finances
1629 - Charles I dissolves Parliament and rules personally until 1640
1630 - England makes peace with France and Spain
1633 - William Laud appointed Archbishop of Canterbury.
1637 - Charles attempts to impose Anglican services on Presbyterian Church of Scotland, Jenny Geddes reacts starting a tumult
which leads to National Covenant.
1639 - First Bishops' War between Charles I and the Scottish Church; ends with Pacification of Dunse
1639 - 1640 War between England and Scotland, the Bishops' Wars
1640 - Charles recalls Parliament to raise funds: this was the Short Parliament, which was promptly dismissed by Charles.
October 26 - Charles forced to sign the Treaty of Ripon.
November - Charles again summons Parliament; this was the Long Parliament.
1641 - Triennial Act requires Parliament to be summoned every three years;
Star Chamber and High Commission abolished by Parliament;
Catholics in Ireland revolt; some 30,000 Protestants massacred; I
December - The Grand Remonstrance is presented to the King.
1642 - Charles I fails in attempt to arrest five members of Parliament
February 23 - Henrietta Maria goes to the Netherlands with Princess Mary and the crown jewels.
June 2 - The Nineteen Propositions rejected
The First English Civil War
July Charles I of England besieges the city of Kingston upon Hull in order to secure its arsenal.
22 August, Charles I of England raises his standard at Nottingham and the war commences
23 September, Battle of Powick Bridge.
23 October, Battle of Edgehill
12 November, Battle of Brentford.
13 November, Battle of Turnham Green
1643 - Solemn League and Covenant is signed by Parliament
19 January, Battle of Braddock Down
19 March, Battle of Hopton Heath
30 March, Battle of Seacroft Moor
16 May, Battle of Stratton
18 June, Battle of Chalgrove Field John Hampden killed in the skirmish
30 June, Battle of Adwalton Moor
5 July, Battle of Lansdowne (or Lansdown) fought near Bath.
13 July, Battle of Roundway Down fought near Devizes
20 September, First Battle of Newbury
11 October, Battle of Winceby
1644 - The Scots marched South and joined Parliament's army threatening York.
26 January, Battle of Nantwich
29 March, Battle of Cheriton
29 June, Battle of Cropredy Bridge
2 July, Battle of Marston Moor
27 October, Second Battle of Newbury
13 September, Second Battle of Aberdeen
1645 - Formation of Cromwell's New Model Army
9 May, Battle of Auldearn
16 June, Battle of Naseby
2 July, Battle of Alford
15 August, Battle of Kilsyth
13 September, Battle of Philiphaugh
24 September, Battle of Rowton Heath
Surrender of Leicester
October fear of Royalist attack in south Lincolnshire
Charles went to Welbeck, Nottinghamshire
17 December Siege of Hereford ended with the surrender of Royalist garrison.
1646 - 18 January, Siege of Dartmouth ended with the surrender of Royalist garrison.
3 February, Siege of Chester ended with the surrender of Royalist garrison after a 136 day siege.
16 February, Battle of Torrington victory for the New Model Army
10 March, Ralph Hopton surrenders the Royalist army at Tresillian bridge in Cornwall.
21 March, Battle of Stow-on-the-Wold the last pitched battle of the First Civil War is a victory for the New Model Army
13 April Siege of Exeter ended with the surrender of Royalist garrison.
5 May Charles surrendered to a Scottish army at Southwell, Nottinghamshire
6 May Newark fell to the Parliamenterians
24 June, Siege of Oxford ended with the surrender of Royalist garrison.
22 July, Siege of Worcester ended with the surrender of Royalist garrison.
27 July after a 65 day siege Wallingford Castle, The last English royalist stronghold, surrenders to Sir Thomas Fairfax.
1647 - Scots surrender Charles I to Parliament; he escapes to the Isle of Wright; makes secret treaty with Scots.
19 August Royalist garrison of Raglan Castle surrendered
31 August Montrose escaped from the Highlands
13 March Harlech Castle the last Royalist Stronghold surrendered to the Parliametry forces.
1648 - The Second English Civil War
8 May Battle of St. Fagans
16 May(?) - July 11 Siege of Pembroke
24 June Battle of Maidstone
13 June - August 28 Siege of Colchester
17 August - August 19 Battle of Preston
August 28 On the evening of the surrender of Colchester, Royalist Sir Charles Lucas and Sir George Lisle were shot
Dec - Pride's Purge, troops under Colonel Thomas Pride removed opponents of Cromwell from Parliament by force of arms
1649 - 20 January 1649, The trial of Charles I of England by the High Court of Justice begins
27 January 1649, The death warrant of Charles I of England is signed
30 January 1649, Charles I of England executed by beheading
5 February 1649, The eldest son of Charles I, Charles, proclaimed King of Scots in Edinburgh, Scotland
9 March 1649, Engager Duke of Hamilton, Royalist Earl of Holland, and Royalist Lord Capel were beheaded at
24 March 1649, The capitulation of Pontefract Castle which, even after the death of Charles I, remained loyal to Charles II
1650 - Charles II lands in Scotland; is proclaimed king.
Third English Civil War
1 December, Battle of Hieton, Scotland (skirmish)
3 September, Battle of Dunbar, Scotland
1651 - First Navigation Act, England gains virtual monopoly of foreign trade
1 January, Charles II crowned King of Scots at Scone, Scotland
20 July, Battle of Inverkeithing, Scotland
25 August, Battle of Wigan Lane (skirmish)
3 September, Charles II invades England and is defeated at Battle of Worcester;
16 October, Charles II landed in Normandy, France, after successfully fleeing England
Events after the English Civil War
1650-1660, English Interregnum
1649-1653, The first period of the Commonwealth of England
1653-1658, The Protectorate under Oliver Cromwell
1654 - Treaty of Westminster between England and Dutch Republic
1655 - England divided into 12 military districts by Cromwell; seizes Jamaica from Spain
1656 - War with Spain (until 1659)
1658-1659, The Protectorate under Richard Cromwell
1658, September 3 Death of Oliver Cromwell; succeeded as Lord Protector by son Richard;
Battle of the Dunes, England and France defeat Spain; England gains Dunkirk
1659 - Richard Cromwell forced to resign by the army; "Rump" Parliament restored
1659-1660, The second period of the Commonwealth of England
1660 - English Restoration and the return of King Charles II of England
July Richard Cromwell left England for France where he went by a variety of pseudonyms, including “John Clarke”
1660-1662, The trials and executions of the regicides of Charles I
Oct 16 John Cooke England’s solicitor-general during the 1649 trial of Charles 1, was hanged.
Oct England’s King Charles II enacted his first Declaration of Indulgence.
Nov 28 The London Royal Society formed.
1661 Jan 30, On 12th anniversary of beheading of Charles I, remains of Cromwell were posthumously executed.
Clarendon Code; "Cavalier" Parliament of Charles II passes series of repressive laws against Nonconformists;
English acquire Bombay
1662 Aug 24 An Act of Uniformity passed by Parliament.
1664 - England siezes New Amsterdam from the Dutch, change name to New York
1665 In London at least 68,000 people died of the plague this year.
1666 September 2 - September 6, The Great Fire of London ravages the city.
1667 - Dutch fleet defeats the English in Medway river; treaties of Breda among Netherlands, England, France, and Denmark
1668 - Triple Alliance of England, Netherlands, and Sweden against France
1670 - Secret Treaty of Dover between Charles II and Louis XIV to restore Roman Catholicism to England; Hudson's Bay
1671 English Protestants became alarmed when they learned that James, Duke of York, had converted to Catholicism.
1672 Mar 15 England’s King Charles II enacted a 3rd Declaration of Indulgence.
Third Anglo-Dutch war (until 1674); William III (of Orange) becomes ruler of Netherlands
1673 - Test Act aims to deprive English Roman Catholics and Nonconformists of public office
1674 - Treaty of Westminster between England and the Netherlands
1677 - William III, ruler of the Netherlands, marries Mary, daughter of James, Duke of York, heir to the English throne
1678 Titus Oates failed Catholic seminarian, and Israel Tonge concocted the Popish Plot.
Anthony Ashley Cooper, Earl of Shaftesbury formed County Party, later known as Whigs, to prevent James from
1679 - Mar King Charles II sent his brother James to the Netherlands for safety.
May 15 Earl of Shaftesbury introduced Exclusion Bill to Parliament proposing that James, the Catholic brother of King
Charles II, be permanently barred from the line of succession to the English throne.
May 27 England’s House of Lords passed the Habeas Corpus Act (have the body) to prevent false arrest and imprisonment.
King Charles adjourned Parliament before the final reading of Shaftesbury’s Exclusion Bill.
Charles II rejects petitions calling for new Parliament; petitioners become known as Whigs; their opponents (royalists) as
In England an autumn election produced a new House of Commons, but King Charles II declined to allow it assemble.
1681 - Whigs reintroduce Exclusion Bill; Charles II dissolves Parliament
1681 Jan 18 England's King Charles II suspended Parliament and set its next meeting for March in Oxford.
Apr 8 Charles II received 1st installment of a 5-million livre subsidy from King Louis of France. This provided him
independence from Parliament and he ruled without it until his death in 1685.
Oct 24 Earl of Shaftesbury (d.1683) accused of high treason in London. Earl had challenged the king on question of
1685 Feb 6 Charles II died and was succeeded by Catholic brother James II
rebellion by Charles II's illegitimate son, the Duke of Monmouth, against James II is put down
1686 - James II disregards Test Act; Roman Catholics appointed to public office
1687 - Apr 4 King James II ordered his Declaration of Indulgence read in church.
1688 Apr 27 King James II issued another Declaration of Indulgence
Jun 10 A male heir was born to Britain’s James II.
Jun 30 A jury proclaimed 7 English bishops not guilty of seditious libel against James II.
Oct 1 Seven British noblemen sent a letter to William of Orange inviting him to invade England and rescue country from
The Glorious Revolution replaces James II with William III
Nov 5 William of Orange landed in southern England and marched with his army nearly unopposed to London.
Dec 11 King James II attempted to flee London
Dec 28 William of Orange made a triumphant march into London
1689 Toleration Act grants freedom of worship to dissenters in England;
Grand Alliance of the League of Augsburg, England, and the Netherlands.
Catholic forces loyal to James II land in Ireland from France and lay siege to Londonderry
Apr 11 (OS) William III and Mary II were crowned as joint sovereigns of Britain.
Apr 21 (NS) William III and Mary II were crowned joint king and queen of England, Scotland and Ireland.
Dec 16 English Parliament adopted a Bill of Rights after Glorious Revolution. The Bill of Rights included a right to bear
William and Mary gave Royal Assent which represented end of the concept of divine right of kings. -bars Catholics from
1690 Jul 1 Battle of Boyne (in Ireland).
The 2nd Treatise on Government by John Locke was published
1691 - The Treaty of Limerick allows Catholics in Ireland to exercise their religion freely, but severe penal laws soon follow.
The French War begins
1692 - The Glencoe Massacre occurs
1694 - Death of Queen Mary; King William now rules alone. Foundation of the Bank of England.
Triennial Act sets the maximum duration of a parliament to three years
1695 - Lapse of the Licensing Act
1697 Sep 20 Treaty of Ryswick ended the War of the Grand Alliance (aka War of the League of Augsburg,1688-1697) .
1701 - The Act of Settlement settles the Royal Succession on the Protestant descendants of Sophia of Hanover.
King William forms a grand alliance between England, Holland and Austria to prevent the union of the Spanish and French
crowns. The War of the Spanish Succession breaks out in Europe over the vacant throne
1702 March 19, King William III dies and is succeeded by his sister-in-law Queen Anne.
1702 - Death of King William III in a riding accident. He is succeeded by his sister-in-law, Queen Anne.
England declares war on France as part of the War of the Spanish Succession
1704 Duke of Marlborough, defeat the French and Bavarians at the Battle of Blenheim.
Marlborough defeat the French at the Battle of Ramillies, and expel the French from the Netherlands.
August 4, British capture Gibraltar from
1706 The Treaty of Union is agreed, on July 22nd, between representatives of England's and Scotland's parliamemts
1707 - The Act of Union unites the kingdoms of England and Scotland and transfers the seat of Scottish Government to London
1708 London’s St. Paul’s Cathedral, designed by Sir Christopher Wren, was completed
Marlborough defeats the French at the Battle of Oudenarede.
Queen Anne vetoes a parliamentary bill to recognise the Scottish militia. This is the last time a bill is vetoed by the
1709 - Marlborough defeats the French at the Battle of Malplaquet
1710 - A Tory ministry is formed, under Harley, with the impeachment of Dr. Sacheverell and the fall of the Whig government
1713 - The Treaty of Utrecht is signed by Britain and France, thus concluding the War of the Spanish Succession
1714 Queen Anne dies and is succeeded by King George I; start of the Hanoverian dynasty
1715 - Jacobite Rebellion begins in Scotland with the aim of overthrowing the Hanovarian succession and placing the "Old
Pretender" James II's son - on the throne. The rebellion is easily defeated
1716 - The Septennial Act sets General Elections to be held every seven years.
Disarming Act attempts to secure the peace of the Scottish Highlands
1717 - Townshend is dismissed from government by George I, causing Walpole to resign.
The Whig party is split. Convocation is suspended
1718 Nov 22 British troops during a battle off the Virginia coast captured English pirate Edward Teach known as "Blackbeard"
1719 - Attempted Spanish invasion in support of Jacobites - defeated at Battle of Glen Shiel
1720 Collapse of the South Sea Company, the South Sea Bubble, results in a London stock market crash
1721 - Walpole returns to gov as First Lord of Treasury, remains in office until 1742, effectively becomes Britain's first Prime
1722 - Death of the Duke of Marlborough. The Jacobite 'Atterbury Plot' is hatched
1726 - First circulating library in Britain opens in Edinburgh. Jonathan Swift publishes his 'Gulliver's Travels'
1727 June 11, King George I dies and is succeeded by his son King George II
1729 - Alexander Pope publishes his ' Dunciad'
1730 - A split occurs between Walpole and Townshend
1732 - A royal charter is granted for the founding of Georgia in America
1733 - The 'Excise Crisis' occurs and Walpole is forced to abandon his plans to reorganise the customs and excise
1737 - Death of King George II's wife, Queen Caroline
1738 - John and Charles Wesley start the Methodist movement in Britain
1739 October 23, War of Jenkins' Ear - Prime Minister Robert Walpole declares war against Spain
1740 - Commencement of the War of Austrian Succession in Europe
1742 - Walpole resigns as Prime Minister
1743 - George II leads British troops into battle at Dettingen in Bavaria
War of Austrian Succession - open, but unofficial, hostilities between Britain and France
September 13, Britain signs the Treaty of Worms with Austria and Sardinia
1744 - Ministry of Pelham, French invasion attempt on southern England with Charles Stuart stopped by storms, France declares
1745 Britain and allies lose the Battle of Fontenoy in Flanders
Jacobite Rebellion in Scotland led by 'Bonnie Prince Charlie'
September 21, Scottish victory Battle of Prestonpans
1746 - April 16, Battle of Culloden effectively ends the Jacobite Rising
The Act of Proscription seeks to crush the Scottish clans, the kilt banned.
1748 - The Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle brings the War of Austrian Succession to a close
1749 Henry Fielding, novelist and magistrate, commissioned a half dozen constables known as the Bow Street Runners.
1751 - Death of Frederick, Prince of Wales. His son, Prince George, becomes heir to the throne
1752 - Adoption of the Gregorian Calendar in Britain
1753 - Parliament passes the Jewish Naturalization Bill
1754 - The ministry of Newcastle
1754 - 1763 -- French and Indian War in the North American English colonies.
1755 Jul 13 Edward Braddock, British general, died Following the July 9 battle at Fort Duquesne (Pittsburgh, Pa.).
Sep 8 British and 250 Indians defeated the French and their allied Indians at B. of Lake George, NY.
1756 - May 17 - Britain declared war on France, beginning French and Indian War. (The Seven Years' War)
Jun 20 In India rebels defeated the British army at Calcutta.
1757 - William Pitt becomes Prime Minister
Robert Clive wins the Battle of Plassey and secures the Indian province of Bengal for Britain.
Jul 26 Benjamin Franklin (51) arrived in London.
1758 Nov 25 British under Forbes captured Ft. Duquesne. George Washington participated in the campaign.
1759 Apr 23 British seized Basse-Terre and Guadeloupe in the Antilles from France.
Wolfe captures Quebec and expels the French from Canada
1760 - Death of King George II. He is succeeded by his grandson as George III
1762 - The Earl of Bute is appointed Prime Minister. He becomes very unpopular and employs a bodyguard
1763 - Peace of Paris ends the Seven Years' War. Grenville ministry.
1765 - Rockingham ministry. The American Stamp Act raises taxes in the colonies in an attempt to make their defence
1766 - Chatham ministry. Repeal of the American Stamp Act
1768 - Grafton ministry. The Middlesex Election Crisis occurs
1769 - James Watt patents the Steam Engine
1769-70 - Captain James Cook's first voyage to explore the Pacific
1770 - Lord North begins service as Prime Minister.
The Falkland Island Crisis occurs. Edmund Burke publishes his 'Thoughts on the Present Discontents'
1771 - The Encyclopedia Britannica is first published
1773 - Boston Tea Party'.
1774 - Parliament passes the Coercive Acts in retaliation for the 'Boston Tea Party'
1775 - American War of Independence begins when colonists fight British troops at Lexington.
Nov 13 American forces under Gen. Richard Montgomery captured Montreal.
1776 Jul 1 The British fleet anchored off Sandy Hook in New York Bay.
On 4th July, the American Declaration of Independence.
Edward Gibbons' publishes his 'Decline and Fall' and Adam Smith, his 'Wealth if Nations'
Oct 13 Benedict Arnold was defeated at Lake Champlain by the British, who then retreated to Canada for the winter.
1777 Jul 1 British troops departed from their base at the Bouquet river to head toward Ticonderoga, New York.
Dec 5 A British advance column met unexpected resistance at Germantown.
1779 Jul 16 American troops under Wayne captured Stony Point, NY
The rise of Wyvill's Association Movement
1780 - The Gordon Riots develop from a procession to petition parliament against the Catholic Relief Act
1781 - The Americans obtain a great victory of British troops at the surrender of Yorktown
1782 - Prime Minister Rockingham in his second ministry. Ireland obtains short-lived parliament
1783 - ministrypf Pitt the Younger. Britain recognizes American independence. Fox-North coalition established
1784 - Parliament passes the East India Act
1785 - Pitt's motion for Parliamentary Reform is defeated, John Adams, the new US ambassador to Britain
1786 - The Eden commercial treaty with France is drawn up
1787 English ships transported some 38,000 slaves this year.
1788 - George III suffers first attack of 'madness' (caused by porphyria), First European settlement established in Australia at
1789 - Outbreak of the French Revolution
May 12 William Wilberforce laid out his case for the abolition of slavery to the House of Commons.
1790 - Edmund Burke publishes his 'Reflections on the Revolution in France'
1791 - James Boswell publishes his 'Life of Johnson' an Thomas Paine, his 'Rights of Man'
1792 - Coal gas is used for lighting for the first time. Mary Wollstonecraft publishes her 'Vindication of the Rights of Women'
In England consumers began an organized boycott against West Indian sugar.
1793 - War between Britain and France. The voluntary Board of Agriculture is set up. Commercial depression throughout Britain
1795 - The 'Speenhamland' system of outdoor relief is adopted, making wages up to equal the cost of subsistence
1796 - Vaccination against smallpox is introduced
1798 B. of Nile, Introduction of a tax of ten percent on incomes over £200. T.R. Malthus publishes his 'Essay on Population'
1799-1801 - Commercial boom in Britain
1799 - Trade Unions are suppressed. Napoleon is appointed First Consul in France
1799 May 4 British forces defeated the sultan of Mysore at the Battle of Seringapatam.
Jul 11 An Anglo-Turkish armada bombarded Napoleon Bonaparte’s troops in Alexandria Egypt. The attack was ineffective.
Jul 17 Ottoman forces, supported by the British, captured Aboukir, Egypt from the French.
1800 - Act of Union with Ireland unites Parliaments of England and Ireland
1801 - Close of Pitt the Younger's Ministry. The first British Census is undertaken
1802 The Rosetta Stone was seized by the British in Egypt. first English income tax
1802 - Peace with France is established. Peel introduces the first factory legislation
1803 - Beginning of the Napoleonic Wars. Britain declares war on France.
Parliament passes the General Enclosure Act, simplifying the process of enclosing common land
1805 Oct 21 Battle of Trafalgar.
1808-14 - Peninsular War to drive the French out of Spain
1809-10 - Commercial boom in Britain
1810 - Final illness of George III begins
1811 - Depression caused by Orders of Council. Luddite disturbances in Nottinghamshire and Yorkshire. Prince of Wales,
1812 - Prime Minister Spencer Perceval is assassinated in the House of Commons by a disgruntled bankrupt
1813 - Jane Austen's 'Pride and Prejudice' is published. The monopolies of the East India Company are abolished
1813 Oct 5 The Battle of Moraviantown was decisive in the War of 1812.
1814 Aug 14 British marines land in Maryland and began marching overland to attack Washington, DC.
Aug 24 - 5,000 British troops marched into Washington, D.C., after defeating an American force at Bladensburg
Sep 12 A British fleet began bombardment of Fort McHenry.
Sep 12 The Battle of North Point was fought near Baltimore during War of 1812.
Sep 14 In the dawn light Francis Scott Key saw that the American flag still waved over Fort McHenry
Sep The Congress of Vienna convened in late September and continued to June 8, 1815.
1815 - Corn Laws are passed by Parliament to protect British agriculture from cheap imports
Jun 8 The Congress of Vienna ended.
Jun 18 Battle of Waterloo in Belgium.
Jul 15 Napoleon Bonaparte was captured by the British Navy at Rochefort, France, while attempting to escape to America.
Sep 26 Russia, Prussia and Austria signed a Holy Alliance.
Nov 20 The 2nd Peace of Paris were concluded.
British debt reached 745 million pounds.
1815-17 - Commercial boom in Britain
1816 Dec Henry “Orator” Hunt made a speech in Spa fields in East London which was disrupted by a group of revolutionaries
who murdered a gunsmith plundered his shop. They then set off for London, but the insurrection was quickly put down.
1817- Economic slimp in Britain leads to the 'Blanketeers' March' and other disturbances
1818 - Death of the King's wife, Queen Caroline. Mary Shelley's publishes her 'Frankenstein'
1819 Aug 16 - Troops intervene at mass political reform meeting in Manchester, killing 11 the 'Peterloo Massacre'
1820 Jan 29 Britain's King George III died insane at Windsor Castle
A radical plot to murder the Cabinet, known as the Cato Street Conspiracy, fails.
Trial of Queen Caroline, in which George IV attempts to divorce her for adultery
1821 Jul 19 The coronation of George IV of England was held. His wife, Caroline, was refused admittance. She died Aug 7.
1821-23 Famine in Ireland
1824 National Gallery is established. Commercial boom in Britain
1825 - Nash reconstructs Buckingham Palace. The World's first railway service, the Stockton and Darlington Railway opens.
Trade Unions are legalized. Commercial depression in Britain
1828 - Wellington becomes Prime Minister
1829 - Metropolitan Police Force is set up by Robert Peel.
Parliament passes the Catholic Relief Act, ending most restrictions on Catholic Civil Rights.
1830 - Death of George IV succeeded by brother William IV. Opening of Liverpool and Manchester Railway.
Rise of Whigs, under Grey, Wellington, served as British prime minister, considered one of England’s worst prime
1830-32 - First major cholera epidemic in Britain
1831 'Swing' Riots in rural areas against the mechanization of agricultural activities.
The new London Bridge is opened over the River Thames
Dec 28 Samuel Sharp led a slave uprising in Jamaca.
1832 Feb A cholera epidemic ended in Great Britain. Some 800 people died. The first or great Reform Act is passed.
May 23 Samuel Sharp was hanged in Jamaica for leading a slave rebellion.
1833 - Factory Act, prohibit children less than nine from working in factories, and reduce working hours of women and older
Start of the Oxford Movement in the Anglican Church
1834 Aug 1 Emancipation Act began. Slavery was abolished throughout Empire.
Parliament passes the Poor Law Act, establishing workhouses for poor.
Robert Owen founds Grand National Consolidated Trade Union. The government acts against 'illegal oaths' in such
unionism, resulting in the Tolpuddle Martyrs being transported to Australia.
Dec 10 Robert Peel became prime minister.
Fire destroys the Palace of Westminster
1835-36 - Commercial boom with 'little' railway mania across Britain
1835 - Municipal Reform Act, requiring members of town councils to be elected by ratepayers and councils publish financial
1837 - Death of King William IV . He is succeeded by his niece, Queen Victoria.
Births, deaths and marriages must be registered by law.
Charles Dickens publishes 'Oliver Twist,' drawing attention to Britain's poor.
1838 - The Anti-Corn Law League is established. Publication of the People's Charter. The start of Chartism
Apr 8 The British steamship "Great Western" set out on its maiden voyage from Bristol to NY, Apr 23 arrived in NYC
Jul 1 Charles Darwin presented a paper on his theory of evolution to the Linnea Society in London.
Oct 1 Lord Auckland, British governor general in India, issued the Simla Manifesto, setting forth the necessary reasons for
British intervention in Afghanistan. This led to the 1st Anglo-Afghan War.
Dec - India’s governor general dispatched to Kabul Army of the Indus to protect British interests from growing Russian
1839 - Chartist Riots take place
1840 - Queen Victoria marries Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. The penny post is instituted
1841 - first British Census recording the names of the populace is undertaken.
Aug 30 Robert Peel became PM of Britain for a 2nd time.
1842 Jardine, Matheson & Co., founded in Canton in 1832, established head office on HK.
Amoy, was one of the five Chinese treaty ports opened by the Treaty of Nanjing.
1843 Mar 25 England’s Thames Tunnel opened 18 years after construction began.
Sep “The Economist” founded in London.
1844-45 - Railways mania explodes across Britain. Massive investment and speculation leads to the laying of 5,000 miles of
1844 - Parliament passes the Bank Charter Act
1845-49 - Irish Potato Famine kills more than a million people
1845 George Smythe (27) stood as the most articulate of Disraeli’s “Young England” political cabal, a group of Tories
determined to forge an alliance between the laboring classes and the aristocracy.
1846 - End of Sir Robert Peel's Ministry. Whigs come to Power. Repeal of the Corn Laws
1847 Britain passed a Vagrancy Act to combat begging as famine swept Ireland.
1848 - Apr 10 Major Chartist demonstration in London. Revolutions in Europe. Parliament passes the Public Health Act
1851 - The Great Exhibition is staged in Hyde Park. Thanks to Prince Albert, it is a great success
Paul Julius Reuter began transmitting stock-market quotes between London and Paris over new Dover-Calais telegraph
1852 - Death Wellington. Derby's first minority Conservative government. Aberdeen's coalition government is established
1853 - Vaccination against smallpox is made compulsory. Queen Victoria uses chloroform during birth of Prince Leopold.
1854 -The Crimean War begins, The Northcote-Trevelyan civil service report is published
1855 - End of Aberdeen's coalition government. Palmerston's first government comes to power
1855 Livingstone first saw Victoria Falls.
1855 The English Commons voted for an inquiry into the conduct of the Crimean campaign.
1856 - Crimean War comes to an end. The Victoria Cross is instituted for military bravery
1857-58 - The Second Opium War opens China to European trade. The Indian Mutiny erupts against British Rule on the
1858 Jul - John Speke discovered Lake Victoria, Africa.
Apr 10 Big Ben bell placed into St. Stephen’s Tower at the Houses of Parliament.
Aug The summer Great Stink, aka The Big Stink, took place when the smell of untreated sewage almost overwhelmed
Derby establishes his second minority government. Parliament passes the India Act
1859 - End of Derby's second minority government. Palmerston brings his second Liberal government to power.
Charles Darwin publishes his 'The Origin of the Species'
1860 - Gladstone's budget and the Anglo-French Cobden Treaty codifies and extends the principles of free trade
Oct 7 the 2nd Opium War British troops plunder imperial summer palace gardens burn for 3 days and nights.
1861 - Death of Prince Albert, Prince Consort
1862 - Parliament passes the Limited Liability Act in order to provide vital stimulus to accumulation of capital in shares
1863 - Edward, Prince of Wales, marries Princess Alexandra of Denmark. The Salvation Army is founded
1865 - Death of Palmerston. Russell establishes his second Liberal government
During Orissa famine in India British political secretariat of Bengal gov refused to import rice to stricken areas because it
was “a breach of the laws of political economy.”
1866 - Russell and Gladstone fail to have their moderate Reform Bill passed in parliament.
Derby takes power in his third minority Conservative government
1867 Mar 5 Fenian uprising against English rule in Ireland.
Jul 1 Canada became a self-governing dominion.
Derby and Disraeli's Second Reform Bill doubles the franchise to two million.
1868 - Disraeli succeeds Derby as Prime Minister. Gladstone becomes Prime Minister for the first time
1869 - The Irish Church is disestablished. The Suez Canal is opened
1870 - Primary education becomes compulsory in Britain through the Forster-Ripon English Elementary Education Act.
1870 Oct 20 The Summer Palace in Beijing, China, was burnt to the ground by a Franco-British expeditionary force.
1871 - Trade Unions are legalized
1872 - Secret voting is introduced for elections. Parliament passes the Scottish Education Act
1873 - Gladstone's government resigns after the defeat of their Irish Universities Bill. Disraeli declines to take up office instead
1874 - Disraeli becomes Conservative Prime Minister for the second time
1875 - Disraeli purchases a controlling interest for Britain in the Suez Canal. Agricultural depression increases
1875-76 - Parliament passes R.A. Cross's Conservative social reforms
1876 - Victoria becomes Empress of India. massacre of Christians in Turkish Bulgaria leads to anti-Turkish campaigns in Britain,
led by Gladstone
1877 - Confederation of British and Boer states established in South Africa
1878 Congress of Berlin is held. Disraeli announces 'peace with honour', 1st electric street lights were deployed in London,
1879 - A trade depression emerges in Britain.
The Zulu War is fought in South Africa. The British are defeated at Isandhlwana, but are victorious at Ulundi and Roukes
1879-80 - Gladstone's Midlothian campaign denounces imperialism in South Africa and Afghanistan
1880 - Gladstone establishes his second Liberal government
1880-81 - The first Anglo-Boer War is fought
1881 In London a court and police station on Bow Street opened opposite the Royal Opera House in Covent Garden.
Parliament passes the Irish Land and Coercion Acts
1882 - Britain occupies Egypt. A triple alliance is established between Germany, Austria and Italy
1884 - Parliament passes the third Reform Act which further extends the franchise
1885 - Death of General Gordon at Khartoum. Burma is annexed.
Salisbury succeeds Gladstone with his first minority Conservative government. Parliament passes the Redistribution Act
1886 - Gladstone's third Liberal government fails to pass its first Irish Home Rule Bill through the House of Commons.
Gladstone resigns as Prime Minister. Split in the Liberal Party.
Salisbury establishes his second Conservative-Liberal-Unionist government. The Royal Niger Company is chartered.
Gold is discovered in the Transvaal
1887 - Queen Victoria celebrates Golden Jubilee. Independent Labour Party is founded. The British East Africa Company is
1888 - The County Councils' Act establishes representative county based authorities
1889 - London Dockers' Strike. The British South Africa Company is chartered
1892 - Gladstone forms his fourth Liberal government
1893 - Second Irish Home Rule Bill fails to pass the House of Lords
1894 - Rosebery takes power with his minority Liberal government
Mar 3 British PM William Gladstone submitted his resignation to Queen Victoria, ending his fourth and final premiership.
Apr 30 Giuseppe Farnara and Francis Polti convicted and sentenced to 30 years in prison for attempted terrorism in London.
1895 - Salisbury forms his third Unionist ministry, British began shipping thousands of Indians to east Africa to build a railway.
1896 - The British conquest of the Sudan begins
1897 - Queen Victoria celebrates her Diamond Jubilee, Suffragette movement started, turned militant in 1903, won the vote 1918.
1898 Sep 2 Battle of Omdurman - British rule over Sudan fully established. German Naval expansion begins
1899-1902 - Boer War in South Africa
1900 - Salisbury wins Khaki election. Labour Representation Committee formed.
Jun 21 After the Empress declared war on all foreign powers, the Boxers began a two-month assault on the legations in
Jul 9 Queen Victoria signed Commonwealth of Australia Constitution Act, uniting 6 separate colonies under a federal
1901 Jan 1 The Commonwealth of Australia became official as established in the July 9, 1900,
Death of Queen Victoria. She is succeeded by her son, Prince Albert, as King Edward VII
India’s population of about 300 million was secured and governed by a British contingent of some 154,000 including
1904 In England the Grand Pier opened.